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1.
  • Carlsson, Sigrid, et al. (författare)
  • Nationwide population-based study on 30-day mortality after radical prostatectomy in Sweden
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF UROLOGY AND NEPHROLOGY. - 0036-5599. ; 43:5, s. 350-356
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. The incidence of prostate cancer in Sweden is increasing rapidly, as is treatment with curative intent. Radical prostatectomy (RP) is currently commonly performed, either within or outside large high-volume centres. The aim of this study was to assess the 30-day mortality rate after RP in Sweden. Material and methods. In this nationwide population-based study, all men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (andlt;= 70 years, clinical stadium T1-2, prostate-specific antigen andlt;20 ng/ml) who underwent RP in Sweden between 1997 and 2002 were identified through the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR). Mortality within 30 days of RP was analysed through linkage between the follow-up study of the NPCR and the Regional Population Registers. The cause of death in the death certificates were compared with data from the hospitals concerned. To validate the results, a record linkage between the Inpatient Register and the National Population Register was also performed. Results. The number of RPs performed increased over time. Among 3700 RPs performed, four deaths occurred during the first 30 days, yielding a 0.11% 30-day mortality rate. These deaths occurred at three different types of hospital and were all probably related to the RP. Conclusion. This study provides further evidence that RP is a procedure with very low perioperative mortality even when performed outside high-volume centres.
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3.
  • Varenhorst, Eberhard, et al. (författare)
  • The National Prostate Cancer Register in Sweden 1998-2002 : trends in incidence, treatment and survival
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - 0036-5599. ; 39:2, s. 117-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To provide a descriptive review of the establishment of the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) in Sweden, to present clinical characteristics at diagnosis and to calculate the relative survival of different risk groups after 5 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Since 1998, data on all newly diagnosed prostate cancers, including TNM classification, grade of malignancy, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and treatment, have been prospectively collected. For the 35,223 patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2002, relative survival in different risk groups has been calculated. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2002, 96% of all prostate cancer cases diagnosed in Sweden were registered in the NPCR. The number of new cases increased from 6137 in 1998 to 7385 in 2002. The age-standardized rate rose in those aged < 70 years, while it was stable, or possibly declining from 1999, in the older age groups. The proportion of T1c tumours increased from 14% to 28% of all recorded cases. The age-adjusted incidence of advanced tumours (M1 or PSA > 100 ng/ml) decreased by 17%. The proportion of patients receiving curative treatment doubled. Patients with N1 or M1 disease or poorly differentiated tumours (G3 or Gleason score 8-10) had a markedly reduced relative 5-year survival rate. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to establish a nationwide prostate cancer register including basic data for assessment of the disease in the whole of Sweden. The introduction of PSA screening has increased the detection of early prostate cancer in younger men and, to a lesser extent, decreased the incidence of advanced disease. The effect of these changes on mortality is obscure but the NPCR in Sweden will serve as an important tool in such evaluation.
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4.
  • Bill-Axelson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Psychiatric treatment in men with prostate cancer - Results from a Nation-wide, population-based cohort study from PCBaSe Sweden
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal Of Cancer. - Elsevier Sci Ltd. - 0959-8049. ; 47:14, s. 2195-2201
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To explore whether the self-reported psychological distress among men with prostate cancer was to the extent that it required psychiatric treatment. Methods: PCBaSe Sweden, a merged database based on the National Prostate Cancer Register including 97% of all prostate cancers registered as well as age-matched controls. We calculated relative risks and 95% confidence intervals to compare risks of psychiatric treatment due to depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder controlling for age and socio-economic factors. We used odds ratios to compare use or no use of antidepressants. Findings: In total 72,613 men with prostate cancer and 217,839 men without prostate cancer were included for analyses. Psychiatric hospitalisation due to depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder were significantly increased (RR 1.29, (95% CI 1.14-1.45), RR 1.42 (95% CI 1.12-1.80) and RR 1.61 (95% CI 1.16-2.24), respectively). However, hospitalisations due to anxiety were only increased in men with more advanced tumours RR 2.28 (95% CI 1.45-3.57). The use of antidepressants was increased for all men with prostate cancer RR 1.65 (95% CI 1.54-1.77) and treatment strategies RR 1.93 (95% CI 1.75-2.13). Interpretation: Men diagnosed with prostate cancer had increased risk of psychiatric treatment for depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and use of antidepressants regardless of risk group and treatment strategy compared to age-matched controls, whilst more advanced prostate cancer was associated with severe anxiety disorders. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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5.
  • Friðriksson, Jón Ö, et al. (författare)
  • Rehospitalization after radical prostatectomy in a nationwide, population-based study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Urology. - Elsevier. - 0022-5347. ; 192:1, s. 112-119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To investigate readmission frequencies during the 90 days following radical prostatectomy and to assess readmission risk associated with potentially related variables.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the population-based, nationwide database Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe), we identified men diagnosed with incident prostate cancer between 2000 and 2011 who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) as their primary treatment, and we used logistic regression analysis to examine the association of the risk of 90-day postoperative readmission with surgical method, calendar period, tumor risk category, hospital case load, and patient characteristics.RESULTS: During the 90 postoperative days, 2,317 (10%) of the 24,122 men identified were non-electively readmitted, specifically 10% after retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP), 9% after robot-assisted RP (RALP) and 11% after laparoscopic RP (LRP). The range in the readmission frequency between hospitals was 0-35%. A higher risk of readmission was associated with early calendar period (2009-2011 vs. 2000-2002: odds ratio (OR), 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.61-0.83), greater age (≥70 years vs. <60 years: OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.00-1.36), higher risk category (high vs. low-risk category: OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.57-2.03), high comorbidity (Charlson comorbidity index ≥3 vs. 0: OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.29-2.44), and low hospital surgical volume (≥150 vs. <30 RPs per year: OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.81).CONCLUSIONS: Readmission rates after different RP methods were similar, ranging from 9% to 11%, with a wide variation between hospitals. Readmission rates can be used as an indicator of perioperative care quality, but potential confounders need to be adjusted to avoid bias.
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6.
  • Hedlund, Per Olov, et al. (författare)
  • Parenteral estrogen versus combined androgen deprivation in the treatment of metastatic prostatic cancer : Part 2. Final evaluation of the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group (SPCG) Study No. 5
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - 0036-5599. ; 42:3, s. 220-229
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. To compare parenteral estrogen therapy in the form of high-dose polyestradiol phosphate (PEP, Estradurin®) with combined androgen deprivation (CAD) in the treatment of prostate cancer patients with skeletal metastases. The aim of the study was to compare anticancer efficacy and adverse events, especially cardiovascular events. Material and methods. In total, 910 eligible patients with T0-4, NX, M1, G1-3 prostate cancer with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 were randomized to treatment with either PEP 240mg i.m. twice a month for 2months and thereafter monthly, or flutamide (Eulexin®) 250mg t.i.d. per os in combination with either triptorelin (Decapeptyl®) 3.75mg i.m. per month or on an optional basis bilateral orchidectomy. Results. At this final evaluation of the trial 855 of the 910 patients were dead. There was no difference between the treatment groups in terms of biochemical or clinical progression-free survival or in overall or disease-specific survival. There was no difference in cardiovascular mortality, but a significant increase in non-fatal cardiovascular events in the PEP arm (p<0.05) predominantly caused by an increase in ischemic heart and heart decompensation events. There were 18 grave skeletal events in the CAD group but none in the PEP group (p=0.001). Conclusions. PEP has an anticancer efficacy equal to CAD and does not increase cardiovascular mortality in metastasized patients, but carries a significant risk of non-fatal cardiovascular events, which should be balanced against the skeletal complications in the CAD group. It is feasible to use Estradurin in the primary or secondary endocrine treatment of metastasized patients without prominent cardiac risk factors and especially those with osteoporosis. © 2008 Taylor & Francis.
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7.
  • Lambe, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of localized and advanced prostate cancer among immigrants versus native-born Swedish men: a nation-wide population-based study.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Cancer causes & control : CCC. - 1573-7225. ; 24:2, s. 383-390
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and prognosis vary geographically. We examined possible differences in PCa risk by clinical risk category between native-born and immigrant populations in Sweden. Our hypothesis was that lower PSA-testing uptake among foreign-born men would result in lower rates of localized disease, and similar or higher risk of metastatic disease. Using the Prostate Cancer database Sweden, we identified 117,328 men with PCa diagnosed from 1991 to 2008, of which 8,332 were foreign born. For each case, 5 cancer-free matched controls were randomly selected from the population register. Conditional logistic regression was used to compare low risk, intermediate risk, high risk, regionally metastatic, and distant metastatic PCa based upon region of origin. Across all risk categories, immigrants had significantly lower PCa risk than native-born Swedish men, except North Americans and Northern Europeans. The lowest PCa risk was observed in men from the Middle East, Southern Europe, and Asia. Multivariable adjustment for socioeconomic factors and comorbidities did not materially change risk estimates. Older age at immigration and more recent arrival in Sweden were associated with lower PCa risk. Non-native men were less likely to be diagnosed with PCa through PSA testing during a health checkup. The risk for all stages of PCa was lower among first-generation immigrants to Sweden compared with native-born men. Older age at immigration and more recent immigration were associated with particularly low risks. Patterns of PSA testing appeared to only partly explain the differences in PCa risk, since immigrant men also had a lower risk of metastatic disease.
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8.
  • Stattin, Pär, et al. (författare)
  • Outcomes in localized prostate cancer: National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden follow-up study.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 1460-2105. ; 102:13, s. 950
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Treatment for localized prostate cancer remains controversial. To our knowledge, there are no outcome studies from contemporary population-based cohorts that include data on stage, Gleason score, and serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA).Methods In the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden Follow-up Study, a nationwide cohort, we identified 6849 patients aged 70 years or younger. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis with local clinical stage T1–2 prostate cancer from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2002, a Gleason score of 7 or less, a serum PSA level of less than 20 ng/mL, and treatment with surveillance (including active surveillance and watchful waiting, n = 2021) or curative intent (including radical prostatectomy, n = 3399, and radiation therapy, n = 1429). Among the 6849 patients, 2686 had low-risk prostate cancer (ie, clinical stage T1, Gleason score 2-6, and serum PSA level of &lt;10 ng/mL). The study cohort was linked to the Cause of Death Register, and cumulative incidence of death from prostate cancer and competing causes was calculated.Results For the combination of low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancers, calculated cumulative 10-year prostate cancer–specific mortality was 3.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.7% to 4.8%) in the surveillance group and 2.7% (95% CI = 2.1% to 3.45) in the curative intent group. For those with low-risk disease, the corresponding values were 2.4% (95% CI = 1.2% to 4.1%) among the 1085 patients in the surveillance group and 0.7% (95% CI = 0.3% to 1.4%) among the 1601 patients in the curative intent group. The 10-year risk of dying from competing causes was 19.2% (95% CI = 17.2% to 21.3%) in the surveillance group and 10.2% (95% CI = 9.0% to 11.4%) in the curative intent group.Conclusion A 10-year prostate cancer–specific mortality of 2.4% among patients with low-risk prostate cancer in the surveillance group indicates that surveillance may be a suitable treatment option for many patients with low-risk disease.
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9.
  • Wirén, Sara, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Fatherhood status and risk of prostate cancer : nationwide, population-based case-control study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 133:4, s. 937-943
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous studies have shown a decreased risk of prostate cancer for childless men; however, the cause of the association remains to be elucidated. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of prostate cancer by fatherhood status, also considering potential confounding factors. In a case–control study in Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden 2.0, a nationwide, population-based cohort, data on number of children, marital status, education, comorbidity and tumor characteristics obtained through nationwide healthcare registers and demographic databases for 117,328 prostate cancer cases and 562,644 controls, matched on birth year and county of residence, were analyzed. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for prostate cancer overall and by risk category, adjusting for marital status and education. Childless men had a decreased risk of prostate cancer compared to fathers, OR = 0.83 (95% CI = 0.82–0.84), and risk was lower for low-risk prostate cancer, OR = 0.74 (95% CI = 0.72–0.77), than for metastatic prostate cancer, OR = 0.93 (95% CI = 0.90–0.97). Adjustment for marital status and education attenuated the association in the low-risk category, adjusted OR = 0.87 (95% CI = 0.84–0.91), whereas OR for metastatic cancer remained virtually unchanged, adjusted OR = 0.92 (95% CI = 0.88–0.96). Our data indicate that the association between fatherhood status and prostate cancer to a large part is due to socioeconomic factors influencing healthcare-seeking behavior including testing of prostate-specific antigen levels.
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10.
  • Adolfsson, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Inherited genetic variant predisposes to aggressive but not indolent prostate cancer.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 1091-6490. ; 107:5, s. 2136-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autopsy studies suggest that most aging men will develop lesions that, if detected clinically, would be diagnosed as prostate cancer (PCa). Most of these cancers are indolent and remain localized; however, a subset of PCa is aggressive and accounts for more than 27,000 deaths in the United States annually. Identification of factors specifically associated with risk for more aggressive PCa is urgently needed to reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment of this common disease. To search for such factors, we compared the frequencies of SNPs among PCa patients who were defined as having either more aggressive or less aggressive disease in four populations examined in the Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) study performed by the National Cancer Institute. SNPs showing possible associations with disease severity were further evaluated in an additional three independent study populations from the United States and Sweden. In total, we studied 4,829 and 12,205 patients with more and less aggressive disease, respectively. We found that the frequency of the TT genotype of SNP rs4054823 at 17p12 was consistently higher among patients with more aggressive compared with less aggressive disease in each of the seven populations studied, with an overall P value of 2.1 x 10(-8) under a recessive model, exceeding the conservative genome-wide significance level. The difference in frequency was largest between patients with high-grade, non-organ-confined disease compared with those with low-grade, organ-confined disease. This study demonstrates that inherited variants predisposing to aggressive but not indolent PCa exist in the genome, and suggests that the clinical potential of such variants as potential early markers for risk of aggressive PCa should be evaluated.
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