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  • Greenwood, Jeremy, et al. (författare)
  • Investment, Capacity Utilization and the Real Business Cycle
  • 1986
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The present paper adopts the Keynesian view that direct shocks to investment are important for business fluctuations, but incorporates them in a neo-classical framework where the rate of capital utilization is endogenous. In contrast to the intertemporal substitution effect on labor supply, at work in the standard neo-classical moels, the transmission mechanism of the investment shocks works here through the optimal capacity utilization decision and the demand side of the labor market. The crucial feature of the model that determines the optimal utilization rate is Keynes's notion of 'user cost'. Given this mechanism labor productivity shifts become endogenous outcomes, rather than given exogenously as in the existing real business cycle models.The interaction between investment shocks and labor demand studied here seems to contribute to the understanding of the co-movements of macroeconomic variables observed during the cycle.
  • Linell, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Svenskans beskrivning, 16. Volym 1
  • 1987
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sextonde sammankomsten för svenskans beskrivning hölls i Linköping den 22 och 23 oktober 1987. Värdinstitutioner var Institutionen för Språk och Litteratur och Tema Kommunikation.Sammankomstens huvudtema var svenska språket i bruk, men i enlighet med traditionen var även andra områden inom forskningen kring svenskan företrädda. Antalet deltagare var c:a 175, och sammanlagt 38 föredrag hölls, varav tre plenarföreläsningar. Tre bidrag (Linda Jönsson: Polisrapporten - en skriven berättelse på talets grund, Godelieve Laureys: Rörelseverb i svenskan och holländskan och Tomas Riad: Reflexivitet och predikation) kommer att publiceras på annat sätt, medan övriga 35 bidrag finns i de två volymer som här föreligger.Organisationskommitten bestod, utom av utgivarna, av Mats Arwidson och Marianne Axelson. Vi tackar dem varmt för allt deras arbete före, under och efter sammankomsten. För hjälp med redigeringen vill vi tacka Elisabeth Andersson och Lotta Strand. Vi vill också framföra ett tack till Stiftelsen Tornbylyckorna-Lektorshagen i Linköping som gav ekonomiskt stöd till sammankomsten. Tryckningen av konferensvolymerna har möjliggjorts genom bidrag från HSFR (F 753/88).
  • Smith, Jonathan M., et al. (författare)
  • The RB Language
  • 1988
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Typical algorithms for distributed or parallel computations are cooperative, meaning that the sequential component is broken down into cooperating pieces, which are distributed across available hardware. An approach wich has recently gained some attention is competitive processing, where several versions of a sequential program are distributed across available processors to gain performance from algorithmic diversity. There is also potential for fault tolerance from available hardware by executing the sequential versions, called alternatives, on a distributed configuration. Schemes for implementing competitive concurrent processing have been described in the literature, but there is little implementation experience. RB is a practical step towards gaining such experience.RB is a programming language for specifying alternative methods of performing a computation, where at most one of the results of the alternatives is used. Our prototype implementation uses a combination of a language preprocessor for C and a runtime library to provide the desired semantics. Using other base programming languages, e.g., Ada, or other methods of managing alternatives is straightforward.
  • Wibe, Sören, 1946- (författare)
  • Firm and industry cost functions for the control of emissions
  • 1985
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The relation between firm (micro) and industry (macro) cost functions for the control of emissions are analyzed in this paper. Using aggregation methods found in modern production theory, it is demonstrated how industry cost functions can be constructed from firm functions.The model is illustrated with an empirical study of the Swedish Iron & Steel and Pulp & Paper industries where empirical micro functions are estimated and aggregated into macro relations. The main empirical result is that the cost of reduction at the micro level reveal strong economics of scale while the opposite is true at the macro level. The elasticity of cost with respect to reduced emissions varies (at macro level) around 1.5, indicating that a 1 % increase in emission reduction increases cost with about 1.5 %.
  • Ekman, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Problems for vulnerable road users in Sweden
  • 1989
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This report aims to look at a number of the attributes of accidents which involve vulnerable road users and at the characteristics of their travel, in order to identify areas where safety and mobility improvements may be obtained. It is intended to serve as a tool in subsequent stages of the drive project 1031: an intelligent traffic system for vulnerable road users, and thus is not a general survey of safety and mobility problems for vulnerable road users, but rather are view of those issues that are related to the road traffic informatics (rti) measures envisaged by the project. The project is aimed at improving vulnerable road user (vru) safety and mobility both directly, through the enchancement of signalized junctions and pedestrian crossings, and indirectly, through the creation of a model of the traffic system incorporating vulnerable road users. It is intended that this model will permit the routeing and guidance of motorized vehicles in such a way as to enhance vru safety and reduce vru annoyance and delay from traffic. Both the direct and the indirect measures envisaged will only be relevant to vru safety and mobility on main roads in urban areas; they are unlikely to be applicable to residential streets or minor roads unless these have substantial vru flows. The report therefore concentrates (in so far AS Existing information permits) on vru safety and mobility on main roads and on vru use of facilities that are intended to be upgraded through the planned rti measures. The report is split into two main sections: the first will examine safety and mobility problems for vulnerable road users on a national level, and the second will examine safety and mobility problems for vulnerable road users at a more local level. Parallel reports are being produced for Britain and the Netherlands, which will examine the situations regarding the safety and mobility of vulnerable roads users in those countries as a whole, and in one urban area from each (namely bradford in Britain and the city of groningen in the Netherlands). This report forms work package 1 of the drive project 1031.
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