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Sökning: swepub > Umeå universitet > (2000-2004) > Tidskriftsartikel > Hallmans Göran

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  • Bylund, A, et al. (författare)
  • Randomised controlled short-term intervention pilot study on rye bran bread in prostate cancer.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer Prevention. - 0959-8278. ; 12:5, s. 407-415
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The short-term effects of rye bran bread intake in prostate cancer were investigated. Ten men with conservatively treated prostate cancer were randomised to a daily supplement of 295 g of rye bran bread and eight men to 275 g of wheat bread (control) with similar fibre content for three weeks. Blood samples, ultrasound-guided core biopsies of the prostate, and urine samples were taken. In the rye group, there was a significant increase in plasma enterolactone, and the apoptotic index increased significantly from 2.1% (SD 1.3) to 5.9% (SD 1.8), P<0.005 as measured by a TUNEL index in four cases in the rye group and seven cases in the control group. Besides a significant decrease in weight in both groups, only small changes were observed in plasma concentrations of prostate specific antigen (PSA), circulating sex hormones, excreted oestrogens, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, and in the endothelial fibrinolytical system. High intake of rye bran bread is suggested to increase apoptosis in prostate tumours. (C) 2003 Lippincott Williams Wilkins
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  • Hallmans, Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Rye, lignans and human health
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. - 0029-6651. ; 62:1, s. 193-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rye bran contains a high content not only of dietary fibre, but also of plant lignans and other bioactive compounds in the so-called dietary fibre complex. Blood concentrations of lignans such as enterolactone have been used as biomarkers of intake of lignan-rich plant food. At present,evidence from studies in human subjects does not warrant the conclusion that rye, whole grains orphyto-oestrogens protect against cancer. Some studies, however, have pointed in that direction,especially in relation to cancers of the upper digestive tract. A number of prospective epidemiological studies have clearly shown a protective effect of wholegrain cereals against myocardial infarctions. A corresponding protective effect against diabetes and ischaemic stroke(brain infarct) has also been demonstrated. It seems reasonable to assume that these protective effects are associated with one or more factors in the dietary fibre complex.
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  • Lundin, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of meal frequency and high-fibre rye-bread diet on glucose and lipid metabolism and ileal excretion of energy and sterols in ileostomy subjects.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0954-3007. ; 58:10, s. 1410-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To investigate the effect of a rye, high-fibre diet (HFD) vs a wheat, low-fibre diet (LFD), meal frequency, nibbling ( Nib, seven times a day) or ordinary (Ord, three times a day), and their combined effects on blood glucose, insulin, lipids, urinary C-peptide and ileal excretion of energy, cholesterol and bile acids in humans. Design: LFD period with Nib or Ord meal frequency followed by an HFD diet with Nib or Ord meal frequency in randomized, crossover design. Setting: Outpatients of ileostomy volunteers were called for an investigation in research word. Subjects: A total of 10 subjects ( two female subjects, age 34 and 51 y; eight males, mean age 54.4 y, range 43 - 65 y) participated in the experiment. All subjects were proctocolectomized for ulcerative colitis ( mean 16.0 y, range 8 - 29 y before the study). Intervention: In total, 10 ileostomy subjects started with LFD for 2 weeks, the first week on either Nib ( five subjects) or Ord ( five subjects) and the second week on the other meal frequencies, in a crossover design, followed by a wash-out week, and continued with HFD period for 2 weeks in the same meal frequency manner. All foods consumed in both Nib or Ord regimens were identical and a high-fibre rye bread was used in the HFD period and a low-fibre wheat bread in the LFD period. Main outcome measures: Day-profiles of blood glucose, insulin and lipids, blood lipids before and after dietary intervention, and excretion of steroids in the effluents and C-peptide in the urine. Results: During the Nib regimen, plasma glucose and insulin peaks were lower at the end of the day with HFD compared with LFD. Urinary C-peptide excretion was significantly higher in the day-time on LFD compared with HFD (LFD-Ord vs HFD-Ord, P<0.01; LFD-Nib vs HFD-Nib, P<0.01). Plasma free-cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids were significantly higher (P<0.05) after LFD than after HFD with the Nib regimen. A higher excretion of energy (P<0.05) and chenodeoxycholic acid (P<0.05) were observed with HFD compared with LFD regardless of meal frequency. A higher daily excretion of cholic acid, total bile acids, cholesterol, net cholesterol and net sterols ( P<0.05) was observed on HFD compared with LFD with the Nib regimen. Conclusions: An HFD decreased insulin secretion measured as a decreased excretion of C-peptide in urine and as decreased plasma insulin peaks at the end of the day during a Nib regimen. The smoother glycaemic responses at the end of the day during a Nib regimen may be a consequence of a second meal phenomenon, possibly related to the nature of dietary fibre complex. Sponsorship: This study was supported by grants from the Swedish Council of Forestry and Agricultural Research (SJFR)
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  • Kaaks, Rudolf, et al. (författare)
  • Prospective study of IGF-I, IGF-binding proteins, and breast cancer risk, in Northern and Southern Sweden
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - Kluwer. - 1573-7225 .- 0957-5243. ; 13:4, s. 307-316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To examine the possible relationships of breast cancer risk to prediagnostic plasma levels of insulin; insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I); and IGF-binding proteins -1, -2, and -3. Methods: Within two prospective cohorts in Umea and Malmo we measured plasma concentrations of insulin, IGF-I, and IGFBPs for a total of 513 incident breast cancer cases and 987 matched controls. Results: Globally, risk was unassociated with levels of IGF-I, IGFBP-3, or IGF-I adjusted for IGFBP-3. When breaking down the analysis by subgroups of age at blood donation, an increase in risk was observed for increasing levels of IGF-I in women aged 55 or older, in the Umea cohort only (odds ratios of 1.00, 1.73, 1.76, 1.90; p(trend) = 0.05). This effect weakened, however, when the analysis was restricted to subjects who did not use exogenous hormones for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were not related to risk in younger women, recruited before age 50, contrary to observations from previous studies. In a subcohort where blood samples had been collected after at least four hours of fasting, breast cancer risk showed no clear associations with levels of insulin, IGFBP-1, or IGFBP-2. Conclusions: Our results do not confirm earlier findings of an association of plasma IGF-I levels with breast cancer risk especially in young women, but suggest a possible association with postmenopausal breast cancer risk, possibly among ERT/HRT users only. Our results do not support the hypothesis that elevated plasma insulin levels, and reduced levels of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2, are associated with increased breast cancer risk.
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  • Hallmans, Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular disease and diabetes in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study Cohort : evaluation of risk factors and their interactions.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. Supplement Links. - 1403-4956. ; 61, s. 18-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this paper is, first, to describe the organization, sampling procedures, availability of samples/database, ethical considerations, and quality control program of the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study Cohort. Secondly, some examples are given of studies on cardiovascular disease and diabetes with a focus on the biomarker programme. The cohort has been positioned as a national and international resource for scientific research.
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  • Hultdin, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Elevated plasma homocysteine : cause or consequence of myocardial infarction?
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - 0954-6820. ; 256:6, s. 491-498
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a first myocardial infarction leads to increased plasma homocysteine concentrations and whether the association between homocysteine and myocardial infarction was greater at follow-up compared with baseline. DESIGN: A population-based, prospective, nested case-referent study. SETTING: Screening took place at the nearest health survey centre in northern Sweden. SUBJECTS: Of more than 36,000 persons screened, 78 developed a first myocardial infarction (average 18 months after sampling). Fifty of these had participated in a follow-up health survey (average 8(1/2) years between surveys) and were sex- and age-matched with 56 referents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of plasma homocysteine levels in case and referent subjects before and after development of a first myocardial infarction. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found between cases and referents regarding homocysteine at baseline or follow-up. Plasma homocysteine and plasma creatinine increased significantly, and plasma albumin decreased significantly over time. Conditional univariate logistic regression indicated that high homocysteine at follow-up but not baseline was associated with first myocardial infarction (OR 2.49; 95% CI: 1.03-6.02), but the relation disappeared in multivariate analyses including plasma creatinine and plasma albumin. High plasma creatinine remained associated with first myocardial infarction at both baseline (OR 2.94; 95% CI: 1.05-8.21) and follow-up (OR 3.38; 95% CI: 1.21-9.48). CONCLUSION: In this study, first myocardial infarction did not cause increased plasma homocysteine concentration.
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