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  • Varenhorst, Eberhard, et al. (författare)
  • The National Prostate Cancer Register in Sweden 1998-2002 : trends in incidence, treatment and survival
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - 0036-5599. ; 39:2, s. 117-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To provide a descriptive review of the establishment of the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) in Sweden, to present clinical characteristics at diagnosis and to calculate the relative survival of different risk groups after 5 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Since 1998, data on all newly diagnosed prostate cancers, including TNM classification, grade of malignancy, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and treatment, have been prospectively collected. For the 35,223 patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2002, relative survival in different risk groups has been calculated. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2002, 96% of all prostate cancer cases diagnosed in Sweden were registered in the NPCR. The number of new cases increased from 6137 in 1998 to 7385 in 2002. The age-standardized rate rose in those aged < 70 years, while it was stable, or possibly declining from 1999, in the older age groups. The proportion of T1c tumours increased from 14% to 28% of all recorded cases. The age-adjusted incidence of advanced tumours (M1 or PSA > 100 ng/ml) decreased by 17%. The proportion of patients receiving curative treatment doubled. Patients with N1 or M1 disease or poorly differentiated tumours (G3 or Gleason score 8-10) had a markedly reduced relative 5-year survival rate. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to establish a nationwide prostate cancer register including basic data for assessment of the disease in the whole of Sweden. The introduction of PSA screening has increased the detection of early prostate cancer in younger men and, to a lesser extent, decreased the incidence of advanced disease. The effect of these changes on mortality is obscure but the NPCR in Sweden will serve as an important tool in such evaluation.
  • Van Hemelrijck, Mieke, et al. (författare)
  • Absolute and Relative Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Men With Prostate Cancer : Results From the Population-Based PCBaSe Sweden
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - 0732-183X. ; 28:21, s. 3448-3456
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a potential adverse effect of endocrine treatment (ET) for prostate cancer (PC). We investigated absolute and relative CVD risk in 76,600 patients with PC undergoing ET, curative treatment, or surveillance. Methods PCBaSe Sweden is based on the National Prostate Cancer Register, which covers more than 96% of PC cases. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of ischemic heart disease (IHD), acute myocardial infarction (MI), arrhythmia, heart failure, and stroke were calculated to compare observed and expected (using total Swedish population) numbers of CVD, taking into account age, calendar time, and previous CVD. Results Between 1997 and 2007, 30,642 patients with PC received primary ET, 26,432 curative treatment, and 19,527 surveillance. SIRs for CVD were elevated in all men with the highest for those undergoing ET, independent of circulatory disease history (SIR MI for men without circulatory disease history: 1.40 [95% CI, 1.31 to 1.49], 1.15 [95% CI, 1.01 to 1.31], and 1.20 [95% CI, 1.11 to 1.30] for men undergoing ET, curative treatment, and surveillance, respectively). Absolute risk differences (ARD) showed that two (arrhythmia) to eight (IHD) extra cases of CVD would occur per 1,000 person-years. SMRs showed similar patterns, with ARD of zero (arrhythmia) to three (IHD) per 1,000 person-years. Conclusion Increased relative risks of nonfatal and fatal CVD were found among all men with PC, especially those treated with ET. Because ET is currently the only effective treatment for metastatic disease and the ARDs were rather small, our findings indicate that CVD risk should be considered when prescribing ET but should not constitute a contraindication when the expected gain is tangible.
  • Bratt, Ola, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing on Familial Prostate Cancer Risk Estimates.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 1460-2105. ; 102, s. 1336-1343
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Family history is a strong risk factor for prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased diagnostic activity is related to the incidence of prostate cancer among brothers of men with prostate cancer. Methods Data were from the nationwide population-based Prostate Cancer Database Sweden (PCBaSe Sweden), which includes data from the National Prostate Cancer Register, the Swedish Cancer Register, the Register of the Total Population, the Multi-Generation Register, and the Census database. We investigated the relationship of tumor characteristics, time from diagnosis of the index patient (ie, prostate cancer patients in the National Prostate Cancer Register for whom at least one brother and their father could be identified), calendar period, geographic factors, and socioeconomic status to standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for prostate cancer among 22 511 brothers of 13 975 index patients in PCBaSe Sweden. Results Brothers of index patients with prostate cancer were at increased risk for a diagnosis of prostate cancer (SIR = 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.9 to 3.3). Risk was higher for T1c tumors (SIR = 3.4, 95% CI = 3.2 to 3.8) than for metastatic tumors (SIR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.5 to 2.6), and risk of T1c tumors was especially high during the first year after the diagnosis of the index patient (SIR = 4.3, 95% CI = 3.8 to 4.9), compared with the following years (SIR range = 2.8-3.3), and for brothers of index patients who had a higher socioeconomic status (SIR = 4.2, 95% CI = 3.7 to 4.7), compared with brothers of index patients with lower socioeconomic status (SIR = 2.8, 95% CI = 2.4 to 3.2). Conclusions Increased diagnostic activity among men with a family history of prostate cancer appears to contribute to their increased risk of prostate cancer and to lead to detection bias in epidemiological and genetic studies of familial prostate cancer.
  • Robinson, David, et al. (författare)
  • Prediction of Survival of Metastatic Prostate Cancer Based on Early Serial Measurements of Prostate Specific Antigen and Alkaline Phosphatase
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Urology. - 0022-5347. ; 179:1, s. 117-123
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: We determined how serial measurements of prostate specific antigen and alkaline phosphatase can be used to predict survival early in the course of hormone treated metastatic prostate cancer.Materials and Methods: The study was based on a prospective randomized trial of 915 patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma designed to compare parenteral estrogen (polyestradiol phosphate) vs total androgen blockade. We included 697 men who survived at least 6 months and had complete serial measurements of prostate specific antigen and alkaline phosphatase. Six models were constructed based on prostate specific antigen and alkaline phosphatase at start, and after 6 months of treatment, alkaline phosphatase flare and relative prostate specific antigen velocity. We constructed time dependent receiver operating characteristic curves with corresponding area under the curve to predict death from prostate cancer within 3 years.Results: The best variables to predict outcome were alkaline phosphatase at 6 months (AUC 0.79 for polyestradiol phosphate and 0.72 for total androgen blockade), alkaline phosphatase at baseline (AUC 0.70 for polyestradiol phosphate and total androgen blockade) and prostate specific antigen at 6 months (AUC 0.70 for polyestradiol phosphate and total androgen blockade). Prostate specific antigen and alkaline phosphatase levels 6 months after start of treatment give better prediction of survival than baseline levels.Conclusions: Alkaline phosphatase at start of treatment and alkaline phosphatase and prostate specific antigen after 6 months can be used to predict survival of hormone treated metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Berglund, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Comorbidity, treatment and mortality : a population based cohort study of prostate cancer in PCBaSe Sweden
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Urology. - Elsevier. - 0022-5347. ; 185:3, s. 833-840
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PurposeWe examined associations among comorbidity, treatment decisions and mortality in patients with prostate cancer.Materials and MethodsA total of 77,536 men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1997 and 2006 were identified in PCBaSe Sweden from the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden. Logistic, Cox and competing risk regression were used to assess associations among Charlson comorbidity index, treatment and mortality. The Charlson comorbidity index was categorized into no (0), mild (1) and severe comorbidity (2+).ResultsIn men with low risk prostate cancer 5,975 of the 13,245 (45.1%) patients without comorbidity underwent radical prostatectomy compared to 256 of the 1,399 (18.9%) men with severe comorbidity. Following adjustment for age and period of diagnosis, radical prostatectomy was less likely to be offered to men with severe comorbidity (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.41–0.55). In men with high risk prostate cancer, radiotherapy was more common (range 7.7% to 21.3%) than radical prostatectomy (range 3.0% to 11.2%) regardless of comorbidity burden. All cause and competing cause but not prostate cancer specific mortality were increased in men with severe comorbidity (all cause HR 1.99, 95% CI 1.93–2.05; competing cause sHR 2.66, 95% CI 2.56–2.78; prostate cancer specific sHR 0.98, 95% CI 0.93–1.03). The cumulative probability of prostate cancer death given no death from competing causes was significantly higher in men with severe comorbidity in all risk groups (p <0.01).ConclusionsComorbidity affects treatment choices, and is associated with all cause, competing cause and conditional prostate cancer specific mortality. An increased conditional prostate cancer specific mortality in men with severe comorbidity may reflect less aggressive treatment, impaired tumor defense, lifestyle factors and poor general health behavior.
  • Lindhagen, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • How to model temporal changes in comorbidity for cancer patients using prospective cohort data
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making. - 1472-6947. ; 15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The presence of comorbid conditions is strongly related to survival and also affects treatment choices in cancer patients. This comorbidity is often quantified by the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) using specific weights (1, 2, 3, or 6) for different comorbidities. It has been shown that the CCI increases at different times and with different sizes, so that traditional time to event analysis is not adequate to assess these temporal changes. Here, we present a method to model temporal changes in CCI in cancer patients using data from PCBaSe Sweden, a nation-wide population-based prospective cohort of men diagnosed with prostate cancer. Our proposed model is based on the assumption that a change in comorbidity, as quantified by the CCI, is an irreversible one-way process, i.e., CCI accumulates over time and cannot decrease. Methods: CCI was calculated based on 17 disease categories, which were defined using ICD-codes for discharge diagnoses in the National Patient Register. A state transition model in discrete time steps (i.e., four weeks) was applied to capture all changes in CCI. The transition probabilities were estimated from three modelling steps: 1) Logistic regression model for vital status, 2) Logistic regression model to define any changes in CCI, and 3) Poisson regression model to determine the size of CCI change, with an additional logistic regression model for CCI changes >= 6. The four models combined yielded parameter estimates to calculate changes in CCI with their confidence intervals. Results: These methods were applied to men with low-risk prostate cancer who received active surveillance (AS), radical prostatectomy (RP), or curative radiotherapy (RT) as primary treatment. There were large differences in CCI changes according to treatment. Conclusions: Our method to model temporal changes in CCI efficiently captures changes in comorbidity over time with a small number of regression analyses to perform - which would be impossible with tradition time to event analyses. However, our approach involves a simulation step that is not yet included in standard statistical software packages. In our prostate cancer example we showed that there are large differences in development of comorbidities among men receiving different treatments for prostate cancer.
  • O'Farrell, Sean, et al. (författare)
  • Risk and Timing of Cardiovascular Disease After Androgen-Deprivation Therapy in Men With Prostate Cancer
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - 0732-183X. ; 33:11, s. 1243-1251
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose Findings on the association between risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the duration and type of androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in men with prostate cancer (PCa) are inconsistent.Methods By using data on filled drug prescriptions in Swedish national health care registers, we investigated the risk of CVD in a cohort of 41,362 men with PCa on ADT compared with an age-matched, PCa-free comparison cohort (n = 187,785) by use of multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models.Results From 2006 to 2012, 10,656 men were on antiandrogens (AA), 26,959 were on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, and 3,747 underwent surgical orchiectomy. CVD risk was increased in men on GnRH agonists compared with the comparison cohort (hazard ratio [HR] of incident CVD, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.25; and orchiectomy: HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.25). Men with PCa on AA were at decreased risk (HR of incident CVD, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.91). CVD risk was highest during the first 6 months of ADT in men who experienced two or more cardiovascular events before therapy, with an HR of CVD during the first 6 months of GnRH agonist therapy of 1.91 (95% CI, 1.66 to 2.20), an HR of CVD with AA of 1.60 (95% CI, 1.24 to 2.06), and an HR of CVD with orchiectomy of 1.79 (95% CI, 1.16 to 2.76) versus the comparison cohort.Conclusion Our results support that there should be a solid indication for ADT in men with PCa so that benefit outweighs potential harm; this is of particular importance among men with a recent history of CVD.
  • Robinson, David, et al. (författare)
  • Ischemic heart disease and stroke before and during endocrine treatment for prostate cancer in PCBaSe Sweden
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Geneve : International union against cancer. - 0020-7136. ; 130:2, s. 478-487
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In observational studies of men with prostate cancer, men on endocrine treatment (ET) have had an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke. However, prostate cancer per se may increase risk of IHD and stroke and men on ET may have been at increased risk already prior to initiation of ET. We assessed the incidence of IHD and stroke in men with prostate cancer before and during different endocrine treatments. The hazard ratio (HR) of IHD and stroke in 39,051 men with prostate cancer vs. a matched control population without prostate cancer was assessed by use of Cox proportion hazard models. An increased risk was found among 30,883 men with prostate cancer who did not receive ET, with a HR of 1.08 (95% CI 1.00–1.18) for IHD and 1.10 (95%CI 1.00–1.21) for stroke. In 8,168 men who initiated ET during the observation period, the risk of IHD was significantly higher (p = 0.014), during ET (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.17–1.67) compared with before initiation of ET (HR of 0.98, 95% CI 0.72–1.33), whereas no such increase was found for stroke. Regardless of treatment, men with prostate cancer had a small increase in risk of IHD and stroke and initiation of ET was associated with a further increase in risk of IHD. Our data underline the importance of a proper indication for ET because many men with low-risk prostate cancer currently receive ET.
  • van Hemelrijck, Mieke, et al. (författare)
  • Mortality following Hip Fracture in Men with Prostate Cancer
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 8:9, s. e74492
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Hip fractures are associated with increased mortality and are a known adverse effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa). It was our aim to evaluate how mortality after hip fracture is modified by PCa and ADT.METHODS:PCa dataBase Sweden (PCBaSe 2.0) is based on the National PCa Register and also contains age and county-matched PCa-free men. We selected all men (n = 14,205) who had been hospitalized with a hip fracture between 2006 and 2010; 2,300 men had a prior PCa diagnosis of whom 1,518 (66%) were on ADT prior to date of fracture. Risk of death was estimated with cumulative incidence and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) to make comparisons with the entire PCa population and the general population.RESULTS:Cumulative incidences indicated that there was a higher risk of death following a hip fracture for PCa men on ADT than for PCa men not on ADT or PCa-free men, particularly in the first year. The SMRs showed that PCa men on ADT with a hip fracture were 2.44 times more likely to die than the comparison cohort of all PCa men (95%CI: 2.29-2.60). This risk was especially increased during the first month (5.64 (95%CI: 4.16-7.48)). In absolute terms, hip fractures were associated with 20 additional deaths per 1,000 person-years in PCa men not on ADT, but 30 additional deaths per 1,000 person-years for PCa men on ADT, compared to all PCa men.CONCLUSION:Hip fractures are associated with higher all-cause mortality in PCa men on ADT than in PCa men not on ADT or PCa-free men, especially within the first three months.
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