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Sökning: swepub > Larsson Anders > Tidskriftsartikel > Eriksson Mats

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1.
  • Larsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Studies of fibrinogen binding to porcine platelets by flow cytometry : A method for studies of porcine platelet activation
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Platelets. - 0953-7104. ; 13:3, s. 153-157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Platelets have a central function in haemostasis. They also participate in arterial thrombus formation in vascular disorders. Platelets have an important role in initiating and mediating ischaemia and related complications of ischemic heart disease. Several research groups are thus studying platelet activation and developing new platelet inhibitors. Platelet function is dependent upon membrane receptors and their interaction with other proteins. Binding of fibrinogen to the platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor is a prerequisite for platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. Thus, several GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors have been developed of which abciximab is the clinically most widely used. Pigs are often used for experimental studies. We have developed a flow cytometry assay for measuring porcine platelet activation utilising an FITC-labelled chicken anti-fibrinogen antibody. ADP, ristocetin and thrombin induce fibrinogen binding to porcine platelets similarly to human platelets. Ristocetin induces platelet aggregation and microvesicle formation from porcine platelets as well as from human platelets.
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2.
  • Mutschler, Diana K., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of mechanical ventilation on platelet microparticles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis Research. - 0049-3848. ; 108:4, s. 215-220
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION:Mechanical ventilation (MV) is considered to contribute to lung injury. Platelet membrane-derived microparticles (PMPs) are procoagulant and participate in the inflammatory process. The bronchoalveolar space could, besides plasma, be a site of origin of these microparticles. We evaluated the presence of these PMPs and two prostaglandin-derived metabolites in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) regarding their possible relation to MV.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Before and after 1 h of MV, PMPs and prostaglandin metabolites were analyzed, in BALF from 14 anesthetized pigs, by flow cytometry and RIA, respectively. Tracheal mucus from five humans was analyzed for PMPs at extubation after surgery.RESULTS:Activated PMPs and prostaglandin metabolites were present in all BALF samples. The time needed to count 5000 cellular events was prolonged six-fold after 1 h of mechanical ventilation (p<0.001). The relative content of PMPs was constant in all samples. The PMPs were thrombogenic, i.e. they were fibrinogen, p-selectin and von Willebrand factor positive. Lavage did not per se affect the period necessary to count 5000 cellular events. PMPs in human tracheal mucus were in the same range as in the pig after 1 h of MV aiming at a PaCO(2) between 5.0 and 5.5 kPa.CONCLUSIONS:Activated PMPs are present in the pulmonary air-liquid interface. The prolongation of the time needed to count 5000 cellular events in BALF after MV indicates activation and adherence. Adherent microparticles bind neutrophils, which may aggravate pathological processes leading to pulmonary dysfunction. Evaluation of PMPs in BALF may be useful in evaluating strategies for lung-protective ventilator treatment.
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3.
  • Lipcsey, Miklós, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of a single dose of tobramycin on systemic inflammatory response-induced acute kidney injury in a 6-hour porcine model
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Critical Care Medicine. - 0090-3493. ; 37:10, s. 2782-2790
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE:To evaluate whether the addition of tobramycin further compromises renal function in inflammatory response-induced acute kidney injury. Effective antibiotic treatment in septic shock is crucial for the outcome. The combination of aminoglycosides with different beta-lactam antibiotics offers a broad antimicrobial coverage, rapid bacterial killing, synergistic effects, and low antibiotic-induced endotoxin release. However, aminoglycosides have nephrotoxic effects that may aggravate sepsis-induced acute kidney injury.DESIGN:Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled experimental study.SETTING:University research unit.SUBJECTS:Twenty-four healthy pigs.INTERVENTIONS:The animals were anesthetized and randomized to four groups. Groups I (n = 8) and II (n = 8) received endotoxin infusion for 6 hrs, whereas groups III (n = 4) and IV (n = 4) received saline. Groups I and III received 7 mg/kg of tobramycin 20 mins after the initiation of the protocol, whereas groups II and IV received saline.MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:The renal elimination rate of a bolus dose of cefuroxime was chosen as the primary end point. Renal function was also evaluated by urine output, creatinine clearance, plasma cystatin C, plasma urea, and urine NAG (N-acetyl-beta-D-glucoaminidase). After 3 hrs, there were significantly lower cefuroxime elimination rates in the two endotoxin groups than in the nonendotoxin groups. No difference in cefuroxime elimination rates between groups I and II could be detected at any time point. Similarly, there were changes indicating acute kidney injury in urine output, creatinine clearance, and plasma cystatin C in the endotoxin groups with no differences between groups I and II. Plasma urea and urine NAG did not differ between any of the groups.CONCLUSIONS:The result of this study does not lend any support to the hypothesis that a single dose of tobramycin enhances the risk of acute renal failure in cases with systemic inflammatory response-induced acute kidney injury.
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4.
  • Basu, Samar, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of melagatran, a novel direct thrombin inhibitor, during experimental septic shock
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. - 1354-3784. ; 9:5, s. 1129-1137
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sepsis and endotoxaemia initiate the generation of thrombin, which is responsible for the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, platelet aggregation and acts as an inflammatory mediator affecting numerous types of cells, including myocardial, smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Human Gram-negative septic shock, frequently seen in intensive care units, is a condition with high mortality. This condition can be replicated in the endotoxaemic pig. As many of the toxic effects of sepsis are due to thrombin generation, it was of interest to study, using this porcine experimental septic shock model, whether inhibition of thrombin could alleviate the effects of endotoxaemia. For this purpose melagatran, a direct synthetic thrombin inhibitor with a molecular weight of 429 Da, was employed. Melagatran does not significantly interact with any other enzymes in the coagulation cascade or fibrinolytic enzymes aside from thrombin. Furthermore, melagatran does not require endogenous co-factors such as antithrombin or heparin co-Factor II for its antithrombin effect, which is important, as these inhibitors are often consumed in septic patients. We have shown that melagatran exerts a beneficial effect on renal function, as evaluated by plasma creatinine and urinary output, during experimental septic shock. These effects were most pronounced during the later phase of the experimental period, after the infusion of melagatran had been discontinued. Prevention of intrarenal coagulation may be attributable to this finding. In addition, melagatran had beneficial effects on systemic haemodynamics (left ventricular stroke work index, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and systemic vascular resistance index) in endotoxaemic pigs. This result may be explained by the ability of melagatran to inhibit thrombin, thereby counteracting thrombin's cellular effects. Thus, it can be seen, using this experimental model of septic shock, that melagatran may help to alleviate some of the damaging effects of endotoxaemia, although more research is required to test this further.
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5.
  • Basu, Samar, et al. (författare)
  • Propofol (Diprivan-EDTA) counteracts oxidative injury and deterioration of the arterial oxygen tension during experimental septic shock
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - 0300-9572. ; 50:3, s. 341-348
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Human septic shock can be replicated in the endotoxaemic pig. Endotoxaemia causes a multitude of events, including reduced PaO(2) and increased lipid peroxidation. This study was designed to evaluate the possible effects of a commonly used anaesthetic drug with known antioxidant properties (propofol) during porcine endotoxaemia.METHODS: Ten pigs were anaesthetised and given a 6 h E. coli endotoxin infusion. The animals received, randomly, a supplementary continuous infusion of propofol emulsion (containing 0.005% EDTA) or the corresponding volume of vehicle (controls). Pathophysiologic responses were determined. Non-enzymatic (by measuring plasma 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) and enzymatic (by measuring plasma 15-keto-dihydro-PGF(2 alpha)) lipid peroxidations were evaluated. Plasma levels of the endogenous antioxidants alpha- and gamma-tocopherols, were also analysed.RESULTS: Endotoxaemia increased plasma levels of 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) (1st-4th h) and 15-keto-dihydro-PGF(2 alpha) (1st-4th h) significantly more in controls than in the propofol+endotoxin group. PaO(2) was significantly less affected by endotoxin in the propofol treated animals (2nd-4th h). Mean arterial pressure (4th-6th h) and systemic vascular resistance (6th h) were reduced significantly more by endotoxin among the propofol-treated animals. Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) increased in all animals, significantly more in the propofol+endotoxin group (1/2-6th h) than in the control group.CONCLUSIONS: Propofol reduced endotoxin-induced free radical mediated and cyclooxygenase catalysed lipid peroxidation significantly. The implication is that propofol counteracts endotoxin-induced deterioration of PaO(2).
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6.
  • Carlsson, Markus, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory and circulatory effects of the reduction of endotoxin concentration in established porcine endotoxemic shock : a model of endotoxin elimination
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Critical Care Medicine. - 0090-3493. ; 37:3, s. 1031-e4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective:To study whether a reduction of the endotoxin load, once a generalized inflammatory state has been established, reduces the inflammatory response and endotoxin-induced effects on circulation, hypoperfusion, and organ dysfunction.Design:Prospective parallel-grouped placebo-controlled randomized interventional experimental study.Setting:University research unit.Subjects: Healthy pigs.Interventions:The animals were subjected to a continuous endotoxin infusion rate of either 4.0 or 0.063 µg endotoxin × kg-1 × h-1 for 1, 2, or 6 hours. The 1- and 2-hour infusion groups represented the applied therapy by a reduction of the endotoxin load of 5/6 and 2/3, respectively.Measurements and Main Results:During a 6-hour experiment, laboratory and physiologic parameters were recorded hourly in 26 anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs. Primary end point was to detect differences in tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] (TNF-[alpha]) concentration during the last 3 hours of the experiment. Despite the early reduction of the endotoxin load, no effect on TNF-[alpha] concentration was observed. Similarly, in circulatory parameters, such as mean arterial pressure and oxygen delivery, and in platelet count and renal function, no effects were noted. However, there was some improvement in pulmonary compliance and function as determined by Pao2, Paco2, and pH. These changes were associated with slight improvements in leukocyte response and capillary leakage.Conclusions:Termination of the endotoxin infusion represents an incontestable model of endotoxin concentration reduction. Endotoxin elimination strategies applied at the TNF-[alpha] peak or later will have very little or no effect on TNF-[alpha]–mediated toxicity. Nevertheless, there was an effect on the leukocyte response that was associated with an improvement in respiratory function and microcirculation, making it impossible to rule out fully the beneficial effect of this strategy. However, the effects were limited in relation to the magnitude of the endotoxin concentration reduction and the very early application of the antiendotoxin measure.
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7.
  • Castegren, Markus, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in Organ Dysfunction in Endotoxin Tolerant Pigs Under Intensive Care Exposed to a Second Hit of Endotoxin
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Shock. - 1073-2322. ; 37:5, s. 501-510
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Endotoxin tolerance is a well-studied phenomenon associated with a reduced inflammatory response. In the switch from an inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory response in clinical sepsis the concept of endotoxin tolerance is of obvious interest. However, only limited data exist regarding the effect of endotoxin tolerance on organ dysfunction and, therefore, this was investigated in a porcine intensive care sepsis model. Twenty-seven healthy pigs, including nine control animals, were included in the study. Twelve pigs pre-exposed to 24 h of intravenous endotoxin infusion and intensive care and six unexposed pigs were given either a high- or low-dose endotoxin challenge for 6 h. Inflammatory, circulatory, hypoperfusion and organ dysfunction parameters were followed. The inflammatory responses as well as parameters representing circulation, hypoperfusion, cardiac and renal function were all markedly attenuated in animals pre-exposed to endotoxin and intensive care as compared with animals not pre-exposed. In animals pre-exposed to endotoxin and given the high-dose of endotoxin challenge, deterioration in pulmonary function was equal to or even worse than in animals not pre-exposed.In contrast to the overall protective effect of endotoxin tolerance observed in other organ systems, the lungs of endotoxin tolerant animals demonstrated an increased responsiveness to high-dose endotoxin challenge.
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