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  • Perez-Cornago, Aurora, et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and vegetable intake and prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 141:2, s. 287-297
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several dietary factors have been studied in relation to prostate cancer; however, most studies have not reported on subtypes of fruit and vegetables or tumor characteristics, and results obtained so far are inconclusive. This study aimed to examine the prospective association of total and subtypes of fruit and vegetable intake with the incidence of prostate cancer overall, by grade and stage of disease, and prostate cancer death. Lifestyle information for 142,239 men participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition from 8 European countries was collected at baseline. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After an average follow-up time of 13.9 years, 7,036 prostate cancer cases were identified. Compared with the lowest fifth, those in the highest fifth of total fruit intake had a significantly reduced prostate cancer risk (HR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.83–0.99; p-trend = 0.01). No associations between fruit subtypes and prostate cancer risk were observed, except for citrus fruits, where a significant trend was found (HR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.86–1.02; p-trend = 0.01). No associations between total and subtypes of vegetables and prostate cancer risk were observed. We found no evidence of heterogeneity in these associations by tumor grade and stage, with the exception of significant heterogeneity by tumor grade (pheterogeneity<0.001) for leafy vegetables. No significant associations with prostate cancer death were observed. The main finding of this prospective study was that a higher fruit intake was associated with a small reduction in prostate cancer risk. Whether this association is causal remains unclear.
  • Jakszyn, Paula G, et al. (författare)
  • Nitrosamines and Heme Iron and Risk of Prostate Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-7755. ; 21:3, s. 547-551
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The evidence about nitrosamines and heme iron intake and cancer risk is limited, despite the biologic plausibility of the hypothesis that these factors might increase cancer risk. We investigated the association between dietary nitrosamines and heme iron and the risk of prostate cancer among participants of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Data on food consumption and complete follow-up for cancer occurrence was available for 139,005 men, recruited in 8 European countries. Estimates of HRs were obtained by proportional hazard models, stratified by age at recruitment, and study center, and adjusted for total energy intake, smoking status, marital status, dairy products, educational level, and body mass index. Results: After a mean follow-up of 10 years, 4,606 participants were diagnosed with first incident prostate cancer. There was no overall association between prostate cancer risk and nitrosamines exposure (preformed and endogenous) or heme iron intake (HR for a doubling of intake: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.98-1.03 for N-Nitrosodimethlyamine, 0.95; 95% CI: 0.88-1.03 for endogenous Nitrosocompounds, and 1.00; 95 CI: 0.97-1.03 for heme iron). Conclusions and Impact: Our findings do not support an effect of nitrosamines (endogenous and exogenous) and heme iron intake on prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 21(3); 547-51. (C) 2012 AACR.
  • Campa, Daniele, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variability of the fatty acid synthase pathway is not associated with prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - Elsevier. - 0959-8049. ; 47:3, s. 420-427
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A western lifestyle, characterised by low rates of energy expenditure and a high-energy diet rich in animal protein, saturated fats and refined carbohydrates, is associated with high incidence of prostate cancer in men. A high-energy nutritional status results in insulin/IGF signalling in cells, which in turn stimulates synthesis of fatty acids. We investigated whether the genetic variability of the genes belonging to the fatty acid synthesis pathway is related to prostate cancer risk in 815 prostate cancer cases and 1266 controls from the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC). Using a tagging approach and selecting 252 SNPs in 22 genes, we covered all the common genetic variation of this pathway. None of the SNPs reached statistical significance after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Common SNPs in the fatty acid synthase pathway are not major contributors to prostate cancer risk.
  • Dahm, Christina C., et al. (författare)
  • Fatty acid patterns and risk of prostate cancer in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 96:6, s. 1354-1361
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Fatty acids in blood may be related to the risk of prostate cancer, but epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent. Blood fatty acids are correlated through shared food sources and common endogenous desaturation and elongation pathways. Studies of individual fatty acids cannot take this into account, but pattern analysis can. Treelet transform (TT) is a novel method that uses data correlation structures to derive sparse factors that explain variation. Objective: The objective was to gain further insight in the association between plasma fatty acids and risk of prostate cancer by applying TT to take data correlations into account. Design: We reanalyzed previously published data from a case-control study of prostate cancer nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. TT was used to derive factors explaining the variation in 26 plasma phospholipid fatty acids of 962 incident prostate cancer cases matched to 1061 controls. Multiple imputation was used to deal with missing data in covariates. ORs of prostate cancer according to factor scores were determined by using multivariable conditional logistic regression. Results: Four simple factors explained 38% of the variation in plasma fatty acids. A high score on a factor reflecting a long-chain n-3 PUFA pattern was associated with greater risk of prostate cancer (OR for highest compared with lowest quintile: 1.36; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.86; P-trend = 0.041). Conclusion: Pattern analyses using TT groupings of correlated fatty acids indicate that intake or metabolism of long-chain n-3 PUFAs may be relevant to prostate cancer etiology. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96:1354-61.
  • Pischon, Tobias, et al. (författare)
  • Body size and risk of prostate cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - Baltimore : Waverly Press. - 1055-9965. ; 17:11, s. 3252-3261
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Body size has been hypothesized to influence the risk of prostate cancer; however, most epidemiologic studies have relied on body mass index (BMI) to assess adiposity, whereas only a few studies have examined whether body fat distribution predicts prostate cancer.Methods: We examined the association of height, BMI, waist and hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio with prostate cancer risk among 129,502 men without cancer at baseline from 8 countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), using Cox regression, with age as time metric, stratifying by study center and age at recruitment, and adjusting for education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity.Results: During a mean follow-up of 8.5 years, 2,446 men developed prostate cancer. Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio were positively associated with risk of advanced disease. The relative risk of advanced prostate cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.1) per 5-cm-higher waist circumference and 1.21 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.39) per 0.1-unit-higher waist-hip ratio. When stratified by BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio were positively related to risk of total, advanced, and high-grade prostate cancer among men with lower but not among those with higher BMI (Pinteraction for waist with BMI, 0.25, 0.02, and 0.05, respectively; Pinteraction for waist-hip ratio with BMI, 0.27, 0.22, and 0.14; respectively).Conclusions: These data suggest that abdominal adiposity may be associated with an increased risk of advanced prostate cancer. This association may be stronger among individuals with lower BMI; however, this finding needs confirmation in future studies.
  • Travis, Ruth C., et al. (författare)
  • Prediagnostic concentrations of plasma genistein and prostate cancer risk in 1,605 men with prostate cancer and 1,697 matched control participants in EPIC
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - 0957-5243. ; 23:7, s. 1163-1171
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Data from prospective epidemiological studies in Asian populations and from experimental studies in animals and cell lines suggest a possible protective association between dietary isoflavones and the development of prostate cancer. We examined the association between circulating concentrations of genistein and prostate cancer risk in a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Concentrations of the isoflavone genistein were measured in prediagnostic plasma samples for 1,605 prostate cancer cases and 1,697 matched control participants. Relative risks (RRs) for prostate cancer in relation to plasma concentrations of genistein were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Plasma genistein concentrations were not associated with prostate cancer risk; the multivariate relative risk for men in the highest fifth of genistein compared with men in the lowest fifth was 1.00 (95 % confidence interval: 0.79, 1.27; p linear trend = 0.82). There was no evidence of heterogeneity in this association by age at blood collection, country of recruitment, or cancer stage or histological grade. Plasma genistein concentration was not associated with prostate cancer risk in this large cohort of European men.
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