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Sökning: swepub > Umeå universitet > (2000-2004) > Tidskriftsartikel > Hallmans Göran

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1.
  • Bylund, A, et al. (författare)
  • Randomised controlled short-term intervention pilot study on rye bran bread in prostate cancer.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer Prevention. - 0959-8278. ; 12:5, s. 407-415
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The short-term effects of rye bran bread intake in prostate cancer were investigated. Ten men with conservatively treated prostate cancer were randomised to a daily supplement of 295 g of rye bran bread and eight men to 275 g of wheat bread (control) with similar fibre content for three weeks. Blood samples, ultrasound-guided core biopsies of the prostate, and urine samples were taken. In the rye group, there was a significant increase in plasma enterolactone, and the apoptotic index increased significantly from 2.1% (SD 1.3) to 5.9% (SD 1.8), P<0.005 as measured by a TUNEL index in four cases in the rye group and seven cases in the control group. Besides a significant decrease in weight in both groups, only small changes were observed in plasma concentrations of prostate specific antigen (PSA), circulating sex hormones, excreted oestrogens, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, and in the endothelial fibrinolytical system. High intake of rye bran bread is suggested to increase apoptosis in prostate tumours. (C) 2003 Lippincott Williams Wilkins
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2.
  • Hallmans, Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Rye, lignans and human health
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. - 0029-6651. ; 62:1, s. 193-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rye bran contains a high content not only of dietary fibre, but also of plant lignans and other bioactive compounds in the so-called dietary fibre complex. Blood concentrations of lignans such as enterolactone have been used as biomarkers of intake of lignan-rich plant food. At present,evidence from studies in human subjects does not warrant the conclusion that rye, whole grains orphyto-oestrogens protect against cancer. Some studies, however, have pointed in that direction,especially in relation to cancers of the upper digestive tract. A number of prospective epidemiological studies have clearly shown a protective effect of wholegrain cereals against myocardial infarctions. A corresponding protective effect against diabetes and ischaemic stroke(brain infarct) has also been demonstrated. It seems reasonable to assume that these protective effects are associated with one or more factors in the dietary fibre complex.
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3.
  • Lundin, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of meal frequency and high-fibre rye-bread diet on glucose and lipid metabolism and ileal excretion of energy and sterols in ileostomy subjects.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0954-3007. ; 58:10, s. 1410-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To investigate the effect of a rye, high-fibre diet (HFD) vs a wheat, low-fibre diet (LFD), meal frequency, nibbling ( Nib, seven times a day) or ordinary (Ord, three times a day), and their combined effects on blood glucose, insulin, lipids, urinary C-peptide and ileal excretion of energy, cholesterol and bile acids in humans. Design: LFD period with Nib or Ord meal frequency followed by an HFD diet with Nib or Ord meal frequency in randomized, crossover design. Setting: Outpatients of ileostomy volunteers were called for an investigation in research word. Subjects: A total of 10 subjects ( two female subjects, age 34 and 51 y; eight males, mean age 54.4 y, range 43 - 65 y) participated in the experiment. All subjects were proctocolectomized for ulcerative colitis ( mean 16.0 y, range 8 - 29 y before the study). Intervention: In total, 10 ileostomy subjects started with LFD for 2 weeks, the first week on either Nib ( five subjects) or Ord ( five subjects) and the second week on the other meal frequencies, in a crossover design, followed by a wash-out week, and continued with HFD period for 2 weeks in the same meal frequency manner. All foods consumed in both Nib or Ord regimens were identical and a high-fibre rye bread was used in the HFD period and a low-fibre wheat bread in the LFD period. Main outcome measures: Day-profiles of blood glucose, insulin and lipids, blood lipids before and after dietary intervention, and excretion of steroids in the effluents and C-peptide in the urine. Results: During the Nib regimen, plasma glucose and insulin peaks were lower at the end of the day with HFD compared with LFD. Urinary C-peptide excretion was significantly higher in the day-time on LFD compared with HFD (LFD-Ord vs HFD-Ord, P<0.01; LFD-Nib vs HFD-Nib, P<0.01). Plasma free-cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids were significantly higher (P<0.05) after LFD than after HFD with the Nib regimen. A higher excretion of energy (P<0.05) and chenodeoxycholic acid (P<0.05) were observed with HFD compared with LFD regardless of meal frequency. A higher daily excretion of cholic acid, total bile acids, cholesterol, net cholesterol and net sterols ( P<0.05) was observed on HFD compared with LFD with the Nib regimen. Conclusions: An HFD decreased insulin secretion measured as a decreased excretion of C-peptide in urine and as decreased plasma insulin peaks at the end of the day during a Nib regimen. The smoother glycaemic responses at the end of the day during a Nib regimen may be a consequence of a second meal phenomenon, possibly related to the nature of dietary fibre complex. Sponsorship: This study was supported by grants from the Swedish Council of Forestry and Agricultural Research (SJFR)
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4.
  • Lahmann, Petra H, et al. (författare)
  • Body size and breast cancer risk : findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer And Nutrition (EPIC).
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136. ; 111:5, s. 762-71
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The evidence for anthropometric factors influencing breast cancer risk is accumulating, but uncertainties remain concerning the role of fat distribution and potential effect modifiers. We used data from 73,542 premenopausal and 103,344 postmenopausal women from 9 European countries, taking part in the EPIC study. RRs from Cox regression models were calculated, using measured height, weight, BMI and waist and hip circumferences; categorized by cohort wide quintiles; and expressed as continuous variables, adjusted for study center, age and other risk factors. During 4.7 years of follow-up, 1,879 incident invasive breast cancers were identified. In postmenopausal women, current HRT modified the body size-breast cancer association. Among nonusers, weight, BMI and hip circumference were positively associated with breast cancer risk (all P-trend less than or equal to 0.002); obese women (BMI > 30) had a 31% excess risk compared to women with BMI < 25. Among HRT users, body measures were inversely but nonsignificantly associated with breast cancer. Excess breast cancer risk with HRT was particularly evident among lean women. Pooled RRs per height increment of 5 cm were 1.05 (95% CI 1.00-1.16) in premenopausal and 1.10 (95% CI 1.05-1.16) in postmenopausal women. Among premenopausal women, hip circumference was the only other measure significantly related to breast cancer (P-trend = 0.03), after accounting for BMI. In postmenopausal women not taking exogenous hormones, general obesity is a significant predictor of breast cancer, while abdominal fat assessed as waist-hip ratio or waist circumference was not related to excess risk when adjusted for BMI. Among premenopausal women, weight and BMI showed nonsignificant inverse associations with breast cancer. (C) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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5.
  • Chen, J, et al. (författare)
  • Bioavailability of selenium from bovine milk as assessed in subjects with ileostomy
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5640. ; 58:2, s. 350-355
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To assess the absorption of dietary selenium in humans, especially of milk selenium. Design: 1-day meal studies in subjects with ileostomy. Setting: Hospital outpatient clinics. Subjects: Three subjects in the pilot study and nine subjects in the main study ( eight men/four women). Intervention: Different beverages, 1 l/day, were given in addition to basal diets ( soft drink, 1 week; low-fat milk, 3 weeks; fermented low-fat milk, 3 weeks and soft drink, 1 week). Ileostomy effluents were collected during the last 2 days in each of the four periods. Results: On days when the subjects were given 1 l of low-fat milk, the estimated fractional absorption of total dietary selenium was 65.5 (2.3)% ( mean (s. d.), n = 18), which was similar to the value when fermented low-fat milk was given (64.1 (3.2)%). However, both the calculated amount of milk selenium absorbed (10.9 (2.4) vs 9.4 (1.7) mg selenium) and its fractional absorption (73.3 (16.1) vs 64.1 (11.2)%, n = 18) were significantly higher for milk than for fermented milk. Conclusions: Selenium from milk and other sources is well absorbed in subjects with ileostomy. The real absorption may be even higher than the values shown.
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6.
  • Custodio, Hipolito M, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes affect methylmercury retention.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Archives of Environmental Health. - Heldref Publications. - 0003-9896. ; 59:11, s. 588-595
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Methylmercury is eliminated from the human body as glutathione (GSH) conjugates. GSH production is mediated by glutamyl-cysteine ligase (GCL) and conjugation by glutathione S-transferases (GST). In this study, the authors tested whether polymorphisms in GCL and GST genes modify methylmercury retention. Erythrocyte mercury concentration (EryHg), plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids (PPUFA), and genotype for GCLC, GCLM, GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1 were determined in 365 individuals. A general linear model was developed for analyzing whether genotype modified the regression of EryHg on PPUFA. The presence of one variant allele for either GCLC-129 or GSTP1-114 was associated with higher EryHg and steeper regression slope. No similar trends were shown for GCLM, GSTA1, GSTM1, or GSTT1. These findings indicate that GCLC polymorphisms that affect GSH production also affect methylmercury retention, and that GSTP1 may play a role in conjugating methylmercury with GSH.
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7.
  • Gormally, Emmanuelle, et al. (författare)
  • Amount of DNA in plasma and cancer risk: A prospective study
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 111:5, s. 746-749
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Levels of plasma DNA concentrations in cancer patients have been shown to be higher than the plasma DNA concentrations found in healthy subjects. The value of plasma DNA levels for development of neoplastic or pulmonary disease was evaluated in a large prospective study. Plasma samples (n = 1, 184) were analyzed from 776 controls, 359 cases of cancer (lung, bladder, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, leukemia) and 49 deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including never smokers and ex-smokers, from 9 countries across Europe. The amount of plasma DNA was variable across the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) centers. High DNA concentrations in some centers might be due to the type of population recruited and/or the treatment of the samples. An elevated and statistically significant odds ratio (OR) was found for COPID deaths (OR = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.06-6.02), while nonsignificant increased ORs were present for oral cancers, cancers of the pharynx and larynx and leukemia. When the analyses were stratified by time since recruitment (below or above 36 months), the increased ORs were limited to the more recent period of recruitment, i.e., a time elapsed between blood drawing and disease onset lower than 36 months. This was particularly true for COPID deaths (OR = 12.7; 95% CI = 1.57-103) and leukemia (OR = 2.37; 95% Cl = 1.20-4.67). (C) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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8.
  • Kaaks, Rudolf, et al. (författare)
  • Prospective study of IGF-I, IGF-binding proteins, and breast cancer risk, in Northern and Southern Sweden
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - Springer. - 1573-7225. ; 13:4, s. 307-316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To examine the possible relationships of breast cancer risk to prediagnostic plasma levels of insulin; insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I); and IGF-binding proteins -1, -2, and -3. Methods: Within two prospective cohorts in Umea and Malmo we measured plasma concentrations of insulin, IGF-I, and IGFBPs for a total of 513 incident breast cancer cases and 987 matched controls. Results: Globally, risk was unassociated with levels of IGF-I, IGFBP-3, or IGF-I adjusted for IGFBP-3. When breaking down the analysis by subgroups of age at blood donation, an increase in risk was observed for increasing levels of IGF-I in women aged 55 or older, in the Umea cohort only (odds ratios of 1.00, 1.73, 1.76, 1.90; p(trend) = 0.05). This effect weakened, however, when the analysis was restricted to subjects who did not use exogenous hormones for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were not related to risk in younger women, recruited before age 50, contrary to observations from previous studies. In a subcohort where blood samples had been collected after at least four hours of fasting, breast cancer risk showed no clear associations with levels of insulin, IGFBP-1, or IGFBP-2. Conclusions: Our results do not confirm earlier findings of an association of plasma IGF-I levels with breast cancer risk especially in young women, but suggest a possible association with postmenopausal breast cancer risk, possibly among ERT/HRT users only. Our results do not support the hypothesis that elevated plasma insulin levels, and reduced levels of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2, are associated with increased breast cancer risk.
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9.
  • Miller, Anthony B, et al. (författare)
  • Fruits and vegetables and lung cancer: Findings from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 108:2, s. 269-276
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intake of fruits and vegetables is thought to protect against the development of lung cancer. However, some recent cohort and case-control studies have shown no protective effect. We have assessed the relation between fruit and vegetable intake and lung cancer incidence in the large prospective investigation on diet and cancer, the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We studied data from 478,021 individuals that took part in the EPIC study, who were recruited from 10 European countries and who completed a dietary questionnaire during 1992-1998. Follow-up was to December 1998 or 1999, but for some centres with active follow-up to June 2002. During follow-up, 1,074 participants were reported to have developed lung cancer, of whom 860 were eligible for our analysis. We used the Cox proportional hazard model to determine the effect of fruit and vegetable intake on the incidence of lung cancer. We paid particular attention to adjustment for smoking. Relative risk estimates were obtained using fruit and vegetable intake categorised by sex-specific, cohort-wide quintiles. After adjustment for age, smoking, height, weight and gender, there was a significant inverse association between fruit consumption and lung cancer risk: the hazard ratio for the highest quintile of consumption relative to the lowest being 0.60 (95% Confidence Interval 0.46-0.78), p for trend 0.0099. The association was strongest in the Northern Europe centres, and among current smokers at baseline, and was strengthened when the 293 lung cancers diagnosed in the first 2 years of follow-up were excluded from the analysis. There was no association between vegetable consumption or vegetable subtypes and lung cancer risk. The findings from this analysis can be regarded as re-enforcing recommendations with regard to enhanced fruit consumption for populations. However, the effect is likely to be small compared to smoking cessation.
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10.
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