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Sökning: swepub > Larsson Anders > Tidskriftsartikel > Lunds universitet

  • Resultat 1-10 av 29
  • [1]23Nästa
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1.
  • Lindholm, Åsa, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of sibutramine on weight reduction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome : a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Fertility and Sterility. - 0015-0282. ; 89:5, s. 1221-1228
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of sibutramine together with brief lifestyle modification for weight reduction in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN: Investigator-initiated, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group clinical trial. SETTING: Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology in primary care, referral centers, and private practice. PATIENT(S): Forty-two patients with confirmed PCOS were included in the study, and 34 patients completed the study. INTERVENTION: Sibutramine 15 mg once daily together with brief lifestyle modification was compare with placebo together with brief lifestyle modification. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The primary endpoint was to assess weight loss. Secondary endpoints included the efficacy of sibutramine for treatment of menstrual pattern and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULT(S): After 6 months the sibutramine group had lost 7.8 +/- 5.1 kg compared with a weight loss of 2.8 +/- 6.2 kg in the placebo group. Sibutramine treatment resulted in significant decreases in apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A ratio, triglycerides, and cystatin C levels. CONCLUSION(S): Sibutramine in combination with lifestyle intervention results in significant weight reduction in obese patients with PCOS. In addition to the weight loss, sibutramine seems to have beneficial effects on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors.
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2.
  • Niedomsyl, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Learning Benefits of Using 2D Versus 3D Maps: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Experiment
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of geography. - 0022-1341. ; 112:3, s. 87-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The traditional important role of maps used for educational purposes has gained further potential with recent advances in GIS technology. But beyond specific courses in cartography this potential seems little realized in geography teaching. This article investigates the extent to which any learning benefits may be derived from the use of such technologies. A controlled experiment was conducted to examine whether information recall is improved when cartographic information on population distribution is presented in 2D versus 3D form. The results show statistically significant differences in learning benefits between the two formats, largely in favor of 2D representation. These findings suggest that learning benefits can be derived from paying greater attention to map format in educational settings.
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3.
  • Sundelöf, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Cystatin C Levels are Positively Correlated with both Aβ42 and Tau Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Persons with Alzheimer's Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Healthy Controls
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - 1387-2877. ; 21:2, s. 471-478
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cystatin C is suggested to be involved in neurodegeneration and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by binding to soluble amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides. Studies of cystatin C levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in relation to risk of AD are conflicting and relations between cystatin C, Abeta42, and tau levels in CSF in AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls are unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate cystatin C, Abeta42, and tau levels in CSF in AD, MCI, and controls. As a secondary aim, the relationships between cystatin C, Abeta42, and tau levels across disease groups were investigated. Cystatin C, Abeta42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau levels in CSF were analyzed by turbidimetry (cystatin C) and xMAP Luminex technology (Abeta and tau) in persons with AD (n=101), MCI (n=84), and healthy control subjects (n=28). Mean cystatin C levels were similar in cases of AD (5.6 mumol/L +/- 1.7), MCI (5.4 mumol/L +/- 1.48), and controls (5.6 mumol/L +/- 1.6). However, CSF cystatin C levels were strongly and positively correlated with total tau and phosphorylated tau levels (r=0.61-0.81, p< 0.0001) and Abeta42 (r=0.35-0.65, p< 0.001) independent of age, gender, and APOE genotype. Mean CSF cystatin C levels did not differ between patients with AD and MCI and healthy controls. Interestingly, cystatin C levels were positively correlated with both tau and Abeta42 levels in CSF independent of age, gender, and APOE genotype.
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4.
  • Sundelöf, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Higher Cathepsin B Levels in Plasma in Alzheimer's Disease Compared to Healthy Controls
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - 1387-2877. ; 22:4, s. 1223-1230
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cathepsin B is suggested to be involved in amyloid-β (Aβ) processing and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Studies of cathepsin B levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have not been previously performed. We examined cathepsin B levels in plasma and CSF samples in persons with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls in order to test the hypothesis that cathepsin B levels can discriminate persons with AD or MCI from healthy controls. Cathepsin B, Cystatin C, Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42, total tau, phosphorylated tau, and albumin levels in plasma and CSF were analyzed by ELISA (Cathepsin B) turbidimetry (cystatin C), xMAP Luminex technology (Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 and tau), and Cobas C501 analyzer (albumin) in persons with AD (n=101), MCI (n=84), and healthy control subjects (n=28). Plasma cathepsin B levels were higher in persons with AD compared to healthy controls, both in unadjusted models and in multivariable models adjusting for age, gender, APOE genotype, cystatin C, and albumin levels: Odds ratio (OR) for AD per 1 SD of plasma cathepsin B; 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI); 1.01-4.14, p= 0.05. There was no difference between diagnostic groups in cathepsin B levels in CSF: OR for AD per 1 SD of CSF cathepsin B; 0.93, 95% CI; 0.37-2.30, p= 0.87. Plasma cathepsin B levels were higher in persons with AD compared to healthy controls whereas there was no difference between diagnostic groups in cathepsin B levels in CSF. Further investigation of cathepsin B as a predictor of AD is warranted.
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5.
  • Akyuz, Mose, et al. (författare)
  • Characteristics of Laser-triggered Electric Discharges in Air
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation. ; 12:5, s. 1060-1070
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An experiment of laser-triggered electric discharges has been conducted in a uniform background electric field. By focusing the beam of a pulsed Nd-YAG laser (wavelength 532 nm, pulse duration 5 ns) in a narrow (15 mm) plane-parallel air gap exposed to a dc voltage, streamer discharges and disruptive discharges were triggered.. The laser energy and the background electric field strength were varied in the ranges 0-180 mJ and 0.8-1.4 MV/m, respectively, and the laser plasma was induced either close to the anode, close to the cathode or mid-gap. From images of the electrode gap and from current measurements, the occurrence of and time to the streamer discharge and the disruptive discharge were determined. No distinct level was found of either the laser energy or the plasma energy for the transition from one discharge case to another, even if the general trend was that the energy required for a certain discharge case was reduced when increasing the background electric field. These and other observations make the method of laser triggering a less suitable method for studies of streamer initiation and streamer propagation, but revealed several interesting features of laser-triggered electric discharges.
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6.
  • Klarin, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • Use of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 299 to reduce pathogenic bacteria in the oropharynx of intubated patients : a randomised controlled open pilot study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Critical Care. - 1364-8535. ; 12:6, s. R136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is usually caused by aspiration of pathogenic bacteria from the oropharynx. Oral decontamination with antiseptics, such as chlorhexidine (CHX) or antibiotics, has been used as prophylaxis against this complication. We hypothesised that the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 299 (Lp299) would be as efficient as CHX in reducing the pathogenic bacterial load in the oropharynx of tracheally intubated, mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients. METHODS: Fifty critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation were randomised to either oral mechanical cleansing followed by washing with 0.1% CHX solution or to the same cleansing procedure followed by oral application of an emulsion of Lp299. Samples for microbiological analyses were taken from the oropharynx and trachea at inclusion and at defined intervals thereafter. RESULTS: Potentially pathogenic bacteria that were not present at inclusion were identified in oropharyngeal samples from eight of the patients treated with Lp299 and 13 of those treated with CHX (p = 0.13). Analysis of tracheal samples yielded similar results. Lp299 was recovered from the oropharynx of all patients in the Lp299 group. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, we found no difference between the effect of Lp299 and CHX used in oral care procedures, when we examined the effects of those agents on colonisation of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the oropharynx of intubated, mechanically ventilated patients.
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7.
  • Lipcsey, Miklós, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of a single dose of tobramycin on systemic inflammatory response-induced acute kidney injury in a 6-hour porcine model
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Critical Care Medicine. - 0090-3493. ; 37:10, s. 2782-2790
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE:To evaluate whether the addition of tobramycin further compromises renal function in inflammatory response-induced acute kidney injury. Effective antibiotic treatment in septic shock is crucial for the outcome. The combination of aminoglycosides with different beta-lactam antibiotics offers a broad antimicrobial coverage, rapid bacterial killing, synergistic effects, and low antibiotic-induced endotoxin release. However, aminoglycosides have nephrotoxic effects that may aggravate sepsis-induced acute kidney injury.DESIGN:Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled experimental study.SETTING:University research unit.SUBJECTS:Twenty-four healthy pigs.INTERVENTIONS:The animals were anesthetized and randomized to four groups. Groups I (n = 8) and II (n = 8) received endotoxin infusion for 6 hrs, whereas groups III (n = 4) and IV (n = 4) received saline. Groups I and III received 7 mg/kg of tobramycin 20 mins after the initiation of the protocol, whereas groups II and IV received saline.MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:The renal elimination rate of a bolus dose of cefuroxime was chosen as the primary end point. Renal function was also evaluated by urine output, creatinine clearance, plasma cystatin C, plasma urea, and urine NAG (N-acetyl-beta-D-glucoaminidase). After 3 hrs, there were significantly lower cefuroxime elimination rates in the two endotoxin groups than in the nonendotoxin groups. No difference in cefuroxime elimination rates between groups I and II could be detected at any time point. Similarly, there were changes indicating acute kidney injury in urine output, creatinine clearance, and plasma cystatin C in the endotoxin groups with no differences between groups I and II. Plasma urea and urine NAG did not differ between any of the groups.CONCLUSIONS:The result of this study does not lend any support to the hypothesis that a single dose of tobramycin enhances the risk of acute renal failure in cases with systemic inflammatory response-induced acute kidney injury.
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8.
  • Cunha Goncalves, Doris, et al. (författare)
  • Inotropic Support During Experimental Endotoxemic Shock: Part II. A Comparison of Levosimendan with Dobutamine
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Anesthesia And Analgesia. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0003-2999. ; 109:5, s. 1576-1583
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: We compared the association of levosimendan or dobutamine with norepinephrine for the maintenance of systemic and hepatosplanchnic perfusion during early endotoxemic shock. METHODS: Twenty anesthetized pigs (26.8 +/- 0.5 kg) were instrumented with flow probes and catheters to monitor systemic and regional perfusion as described in our companion article in this issue of the journal. Two animals were excluded because of surgical complications. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured by indirect calorimetry. Starting 1 h after instrumentation, an endotoxin infusion (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, 2 mu g . kg(-1) . h(-1)) was administered for 300 min. Sixty minutes after the start of endotoxin, the animals were fluid resuscitated (20 mL/kg dextran 70); at 120 min, they were randomized into three groups of six animals each: levosimendan (25-50 mu g . kg(-1) . h(-1)), dobutamine (10-20 mu g . kg(-1) . min(-1)), and control. In the first two groups, norepinephrine (0.5-2 mu g . kg(-1) . min(-1)) was added when mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) <= 65 mm Hg. Crystalloids were given to maintain filling pressures >= baseline. The data were divided into two subsets: before (0-120 min, all animals) and after (120-300 min, three groups) randomization, and analyzed by analysis of variance. P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: At 120 min, cardiac output was 15% higher (P < 0.001), systemic vascular resistance was 30% lower (P < 0.001), and MAP decreased 12.5% (P = 0.004); blood flow in the hepatic artery, superior mesenteric artery, and portal vein had increased by 100% (P = 0.004), 60% (P < 0.001), and 20% (P < 0.001), respectively. Between 120 and 300 min, cardiac output and systemic oxygen delivery decreased 50% in control animals (P < 0.05), remained unchanged in the levosimendan group, and increased 60% with dobutamine (P = 0.05). MAP (P = 0.043) and VO2 (P = 0.001) decreased 20% in the control group. Portal vein flow decreased in the control (50%) and levosimendan (30%) groups (P < 0.001) and was therefore higher in the dobutamine group (P = 0.003) at 300 min. Hepatic and gut oxygen deliveries decreased in the levosimendan (50%,, and 30%, respectively, P < 0.001) and control groups (70% and 45%, respectively, P < 0.05); thus, regional oxygen deliveries were greater in the dobutamine group (P < 0.05). In this group, mixed venous and hepatic vein oxygen saturation were maintained; the latter variable was higher than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Although unchanged with dobutamine, arterial (P = 0.020), portal (P = 0.020), and hepatic vein (P = 0.034) lactate concentrations increased twofold with levosimendan. CONCLUSION: In volume-resuscitated endotoxemic pigs, the association of either levosimendan or dobutamine with norepinephrine preserved systemic blood flow, oxygen delivery, and VO2. However, only dobutamine-norepinephrine maintained portal blood flow, which was associated with preservation of splanchnic and hepatic oxygen homeostasis and stable lactate concentrations. (Anesth Analg 2009;109:1576-83)
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9.
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10.
  • Klarin, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • Lactobacillus plantarum 299v reduces colonisation of Clostridium difficile in critically ill patients treated with antibiotics
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. - John Wiley & Sons Ltd. - 00015172. ; 52:8, s. 1096-1102
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) in hospitalised patients is increasing. Critically ill patients are often treated with antibiotics and are at high risk of developing CDAD. Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v) has been found to reduce recurrence of CDAD. We investigated intensive care unit (ICU) patients regarding the impact of Lp299v on C. difficile colonisation and on gut permeability and parameters of inflammation and infection in that context. Methods: Twenty-two ICU patients were given a fermented oatmeal gruel containing Lp299v, and 22 received an equivalent product without the bacteria. Faecal samples for analyses of C. difficile and Lp299v were taken at inclusion and then twice a week during the ICU stay. Other cultures were performed on clinical indication. Infection and inflammation parameters were analysed daily. Gut permeability was assessed using a sugar probe technique. Main Results: Colonisation with C. difficile was detected in 19% (4/21) of controls but in none of the Lp299v-treated patients (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Enteral administration of the probiotic bacterium Lp299v to critically ill patients treated with antibiotics reduced colonisation with C. difficile. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN85655545
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