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1.
  • Adolfsson, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical characteristics and primary treatment of prostate cancer in Sweden between 1996 and 2005 - Data from the national prostate cancer register in Sweden
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology1967-01-01+01:002013-01-01+01:00. - Taylor & Francis. - 0036-5599. ; 41:6, s. 456-477
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. The incidence of prostate cancer is rising rapidly in Sweden and there is a need to better understand the pattern of diagnosis, tumor characteristics and treatment. Material and methods. Between 1996 and 2005, all new cases of adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland were intended to be registered in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR). This register contains information on diagnosing unit, date of diagnosis, cause of diagnosis, tumor grade, tumor stage according to the TNM classification in force, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at diagnosis and primary treatment given within the first 6 months after diagnosis. Results. In total, 72 028 patients were registered, comprising > 97% of all pertinent incident cases of prostate cancer in the Swedish Cancer Register (SCR). During the study period there was a considerable decrease in median age at the time of diagnosis, a stage migration towards smaller tumors, a decrease in median serum PSA values at diagnosis, a decrease in the age-standardized incidence rate of men diagnosed with distant metastases or with a PSA level of > 100 ng/ml at diagnosis and an increase in the proportion of tumors with Gleason score <= 6. Relatively large geographical differences in the median age at diagnosis and the age-standardized incidence of cases with category T1c tumors were observed. Treatment with curative intent increased dramatically and treatment patterns varied according to geographical region. In men with localized tumors and a PSA level of <20 ng/ml at diagnosis, expectant treatment was more commonly used in those aged >= 75 years than in those aged <75 years. Also, the pattern of endocrine treatment varied in different parts of Sweden. Conclusions. All changes in the register seen over time are consistent with increased diagnostic activity, especially PSA testing, resulting in an increased number of cases with early disease, predominantly tumors in category T1c. The patterns of diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer vary considerably in different parts of Sweden. The NPCR continues to be an important source for research, epidemiological surveillance of the incidence, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.
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2.
  • Varenhorst, Eberhard, et al. (författare)
  • The National Prostate Cancer Register in Sweden 1998-2002 : trends in incidence, treatment and survival
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - 0036-5599. ; 39:2, s. 117-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To provide a descriptive review of the establishment of the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) in Sweden, to present clinical characteristics at diagnosis and to calculate the relative survival of different risk groups after 5 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Since 1998, data on all newly diagnosed prostate cancers, including TNM classification, grade of malignancy, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and treatment, have been prospectively collected. For the 35,223 patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2002, relative survival in different risk groups has been calculated. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2002, 96% of all prostate cancer cases diagnosed in Sweden were registered in the NPCR. The number of new cases increased from 6137 in 1998 to 7385 in 2002. The age-standardized rate rose in those aged &lt; 70 years, while it was stable, or possibly declining from 1999, in the older age groups. The proportion of T1c tumours increased from 14% to 28% of all recorded cases. The age-adjusted incidence of advanced tumours (M1 or PSA &gt; 100 ng/ml) decreased by 17%. The proportion of patients receiving curative treatment doubled. Patients with N1 or M1 disease or poorly differentiated tumours (G3 or Gleason score 8-10) had a markedly reduced relative 5-year survival rate. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to establish a nationwide prostate cancer register including basic data for assessment of the disease in the whole of Sweden. The introduction of PSA screening has increased the detection of early prostate cancer in younger men and, to a lesser extent, decreased the incidence of advanced disease. The effect of these changes on mortality is obscure but the NPCR in Sweden will serve as an important tool in such evaluation.
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3.
  • Hagel, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • PCBaSe Sweden: A register-based resource for prostate cancer research
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology1967-01-01+01:002013-01-01+01:00. - Taylor & Francis. - 0036-5599. ; 43:5, s. 342-349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. To construct a database for clinical epidemiological prostate cancer research based on linkages between the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) of Sweden, a population-based, nationwide quality database, and other nationwide registries. Material and methods. By use of the individually unique Swedish Personal Identity Number, the NPCR was linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry, the Cause of Death Register, the Prescribed Drug Register, the National Patient Register and the Acute Myocardial Infarction Register, all held at the Centre for Epidemiology at the National Board of Health and Welfare, and the Register of the Total Population, the Longitudinal Integration Database for Health Insurance and Labor Market Studies and the Multi-Generation Register, held at Statistics Sweden, and to the Swedish Hernia Register. Results. Record linkages between the NPCR and the Swedish Cancer Registry, the Cause of Death Register and the Register of the Total Population generated a database, named PCBaSe Sweden, including 80 079 prostate cancer cases, diagnosed between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2006. Record linkage between PCBaSe Sweden and the Prescribed Drug Register generated 59 721 unique matches and linkage to the Acute Myocardial Infarction Register resulted in 11 459 matches. Conclusion. PCBaSe Sweden is a newly created and unique database with over 80 000 cases of prostate cancer with comprehensive data on inpatient and outpatient care, patterns of use of prescribed drugs and socioeconomic and familial factors. Many topics in clinical prostate cancer epidemiology can be investigated. using PCBaSe Sweden.
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4.
  • Bill-Axelson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Suicide Risk in Men with Prostate-Specific Antigen-Detected Early Prostate Cancer: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study from PCBaSe Sweden
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - Elsevier. - 1873-7560. ; 57:3, s. 390-395
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The risk of suicide is increased among cancer patients including men with prostate cancer (PCa). However, whether this increased risk applies to men diagnosed subsequent to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is not known. Objective: To assess the risk of suicide among men diagnosed with PCa subsequent to PSA testing. Design, setting, and participants: The Prostate Cancer Base Sweden (PCBaSe Sweden) database, the Swedish Cause of Death Register, and the Swedish census database were used. The PCBaSe Sweden is a merged database that includes data from the Swedish National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) for cases diagnosed between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2006. The number of suicides registered for cases in the PCBaSe cohort was compared with the expected number of suicides in an age-matched general male Swedish population. Measurements: Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for different categories of cases. Results and limitations: There were 128 suicides among the 77 439 PCa cases in the NPCR compared with an expected number of 85 (SMR: 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.8). The risk of suicide was not increased for the 22 405 men with PSA-detected T1c tumours (SMR: 1.0; 95% CI, 0.6-1.5), whereas the 22 929 men with locally advanced nonmetastatic tumours (SMR: 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6-2.9) and the 8350 men with distant metastases (SMR: 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.6) had statistically significant increased SMRs for suicide. Potential effects of comorbid medical and psychiatric conditions could not be investigated. Conclusions: No increased risk of committing suicide was observed among men with PCa diagnosed subsequent to PSA testing, whereas the risk was twice as high among men with locally advanced or metastatic disease, compared with an age-matched male population. (C) 2009 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.
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5.
  • Bratt, Ola, et al. (författare)
  • Family History and Probability of Prostate Cancer, Differentiated by Risk Category A Nationwide Population-Based Study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874. ; 108:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Familial prostate cancer risk estimates are inflated by clinically insignificant low-risk cancer, diagnosed after prostate-specific antigen testing. We provide age-specific probabilities of non-low-and high-risk prostate cancer. Methods: Fifty-one thousand, eight hundred ninety-seven brothers of 32 807 men with prostate cancer were identified in Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe). Nelson-Aalen estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for cumulative, family history-stratified probabilities of any, non-low-(any of Gleason score &gt;= 7, prostate-specific antigen [PSA] &gt;= 10 ng/mL, T3-4, N1, and/or M1) and high-risk prostate cancer (Gleason score &gt;= 8 and/or T3-4 and/or PSA &gt;= 20 ng/mL and/or N1 and/or M1). Results: The population probability of any prostate cancer was 4.8% (95% CI = 4.8% to 4.9%) at age 65 years and 12.9% (95% CI = 12.8% to 12.9%) at age 75 years, of non-low-risk prostate cancer 2.8% (95% CI = 2.7% to 2.8%) at age 65 years and 8.9% (95% CI = 8.8% to 8.9%) at age 75 years, and of high-risk prostate cancer 1.4% (95% CI = 1.3% to 1.4%) at age 65 years and 5.2% (95% CI = 5.1% to 5.2%) at age 75 years. For men with one affected brother, probabilities of any prostate cancer were 14.9% (95% CI = 14.1% to 15.8%) at age 65 years and 30.3% (95% CI = 29.3% to 31.3%) at age 75 years, of non-low-risk prostate cancer 7.3% (95% CI = 6.7% to 7.9%) at age 65 years and 18.8% (95% CI = 17.9% to 19.6%) at age 75 years, and of high-risk prostate cancer 3.0% (95% CI = 2.6% to 3.4%) at age 65 years and 8.9% (95% CI = 8.2% to 9.5%) at age 75 years. Probabilities were higher for men with a stronger family history. For example, men with two affected brothers had a 13.6% (95% CI = 9.9% to 17.6 %) probability of high-risk cancer at age 75 years. Conclusions: The age-specific probabilities of non-low-and high-risk cancer presented here are more informative than relative risks of any prostate cancer and more suitable to use for counseling men with a family history of prostate cancer.
6.
  • Häggström, Christel, et al. (författare)
  • Interpretation of conventional survival analysis and competing-risk analysis an example of hypertension and prostate cancer
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BJU International. - 1464-4096. ; 118:6, s. 850-852
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most clinical studies use conventional methods for survival analysis and calculate the risk of the event of interest, however, it is important to understand that the study population is also at risk of competing events, for example death from other causes. Moreover, the risk of competing events may be dependent on the participants' characteristics. Whether competing risks are taken into account or not, is of major importance when interpreting study results.Here, we use a practical example to elucidate the interpretational differences of absolute risk estimates obtained with both conventional methods for survival analysis and competing risk analysis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
7.
  • Thomsen, Frederik B., et al. (författare)
  • Risk of malignant melanoma in men with prostate cancer : Nationwide, population-based cohort study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136. ; 138:9, s. 2154-2160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An increased risk of malignant melanoma has been observed in men with prostate cancer. To assess potential shared risk factors and confounding factors, we analysed risk of melanoma in men with prostate cancer including information on tumor characteristics and demographics including socioeconomic status. In The Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden, risk of melanoma was assessed in a cohort of men with prostate cancer and in a comparison cohort of prostate-cancer free men. Data on prostate cancer risk category, melanoma stage, basal cell carcinoma, location of residency, and socioeconomic status were obtained from nationwide registers. Melanoma was diagnosed in 830/108,145 (0.78%) men with prostate cancer and in 3,699/556,792 (0.66%) prostate cancer-free men. In multivariable Cox regression models, men with prostate cancer had a significantly increased risk of melanoma (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.09-1.27), and so had married men, men with high education and income, and men residing in southern Sweden. The strongest associations were observed for stage 0 melanoma in men with low-risk prostate cancer (HR 1.45, 1.14-1.86), high education (HR 1.87, 1.60-2.18) and top income (HR 1.61, 1.34-1.93), respectively, whereas there was no association between these factors and late-stage melanoma. Men with prostate cancer also had an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma (HR 1.18, 1.15-1.22). In conclusion, men with low-risk prostate cancer, high education, high income and residency in southern Sweden had an increased risk of early-stage melanoma. What's new? Men with a history of prostate cancer are at increased risk of melanoma, an association suspected of arising from a common mechanism of androgen exposure. Other factors, however, including tumor characteristics and socioeconomic factors, may also play a role. In this population-based study in Sweden, among men with prostate cancer, melanoma risk was found to be greatest for low-risk prostate tumors. The association was exclusive to early-stage melanoma. Risk of basal cell carcinoma was also elevated among men with prostate cancer. The findings throw new light on potential shared risk factors between prostate cancer and skin malignancies.
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8.
  • Van Hemelrijck, Mieke, et al. (författare)
  • Absolute and Relative Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Men With Prostate Cancer : Results From the Population-Based PCBaSe Sweden
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - 0732-183X. ; 28:21, s. 3448-3456
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a potential adverse effect of endocrine treatment (ET) for prostate cancer (PC). We investigated absolute and relative CVD risk in 76,600 patients with PC undergoing ET, curative treatment, or surveillance. Methods PCBaSe Sweden is based on the National Prostate Cancer Register, which covers more than 96% of PC cases. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of ischemic heart disease (IHD), acute myocardial infarction (MI), arrhythmia, heart failure, and stroke were calculated to compare observed and expected (using total Swedish population) numbers of CVD, taking into account age, calendar time, and previous CVD. Results Between 1997 and 2007, 30,642 patients with PC received primary ET, 26,432 curative treatment, and 19,527 surveillance. SIRs for CVD were elevated in all men with the highest for those undergoing ET, independent of circulatory disease history (SIR MI for men without circulatory disease history: 1.40 [95% CI, 1.31 to 1.49], 1.15 [95% CI, 1.01 to 1.31], and 1.20 [95% CI, 1.11 to 1.30] for men undergoing ET, curative treatment, and surveillance, respectively). Absolute risk differences (ARD) showed that two (arrhythmia) to eight (IHD) extra cases of CVD would occur per 1,000 person-years. SMRs showed similar patterns, with ARD of zero (arrhythmia) to three (IHD) per 1,000 person-years. Conclusion Increased relative risks of nonfatal and fatal CVD were found among all men with PC, especially those treated with ET. Because ET is currently the only effective treatment for metastatic disease and the ARDs were rather small, our findings indicate that CVD risk should be considered when prescribing ET but should not constitute a contraindication when the expected gain is tangible.
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9.
  • Van Hemelrijck, Mieke, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of thromboembolic diseases in men with prostate cancer : results from the population-based PCBaSe Sweden
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - Elsevier. - 1470-2045. ; 11:5, s. 450-458
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundCancer is associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic diseases, but data on the association between prostate cancer and thromboembolic diseases are scarce. We investigated the risk of thromboembolic disease in men with prostate cancer who were receiving endocrine treatment, curative treatment, or surveillance.MethodsWe analysed data from PCBaSe Sweden, a database based on the National Prostate Cancer Register, which covers over 96% of prostate cancer cases in Sweden. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) of deep-venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, and arterial embolism were calculated by comparing observed and expected (using the total Swedish male population) occurrences of thromboembolic disease, taking into account age, calendar-time, number of thromboembolic diseases, and time since previous thromboembolic disease.FindingsBetween Jan 1, 1997, and Dec 31, 2007, 30 642 men received primary endocrine therapy, 26 432 curative treatment, and 19 526 surveillance. 1881 developed a thromboembolic disease. For men on endocrine therapy, risks for DVT (SIR 2·48, 95% CI 2·25–2·73) and pulmonary embolism (1·95, 1·81–2·15) were increased, although this was not the case for arterial embolism (1·00, 0·82–1·20). Similar patterns were seen for men who received curative treatment (DVT: 1·73, 1·47–2·01; pulmonary embolism: 2·03, 1·79–2·30; arterial embolism: 0·95, 0·69–1·27) and men who were on surveillance (DVT: 1·27, 1·08–1·47; pulmonary embolism: 1·57, 1·38–1·78; arterial embolism: 1·08, 0·87–1·33). Increased risks for thromboembolic disease were maintained when patients were stratified by age and tumour stage.InterpretationAll men with prostate cancer were at higher risk of thromboembolic diseases, with the highest risk for those on endocrine therapy. Our results indicate that prostate cancer itself, prostate cancer treatments, and selection mechanisms all contribute to increased risk of thromboembolic disease. Thromboembolic disease should be a concern when managing patients with prostate cancer.
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10.
  • Akre, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Mortality Among Men with Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer Managed with Noncurative Intent: A Nationwide Study in PCBaSe Sweden
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - Elsevier. - 1873-7560. ; 60:3, s. 554-563
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There are limited prognostic data for locally advanced prostate cancer PCa to guide in the choice of treatment. Objective: To assess mortality in different prognostic categories among men with locally advanced PCa managed with noncurative intent. Design, setting, and participants: We conducted a register-based nationwide cohort study within the Prostate Cancer DataBase Sweden. The entire cohort of locally advanced PCa included 14 908 men. After the exclusion of 2724 (18%) men treated with curative intent, 12 184 men with locally advanced PCa either with local clinical stage T3 or T4 or with T2 with serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) between 50 and 99 ng/ml and without signs of metastases remained for analysis. Measurements: We followed up the patient cohort in the Cause of Death Register for <= 11 yr and assessed cumulative incidence of PCa -specific death stratified by age and clinical characteristics. Results and limitations: The PCa -specific mortality at 8 yr of follow-up was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25-32%) for Gleason score (GS) 2-6, 41% (95% CI, 38-44%) for GS 7, 52% (95% CI, 47-57%) for GS 8, and 64% (95% CI, 59-69%) for GS 9-10. Even for men aged >85 yr at diagnosis with GS 8-10, PCa was a major cause of death: 42% (95% CI, 37-47%). Men with locally advanced disease and a PSA <4 ng/ml at diagnosis were at particularly increased risk of dying from PCa. One important limitation is the lack of bone scans in 42% of the patient cohort, but results remained after exclusion of patients with unknown metastasis status. Conclusions: The PCa-specific mortality within 8 yr of diagnosis is high in locally advanced PCa, suggesting undertreatment, particularly among men in older age groups. Our results underscore the need for more studies of treatment with curative intent for locally advanced tumors. (C) 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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