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1.
  • A, Komonen, et al. (författare)
  • Insects associated with fruit bodies of the wood-decaying fungus Oak mazegill (Daedalea quercina) in mixed oak forests in southern Sweden
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Entomologisk Tidskrift. - 0013-886X. ; 133:4, s. 173-181
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Polypores host species rich insect assemblages, but relatively few polypore species have been studied in detail. We investigated insect assemblages associated with the fruit bodies of Daedalea quercina, a specialist species on oak in southern Sweden. Fruit bodies (n = 228) were collected from 25 nature reserves and woodland key habitats, and were taken into the laboratory to collect emerging insects. A total of 245 insect individuals were recorded, belonging to at least 45 species. The numerically dominant fungivores were the tineid moths Montescardia tessulatella (n = 38 individuals) and Nemapogon fungivorellus (n = 10) and the coleopteran Ennearthron cornutum (Ciidae) (n = 44). Altogether 40 individuals of hymenopteran parasitoids were recorded, belonging to Braconidae (Exothecinae, Microgastrinae and Rogadinae, altogether 6 spp.), Ichneumonidae (Banchinae, Cryptinae and Orthocentrinae, altogether 4 spp.), Torymidae (1 sp.), Perilampidae (1 sp.) and Scelionidae (1 sp.). Most of the remaining insect species are not specifically associated with fruit bodies, but occupy many types of decaying material. In conclusion, D. quercina hosted a low number of insect individuals in general and only a few coleopteran species. The fungus apparently has only one specialist species, N. fungivorellus, which is a near-threatened (NT) species on the Swedish red list; the record from Norra Vi is the first from the Jönköping. The overall low number of insect individuals and the dominance of Lepidoptera among the fungivores is possibly explained by the tough fruit bodies of D. quercina, which only moths are able to utilize; fruit bodies which had already started to rot were devoid of moths.
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2.
  • A. Nojima, et al. (författare)
  • Calculational aspects of electron-phonon coupling at surfaces
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: J. Phys: Condens. Matter. - 1361-648X. ; 20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We study the validity of two frequently used approximations in calculations of electron–phonon coupling at surfaces. The rigid-ion approximation is a standard approximation used for the bulk metals. On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we find that for Be this approximation is as valid for surface atoms as for bulk atoms. In addition, the slab method for calculations of a phonon induced surface state lifetime is examined. The convergence of the electron–phonon matrix element with respect to the thickness of the slab is studied for several systems. When the number of slab layers is increased, the net effect of decreasing overlap and increasing number of final states depends strongly on the decay length of the surface state wavefunction and the band structure.
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3.
  • A.O., Tillmar, et al. (författare)
  • Using X-chromosomal markers in relationship testing: : How to calculate likelihood ratios taking linkage and linkage disequilibrium into account
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Forensic Science International : Genetics. - Elsevier. - 1872-4973. ; 5:5, s. 506-511
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • X-chromosomal markers in forensic genetics have become more widely used during the recent years, particularly for relationship testing. Linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) must typically be accounted for when using close X-chromosomal markers. Thus, when producing the weight-of-evidence, given by a DNA-analysis with markers that are linked, the normally used product rule is invalid. Here we present an efficient model for calculating likelihood ratio (LR) with markers on the X-chromosome which are linked and in LD. Furthermore, the model was applied on several cases based on data from the eight X-chromosomal loci included in the Mentype® Argus X-8 (Biotype). Using a simulation approach we showed that the use of X-chromosome data can offer valuable information for choosing between the alternatives in each of the cases we studied, and that the LR can be high in several cases. We demonstrated that when linkage and LD were disregarded, as opposed to taken into account, the difference in calculated LR could be considerable. When these differences were large, the estimated haplotype frequencies often had a strong impact and we present a method to estimate haplotype frequencies. Our conclusion is that linkage and LD should be accounted for when using the tested set of markers, and the presented model is an efficient way of doing so.
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4.
  • A, Teschendorff, et al. (författare)
  • The dynamics of DNA methylation covariation patterns in carcinogenesis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS Computational Biology. - 1553-734X. ; 10:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recently it has been observed that cancer tissue is characterised by an increased variability in DNA methylation patterns. However, how the correlative patterns in genome-wide DNA methylation change during the carcinogenic progress has not yet been explored. Here we study genome-wide inter-CpG correlations in DNA methylation, in addition to single site variability, during cervical carcinogenesis. We demonstrate how the study of changes in DNA methylation covariation patterns across normal, intra-epithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer allows the identification of CpG sites that indicate the risk of neoplastic transformation in stages prior to neoplasia. Importantly, we show that the covariation in DNA methylation at these risk CpG loci is maximal immediately prior to the onset of cancer, supporting the view that high epigenetic diversity in normal cells increases the risk of cancer. Consistent with this, we observe that invasive cancers exhibit increased covariation in DNA methylation at the risk CpG sites relative to normal tissue, but lower levels relative to pre-cancerous lesions. We further show that the identified risk CpG sites undergo preferential DNA methylation changes in relation to human papilloma virus infection and age. Results are validated in independent data including prospectively collected samples prior to neoplastic transformation. Our data are consistent with a phase transition model of carcinogenesis, in which epigenetic diversity is maximal prior to the onset of cancer. The model and algorithm proposed here may allow, in future, network biomarkers predicting the risk of neoplastic transformation to be identified.
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7.
  • Aaro Jonsson, Catherine C, et al. (författare)
  • Variability in quality of life 13 years after traumatic brain injury in childhood
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. - Wolters Kluwer. - 0342-5282. ; 37:4, s. 317-322
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With the aim of describing variability in the long-term outcome of quality of life after neurosurgically treated pediatric traumatic brain injury, mostly self-reports of 21 individuals with mild or moderate/severe injury were gathered using Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory in telephone interviews 13 years aftyer injury. A majority of the participants reported brain injury-related problems. The median outcome on Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory was mild to moderate limitations. The variation within the moderate/severe group varied between relatively good outcome and moderate/severe limitations. Concentration, irritability, fatigue, and transportation were reported as the most problematic areas, whereas self-care was reported as well functioning. Societal participation appeared to be the best functional domain in this Swedish study. Examples of individual reports of the life-situation at various outcome levels were provided. Variability in outcome is large within severity groups, and research may gain by addressing both outcomes of the individuals and groups. Objective questions of outcome should be accompanied by questions of actual functioning in everyday life. To ensure long-term support for quality of life for those with remaining dysfunction after pediatric traumatic brain injury, healthcare systems should implement systematic routines for referral to rehabilitation and support.
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8.
  • Aaro Jonsson, Catherine, 1963-, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term cognitive outcome after neurosurgically treated childhood traumatic brain injury
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Brain Injury. - Taylor & Francis. - 0269-9052. ; 23:13-14, s. 1008-1016
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To explore the cognitive long term outcome of two cohorts of patients neurosurgically treated for childhood traumatic brain injury (CTBI), either in 1987-1991 according to an older concept, or 1997-2001 with a stronger emphasis on volume targeted interventions. Research design and methods: Participants in the two cohorts were subject to an extensive neuropsychological assessment, 13.2 and 6.1 years post injury, respectively. In a between group design, assessment results of the two cohorts, n 18 and n 23, were compared to each other and to controls. Data were analyzed with multivariate analyses of variance. Results: Long-term cognitive deficits for both groups of similar magnitude and character were observed in both groups. Abilities were especially low regarding executive and memory function and verbal IQ. The cognitive results are discussed in terms of  vulnerability of verbal functions and decreased executive control over memory-functions. Conclusions: There is a definite need for long term follow up of cognitive deficits after neurosurgically treated CTBI, also with the newer neurosurgical concept. Verbal learning and the executive control over memory functions should be addressed with interventions aimed at restoration, coping and compensation.
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9.
  • Aaro Jonsson, Catherine, 1963-, et al. (författare)
  • Neuropsychological progress during 14 years after severe traumatic brain injury in childhood and adolescence
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Brain Inj. - 0269-9052. ; 18:9, s. 921
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To investigate the impact of time since injury on  neuropsychological and psychosocial outcome after serious TBI in childhood or adolescence. Methods: The subjects were eight patients with serious TBI sustained at a mean age of 14 years who had been assessed neuropsychological at one, seven and 14 years after TBI. A retrospective longitudinal design was chosen to describe the development in six neuropsychological domains on basis of the assessments. Psychosocial data were gathered from clinical knowledge and a semi-structured interview at 14 years after TBI. Results: Performance of verbal IQ shows a declining trend over the three assessments, that the performance of attention and working memory is low and that verbal learning is the cognitive domain, which exhibits the largest impairments. The main psychosocial result is that three of the eight subjects go from a school situation with no adjustments to adult life with an early retirement. Conclusions: Time since insult is an important factor when assessing outcome after TBI in childhood and adolescence and that assessment of final outcome should not be done before adulthood.
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10.
  • Aars, M, et al. (författare)
  • A conceptual framework for curriculum design in physiotherapy education - An international perspective
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Advances in Physiotherapy. - 1403-8196. ; 5:4, s. 161-168
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Globalization is having a significant impact on healthcare and physiotherapy education, among other sectors, can benefit from this trend. The main aim of this work was to develop and describe a conceptual framework for physiotherapy curriculum design and, in doing so, to stimulate international debate on physiotherapy education. The framework was developed through an international collaboration and was tried out in the participating schools in order to refine it further. The current framework consists of three elements to be taken into account in physiotherapy curriculum design: (1) The content aspect or the knowledge base of physiotherapy, (2) the learning aspect or the student's learning process, and (3) the socio-cultural context aspect, which concerns the way in which physiotherapy is experienced and practised. The content aspect includes a description of core concepts of physiotherapy: body, movement and interaction, and acknowledges that physiotherapy should be science-based. The learning aspect and the socio-cultural context aspect form separate parts of the framework. Nonetheless, all aspects are intertwined and reflect theory-practice integration. This framework is offered for critical reflection and as the basis for a debate on the development and evaluation of physiotherapy programmes. Further work is needed in testing the relevance of this framework for curriculum design in different countries and setting.
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