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Sökning: swepub > (2000-2011) > Groop Leif > Parikh Hemang

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  • Olsson, Anders H, et al. (författare)
  • Two common genetic variants near nuclear encoded OXPHOS genes are associated with insulin secretion in vivo.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - Society of the European Journal of Endocrinology. - 1479-683X. ; 164:5, s. 765-771
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context Mitochondrial ATP production is important in the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Genetic factors may modulate the capacity of the β-cells to secrete insulin and thereby contribute to the risk of type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify genetic loci in or adjacent to nuclear encoded genes of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway that are associated with insulin secretion in vivo. DESIGN AND METHODS: To find polymorphisms associated with glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, data from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 1467 non-diabetic individuals, the Diabetes Genetic Initiative (DGI), was examined. 413 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.05 located in or adjacent to 76 OXPHOS genes were included in the DGI GWAS. A more extensive population based study of 4323 non-diabetics, the PPP-Botnia, was used as a replication cohort. Insulinogenic index during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used as a surrogate marker of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to test genotype-phenotype associations. RESULTS: Two common variants were indentified in the DGI, where the major C-allele of rs606164, adjacent to NDUFC2 (NADH dehyrogenase (ubiqinone) 1 subunit C2), and the minor G-allele of rs1323070, adjacent to COX7A2 (cythochrome c oxidase subunit VIIa polypeptide 2), showed nominal associations with decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (p=0.0009 respective p=0.003). These associations were replicated in PPP-Botnia (p=0.002 and p=0.05). CONCLUSION: Our study shows that genetic variation near genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation may influence glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vivo.
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  • Parikh, Hemang, et al. (författare)
  • Candidate genes for type 2 diabetes.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders. - Springer. - 1389-9155. ; 5:2, s. 151-176
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)
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5.
  • Parikh, Hemang, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular correlates for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and type 1 fibers.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism. - American Physiological Society. - 1522-1555. ; Apr 29, s. 1152-1159
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the amount of type 1 fibers are interrelated but the underlying unifying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. To explore these mechanisms we related gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle biopsies of 43 age-matched men from published datasets with VO2max and amount of type 1 fibers and replicated some of the findings in muscle biopsies from 154 young and elderly individuals using real-time PCR. We identified 66 probesets (genes or ESTs) positively and 83 probesets inversely correlated with VO2max and 171 probesets positively and 217 probesets inversely correlated with percentage of type 1 fibers in human skeletal muscle. Genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) showed high expression in individuals with high VO2max whereas the opposite was not the case in individuals with low VO2max. Instead, genes like AHNAK and BCL6 were associated with low VO2max. Also, expression of the OXPHOS genes NDUFB5 and ATP5C1 increased with exercise training and decreased with aging. In contrast, expression of AHNAK in skeletal muscle decreased with exercise training and increased with aging. Eleven genes (NDUFB4, COX5A, UQCRB, ATP5C1, ATP5G3, ETHE1, FABP3, ISCA1, MYST4, C9orf3 and PKIA) were positively correlated with both VO2max and percentage of type 1 fibers. VO2max closely reflects expression of OXPHOS genes, particularly of NDUFB5 and ATP5C1 in skeletal muscle suggesting good muscle fitness. In contrast, a high expression of AHNAK was associated with a low VO2max and poor muscle fitness. Key words: VO2max, Type 1 fibers, Aging.
6.
  • Parikh, Hemang, et al. (författare)
  • Prioritizing genes for follow-up from genome wide association studies using information on gene expression in tissues relevant for type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Genomics. - BioMed Central. - 1755-8794. ; 2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have emerged as a powerful approach for identifying susceptibility loci associated with polygenetic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is still a daunting task to prioritize single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from GWAS for further replication in different population. Several recent studies have shown that genetic variation often affects gene-expression at proximal (cis) as well as distal (trans) genomic locations by different mechanisms such as altering rate of transcription or splicing or transcript stability. Methods: To prioritize SNPs from GWAS, we combined results from two GWAS related to T2DM, the Diabetes Genetics Initiative (DGI) and the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC), with genome-wide expression data from pancreas, adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle of individuals with or without T2DM or animal models thereof to identify T2DM susceptibility loci. Results: We identified 1,170 SNPs associated with T2DM with P < 0.05 in both GWAS and 243 genes that were located in the vicinity of these SNPs. Out of these 243 genes, we identified 115 differentially expressed in publicly available gene expression profiling data. Notably five of them, IGF2BP2, KCNJ11, NOTCH2, TCF7L2 and TSPAN8, have subsequently been shown to be associated with T2DM in different populations. To provide further validation of our approach, we reversed the approach and started with 26 known SNPs associated with T2DM and related traits. We could show that 12 (57%) (HHEX, HNF1B, IGF2BP2, IRS1, KCNJ11, KCNQ1, NOTCH2, PPARG, TCF7L2, THADA, TSPAN8 and WFS1) out of 21 genes located in vicinity of these SNPs were showing aberrant expression in T2DM from the gene expression profiling studies. Conclusions: Utilizing of gene expression profiling data from different tissues of individuals with or without T2DM or animal models thereof is a powerful tool for prioritizing SNPs from WGAS for further replication studies.
7.
  • Planck, Tereza, et al. (författare)
  • COX-2 and SCD, markers of inflammation and adipogenesis, are related to disease activity in Graves' ophthalmopathy
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Thyroid. - Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.. - 1557-9077. ; 17:6, s. 511-517
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Inflammation and adipogenesis are two parallel processes with increased activity in severe Graves' ophthalmopathy. Objective: The aim of this work was to define target genes for therapeutic intervention in adipogenesis and inflammation in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Design: Orbital tissue was obtained from patients with ophthalmopathy in acute or chronic phase undergoing orbital surgery to study gene expression followed by the study of potential intervention mechanisms in preadipocytes. Setting: Clinic of Endocrinology, University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden. Participants: Patients in acute severe or in chronic phase of ophthalmopathy. Interventions: Lateral orbital decompression in acute phase and restorative surgery in chronic phase. In vitro treatment of preadipocytes with rosiglitazone and diclofenac. Main outcome measure: Gene expression in intraorbital tissue or preadipocytes and differentiation of preadipocytes. Results: A marker of adipose tissue, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), and the proinflammatory gene, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), were overexpressed in patients in active phase compared to the chronic phase of ophthalmopathy. In growth-arrested preadipocytes stimulated with rosiglitazone, COX-2 expression increased temporarily within 1 hour and decreased to undetectable levels after 48 hours. In contrast, SCD and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) expression increased continuously from day 2 to day 7 during adipogenesis. Diclofenac, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenases with antagonistic effects on PPAR-gamma, reduced the number of mature adipocytes by approximately 50%. Conclusion: We conclude that inflammation and adipogenesis decrease with a decrease in activity of ophthalmopathy and that the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug diclofenac inhibits adipogenesis. This may represent a putative future treatment of endocrine ophthalmopathy.
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  • Planck, Tereza, et al. (författare)
  • Gene Expression in Graves' Ophthalmopathy and Arm Lymphedema: Similarities and Differences.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Thyroid. - Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.. - 1557-9077. ; 21, s. 663-674
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and lymphedema share some pathogenetic mechanisms, such as edema, inflammation, and adipogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine similarities and differences between chronic GO and chronic lymphedema. Methods: Intraorbital adipose tissue was collected from patients with active (n = 10) or chronic GO (n = 10) and thyroid-healthy controls (n = 10). Arm subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained from patients with chronic arm lymphedema (n = 10), where the unaffected arm served as a control. Gene expression was studied using microarray and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The following genes were significantly upregulated (p < 0.05) in lymphedema but not in GO and have functions in wound healing, fibrosis, fat metabolism, inflammation, differentiation, development, adhesion, and the cytoskeleton: ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 1 (ABCG1), actin, alpha 2, smooth muscle, aorta (ACTA2), secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2), tenascin C (TNC), pentraxin-related gene, rapidly induced by IL-1 beta (PTX3), and carboxypeptidase X (M14 family), member 1 (CPMX1). In chronic GO, but not in lymphedema, adipocyte-related immediate early genes known to be overexpressed in patients with active GO were upregulated but at a lower level than previously shown for the active phase. Genes of the Wnt pathway, such as secreted frizzled-related protein 1, 2, and 3, were up- and downregulated in both chronic GO and lymphedema. Parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) was downregulated (p = 0.01) and apolipoprotein L domain containing 1 (APOLD1) was upregulated (p = 0.05) in both active and chronic GO. Conclusions: There are more differences than similarities between chronic ophthalmopathy and chronic lymphedema, but both conditions exhibit less inflammation and adipogenesis compared to the active phases. In lymphedema, fibrosis dominates. PTHLH, which can inhibit adipogenesis, is downregulated both in active and chronic ophthalmopathy, indicating the possibility of an increased risk of adipogenesis.
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  • Saxena, Richa, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analysis identifies loci for type 2 diabetes and triglyceride levels
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Science. - The American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 1095-9203. ; 316:5829, s. 1331-1336
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • New strategies for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) require improved insight into disease etiology. We analyzed 386,731 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1464 patients with T2D and 1467 matched controls, each characterized for measures of glucose metabolism, lipids, obesity, and blood pressure. With collaborators (FUSION and WTCCC/UKT2D), we identified and confirmed three loci associated with T2D - in a noncoding region near CDKN2A and CDKN2B, in an intron of IGF2BP2, and an intron of CDKAL1 - and replicated associations near HHEX and in SLC30A8 found by a recent whole-genome association study. We identified and confirmed association of a SNP in an intron of glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) with serum triglycerides. The discovery of associated variants in unsuspected genes and outside coding regions illustrates the ability of genome-wide association studies to provide potentially important clues to the pathogenesis of common diseases.
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