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Sökning: swepub > Johansson Börje > Refereegranskat > Laukkanen P.

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1.
  • Laukkanen, P., 0, et al. (författare)
  • Anomalous bismuth-stabilized (2x1) reconstructions on GaAs(100) and InP(100) surfaces
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007. ; 100:8, s. 086101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • First-principles phase diagrams of bismuth-stabilized GaAs- and InP(100) surfaces demonstrate for the first time the presence of anomalous (2 x 1) reconstructions, which disobey the common electron counting principle. Combining these theoretical results with our scanning-tunneling-microscopy and photoemission measurements, we identify novel (2 x 1) surface structures, which are composed of symmetric Bi-Bi and asymmetric mixed Bi-As and Bi-P dimers, and find that they are stabilized by stress relief and pseudogap formation.
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2.
  • Laukkanen, P., et al. (författare)
  • Bismuth-stabilized c(2X6) reconstruction on a InSb(100) substrate
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. - 1098-0121. ; 81:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • By means of scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS), photoelectron spectroscopy, and first-principles calculations, we have studied the bismuth (Bi) adsorbate-stabilized InSb(100) substrate surface which shows a c(2X6) low-energy electron diffraction pattern [thus labeled Bi/InSb(100)c(2X6) surface] and which includes areas with metallic STS curves as well as areas with semiconducting STS curves. The first-principles phase diagram of the Bi/InSb(100) surface demonstrates the presence of the Bi-stabilized metallic c(2X6) reconstruction and semiconducting (4X3) reconstruction depending on the chemical potentials, in good agreement with STS results. The existence of the metallic c(2X6) phase, which does not obey the electron counting model, is attributed to the partial prohibition of the relaxation in the direction perpendicular to dimer rows in the competing reconstructions and the peculiar stability of the Bi-stabilized dimer rows. Based on (i) first-principles phase diagram, (ii) STS results, and (iii) comparison of the measured and calculated STM and photoemission data, we show that the measured Bi/InSb(100)c(2X6) surface includes metallic areas with the stable c(2X6) atomic structure and semiconducting areas with the stable (4X3) atomic structure.
3.
  • Punkkinen, M. P. J., et al. (författare)
  • Bismuth-stabilized (2x1) and (2x4) reconstructions on GaAs(100) surfaces : Combined first-principles, photoemission, and scanning tunneling microscopy study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. - 1098-0121. ; 78:19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bismuth adsorbate-stabilized (2x1) and (2x4) reconstructions of the GaAs(100) surfaces have been studied by first-principles calculations, valence-band and core-level photoelectron spectroscopies, and scanning tunneling microscopy. It is demonstrated that large Bi atom size leads to the formation of the pseudogap at the Fermi energy and to the lower energy of an adsorbate-derived surface band, which contributes to the stabilization of the exceptional Bi/GaAs(100)(2x1) reconstruction. It is proposed that the Bi/GaAs(100)(2x4) reconstructions include asymmetric mixed Bi-As dimers, in addition to the Bi-Bi dimers. Based on the calculations, we solve the atomic origins of the surface core-level shifts (SCLSs) of the Bi 5d photoemission spectra from the Bi/GaAs(100)(2x4) surfaces. This allows for resolving the puzzle related to the identification of two SCLS components often found in the measurements of the Bi 5d and Sb 4d core-level emissions of the Bi/III-V and Sb/III-V(100)(2x4) surfaces. Finally, the reason for the absence of the common (2x4)-beta 2 structure and additional support for the stability of the (2x1) structure on the Bi/III-V(100) surfaces are discussed in terms of Bi atom size and subsurface stress.
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4.
  • Kuzmin, M., et al. (författare)
  • Atomic structure of Yb/Si(100)(2X6) : Interrelation between the silicon dimer arrangement and Si 2p photoemission line shape
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. - 1098-0121. ; 82:11, s. 113302
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Combining photoelectron spectroscopy and density-functional theory calculations, we have studied the atomic geometry of Yb/Si(100)(2 X 6) reconstruction and the mechanisms responsible for its stabilization as well as the influence of this reconstruction on Si 2p core-level photoemission. The analysis of measured and calculated surface core-level shifts supports the recently proposed model of the Yb/Si(100)(2 X 6). It involves, in agreement with valence-band measurements, unbuckled (symmetrical) silicon dimers, leading to unusually narrowed Si 2p line shape as compared to those of related systems. The origin of the symmetrical dimers in the (2 X 6) structure is discussed in the context of previous results in literature.
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5.
  • Laukkanen, P., et al. (författare)
  • Formation and destabilization of Ga interstitials in GaAsN : Experiment and theory
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. - 1098-0121. ; 86:19, s. 195205
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using first-principles total energy calculations we have found complex defects induced by N incorporation in GaAsN. The formation energy of the Ga interstitial atom is very significantly decreased due to local effects within the defect complex. The stability of the Ga interstitials is further increased at surfaces. The present results suggest that the energetically favorable Ga interstitial atoms are much more abundant in GaAsN than the previously considered N defects, which have relatively large formation energies. Our synchrotron radiation core-level photoemission measurements support the computational results. The formation of harmful Ga interstitials should be reduced by incorporating large group IV B atoms in GaAsN.
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6.
  • Kokko, K., et al. (författare)
  • Surface core-level shift of Pd at the AgcPd1-c(111) surface : Nonlinear subsurface effects
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Surface Science. - 0039-6028. ; 601:23, s. 5419-5423
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The surface core-level binding-energy shift (SCLS) of Pd at the AgcPd1-c(111) surface is calculated as a function of bulk concentration of the alloy. The equilibrium volume and the surface concentration profile used in the calculations refer to the 0 K case. The SCLSs are evaluated within the Z + 1 approximation. The results are analysed using the mixing enthalpy of the alloy and the bulk and surface chemical potentials. A relation of the SCLS to the bulk concentration is considered. This relation is shown to be mediated by the surface concentration profile which induces the observed nonlinear behaviour. The results are interpreted using a simple model for the alloy electronic structure.
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7.
  • Lång, J. J. K., et al. (författare)
  • Ab initio and scanning tunneling microscopy study of an indium-terminated GaAs(100) surface : An indium-induced surface reconstruction change in the c(8x2) structure
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. - 1098-0121. ; 81:24, s. 245305
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Technologically useful indium- (In) terminated c(8 x 2)-reconstructed GaAs(100) substrate surface has been studied by first-principles calculations and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements. Our total-energy calculations demonstrate the stability of four different so-called zeta a structures with In monomer rows and In coverage between 0.5 and 2 monolayers on the GaAs(100) substrate. Thus, we introduce a surface system, which stabilizes the zeta a reconstruction. Furthermore, an interesting trend is found. Atomic structure of the c(8 x 2) reconstruction depends on the surface-layer cation and substrate volumes, which, in principle, allows to tune the surface structure by cation adsorption. This phenomenon is related to the peculiar c(8 x 2) atomic surface structure, which shows mixed surface layer, including both anions and cations, and uncommon metallic-type cations in the zeta a structure, which do not show covalent bonds. Our results predict a structural transition from the zeta structure to the zeta a structure as the surface cation size is increased at 0 K. The found transition is probably related to the disordered surface structures (consisting of zeta and zeta a building blocks) found experimentally by x-ray diffraction at room temperature. Comparison of the STM images, calculated for various c(8 x 2) models, with the former and present measured STM images of In/GaAs(100) c(8 x 2) supports the presence of stable zeta a reconstructions.
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8.
  • Punkkinen, M. P. J., et al. (författare)
  • Calculation of surface core-level shifts within complete screening : Problems with pseudohydrogenated slabs
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. - 1098-0121. ; 77:24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • By considering GaAs(110) and Si(100)(2x1) surfaces, it is shown that the use of the pseudohydrogen atoms to saturate the dangling bonds at one side of the slab modeling a free surface can lead to distorted surface core-level shifts within the complete screening picture. The effect is linked to the polarization of the slab and to the change in the bulklike electronic structure close to pseudohydrogenated part of the slab. It is demonstrated that these problems can be avoided if the pseudohydrogenated slab is large enough and the bulk reference layer is properly chosen. One easy way to control these errors is to monitor the planar-averaged potential energy curve of the slab.
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9.
  • Punkkinen, Marko P. J., et al. (författare)
  • Core-level shifts of InP(100)(2 x 4) surface : Theory and experiment
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Surface Science. - 0039-6028. ; 603:16, s. 2664-2668
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Surface core-level shifts (SCLSs) of the (2 x 4)-reconstructed InP(100) surface with the established mixed In-P dimer structure have been investigated by first-principles calculations and photoelectron spectroscopy. Theoretical values were calculated using both the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange-correlation energy functional. The obtained theoretical values are quite similar within both approximations. The found differences originate in the tiny structural differences. It is concluded that the expansion or contraction of the crystal lattice has smaller effect on the SCLSs than the geometrical details of the reconstruction, which suggests that the Madelung potential has the dominant effect on the SCLSs. The results support the presence of a P 2p peak at higher binding energy (BE) compared to bulk peak, as proposed with recent measurements [P. Laukkamen, J. Pakarinen, M. Ahola-Tuomi, M. Kuzmin, R. E. Perala, I. J. Vayrynen, A. Tukiainen, V. Rimpilainen, M. Pessa, M. Adell, J. Sadowski, Surf. Sci. 600 (2006) 3022], and reveal several hitherto not reported SCLSs. The calculated SCLSs reproduce the measured spectra within reasonable accuracy. Furthermore, the atomic origins of the InP(100)(2 x 4) SCLSs are solved. In particular, it is shown that the lowest SCLS of P 2p, of the InP(100)(2 x 4) arises from the topmost In-P dimers.
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10.
  • Punkkinen, M. P. J., et al. (författare)
  • Stability and structure of rare-earth metal and Ba-induced reconstructions on a Si(100) surface
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. - 1098-0121. ; 80:23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have studied, by means of ab initio calculations, the energetics and the atomic and electronic structures of various reconstructions induced by rare-earth metals (RE=Eu, Nd, Sm, and Yb) and Ba on Si(100) in the coverage range up to 0.5 monolayer. It is shown that Si dimer buckling is an important structural element for such systems, leading frequently to oblique surface lattice symmetries. The strong metal atom-silicon binding favors the increased amount of metal atoms per unit surface area, i.e., the (2x3) reconstruction with two metal atoms per unit cell is found to be energetically unstable with respect to the (2x1) reconstruction with three metal atoms per the same surface area [Eu/Si(100) and Yb/Si(100)]. The influence of the atomic size and the valence of the adsorbates is also investigated. In particular, it is found that an increase in atomic size stimulates the metal-metal repulsion, stabilizing the (2x3) configuration [Ba/Si(100)]. In the case of trivalent metals, the stabilization of the (2x3) is mediated by the loss of semiconducting state in the competing phases [Sm/Si(100) and Nd/Si(100)]. Our results demonstrate the importance of many factors, which account for the abundance of RE/Si(100) reconstructions. Finally, prominent atomic models are proposed for (2x3) and (2x6) reconstructions, and the character of the wavy "(1x2)" reconstruction is discussed. The simulated scanning tunneling microscopy images for the proposed (2x6) reconstruction are in a particularly good agreement with the complex experimental images.
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