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  • Carlsson, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Mode of growth determines differential expression of prostasomes in cultures of prostate cancer cell lines and opens for studies of prostasome gene expression
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Uppsala Journal of Medical Sciences. - 0300-9734. ; 111:3, s. 293-301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The exocrine secretion of the acinar gland cells in the human prostate consists of, among other components, a serous secretion and prostasomes. The prostasomes are functionally associated with both reproduction and prostate cancer development and are capable to raise autoantibodies at various pathologies. Therefore, we are trying to characterize prostasome antigens by analysing prostasome- producing cell lines of prostate cancers with the cDNA microarray technique. To obtain one state with synthesis of prostasomes and another state without synthesis, we checked whether the prostasome differentiation was influenced by the mode of growing the cells, that is, whether the cells had been growing on a solid support or on a flexible one.We studied the expression of prostasomes in the cell lines PC3, DU145 and LNCaP. We grew the cells with the following methods: Monocellular layers on microbeads, multicellular spheroids, single cells in suspension cultures, and xenotransplants in nude rats. The presence of prostasomes was examined by ELISA, immunocytochemistry or electron microscopy.The results showed that growing the cells on microbeads (solid support) produced a differentiation of prostasomes, while growing the cells in multicellular spheroids (flexible support) did not. Thus it should be possible to apply cDNA microarray analyses for characterizing the genes which are active at the cellular expression of prostasomes and then deduce the prostasome antigens.
  • Inayat, S, et al. (författare)
  • High levels of cathepsins B, L and S in human seminal plasma and their association with prostasomes
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Andrologia. - 0303-4569. ; 44:6, s. 423-427
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Semen is a heterogenous and complex fluid with different functions, some of them well known, others still obscure. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of cathepsins B, S and L in human seminal plasma and their possible associations with other semen variables. Cathepsin B, L and S concentrations were measured in seminal plasma from 99 men utilising commercial ELISA kits. Seminal plasma cathepsin B was approximately 70 times higher, while the cathepsin L values were approximately 500 times higher and the cathepsin S values approximately 40 times higher in seminal plasma than in a group of serum samples. The study shows that seminal plasma contains high levels of cathepsins B, L and S. All three cathepsins were also bound to the surface of prostasomes.
  • Ronquist, Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Prostasome-derived proteins capable of eliciting an immune response in prostate cancer patients
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136. ; 119:4, s. 847-853
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prostate cancer consistently remains a difficult clinical enigma. Therefore, the development of novel strategies for diagnosis and treatment (e.g. immunotherapy) of prostate cancer is essential. We tried to identify the prostasome-derived proteins that were immunogenic in prostate cancer patients. Prostate cancer patients’ sera (n 5 44) with high enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titers against prostasomes were selected for immunoblotting against purified seminal prostasomes. The SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting experiments were performed with Bio-Rad systems. Twenty-five of the recognized proteins were isolated and analyzed by means of mass spectrometry. Out of 44 patients’ sera, 31 (70%) demonstrated in immunoblotting experiments reactivity against several prostasomal protein bands in the molecular weight range of 10– 200 kDa. Some of the bands (55, 70 and 170 kDa) were more frequently recognized by the patients’ sera. Concomitantly run control sera generated only very weak or no bands at all. The most frequently occurring prostasomal proteins were identified as heat shock proteins (HSP 70, 71) and clusterin. This study identified the most important molecular targets of autoantibodies against prostasomes generated in connection with the development of prostate cancer in man. These immunogenic prostasomal proteins could be appropriate target molecules for specific immunotherapy of prostate cancer patients.               
  • Ronquist, Karl Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Energy-requiring uptake of prostasomes and PC3 cell-derived exosomes into non-malignant and malignant cells
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles. - 2001-3078. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epithelial cells lining the prostate acini release, in a regulated manner (exocytosis), nanosized vesicles called prostasomes that belong to the exosome family. Prostate cancer cells have preserved this ability to generate and export exosomes to the extracellular space. We previously demonstrated that human prostasomes have an ATP-forming capacity. In this study, we compared the capacity of extracellular vesicles (EVs) to generate ATP between normal seminal prostasomes and exosomes secreted by PC3 cells (PC3 exosomes), a prostate cancer cell line. Proteomic analyses identified enzymes of the glycolytic chain in both prostasomes and PC3 exosomes, and we found that both of them were capable of generating ATP when supplied with substrates. Notably, the net production of extracellular ATP was low for prostasomes due to a high ATPase activity contrary to an elevated net ATP level for PC3 exosomes because of their low ATPase activity. The uptake of the 2 types of EVs by normal prostate epithelial cells (CRL2221) and prostate cancer cells (PC3) was visualized and measured, demonstrating differential kinetics. Interestingly, this uptake was dependent upon an ongoing glycolytic flux involving extracellular ATP formation by EVs and/or intracellular ATP produced from the recipient cells. We conclude that the internalization of EVs into recipient cells is an energy-requiring process also demanding an active V-ATPase and the capacity of EVs to generate extracellular ATP may play a role in this process.
  • Ronquist, Göran K, et al. (författare)
  • Biochemical characterization of stallion prostasomes and comparison to their human counterparts
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Systems biology in reproductive medicine. - 1939-6376. ; 59:6, s. 297-303
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Release of nanometer-sized prostasomes into human and equine semen suggests essential functions in their relationships with sperm cells and the fertilization process. The two types of prostasomes displayed ultrastructural similarities, albeit the human prostasomes were somewhat larger than the stallion prostasomes. A high ratio of saturated fatty acids was characteristic for the two prostasome types. Electrophoretic separation systems revealed an equine prostasomal pattern different from that of human. The 21 distinctive low molecular weight protein spots in the 2D-gel (with no counterparts in human prostasomes) were identified via peptide mass fingerprinting, several of which may be different isoforms. Out of the three high molecular weight bands characteristic for human prostasomes (CD10, CD13, and CD26), CD10 and CD13 were retrieved in equine prostasomes. We present some new proteins of horse prostasomes not found in their human counterparts. Further studies are warranted to reveal the function of these proteins.
  • Ronquist, K Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Prostasomes from four different species are able to produce extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects. - 0304-4165. ; 1830:10, s. 4604-4610
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Prostasomes are extracellular vesicles. Intracellularly they are enclosed by another larger vesicle, a so called "storage vesicle" equivalent to a multivesicular body of late endosomal origin. Prostasomes in their extracellular context are thought to play a crucial role in fertilization.METHODS:Prostasomes were purified according to a well worked-out schedule from seminal plasmas obtained from human, canine, equine and bovine species. The various prostasomes were subjected to SDS-PAGE separation and protein banding patterns were compared. To gain knowledge of the prostasomal protein systems pertaining to prostasomes of four different species proteins were analyzed using a proteomic approach. An in vitro assay was employed to demonstrate ATP formation by prostasomes of different species.RESULTS:The SDS-PAGE banding pattern of prostasomes from the four species revealed a richly faceted picture with most protein bands within the molecular weight range of 10-150kDa. Some protein bands seemed to be concordant among species although differently expressed and the number of protein bands of dog prostasomes seemed to be distinctly fewer. Special emphasis was put on proteins involved in energy metabolic turnover. Prostasomes from all four species were able to form extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP formation was balanced by ATPase activity linked to the four types of prostasomes.CONCLUSION:These potencies of a possession of functional ATP-forming enzymes by different prostasome types should be regarded against the knowledge of ATP having a profound effect on cell responses and now explicitly on the success of the sperm cell to fertilize the ovum.GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE:This study unravels energy metabolic relationships of prostasomes from four different species.
  • Carlsson, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • High Concentrations of the Angiogenic Peptide VEGF-A in Seminal Fluid and its Association to Prostasomes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clinical Laboratory. - 1433-6510. ; 62:8, s. 1515-1520
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels by capillary sprouting from pre-existing vessels. This process is associated with increased expression of angiogenic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The VEGF family consists of five members denoted VEGF-A, B, C, D and placenta growth factor (PlGF). Prostasomes are exosome-like extracellular vesicles existing in seminal plasma. The present study aimed at investigating the possible relationship between VEGF-A in seminal fluid and blood plasma and the prostasomal association of VEGF-A.Methods: Measurement of VEGF-A concentrations was carried out in seminal plasma from 40 males and in blood plasma from 40 male blood donors utilizing commercial ELISA kits. The prostasomal association of VEGF-A was investigated by flow cytometry.Results: We found highly elevated concentrations of VEGF-A in seminal fluid (median value 150000 pg/mL) compared with those of blood plasma. Flow cytometric analysis showed that VEGF-A is bound to the surface of prostasomes.Conclusions: Prostasomes and seminal plasma contain the angiogenic factor VEGF-A in high concentrations exceeding that of blood plasma by 1000 times.
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