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Sökning: WFRF:(Holmér Ingvar) > Lunds universitet

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  • Afanasieva, Ralemma, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative evaluation of the methods for determining thermal insulation of clothing ensemble on a manikin and person
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Arbete och hälsa. - National Institute for Working Life. - 0346-7821. - 91-7045-559-7 ; :2000:8, s. 188-191
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Experimental studies helped to compare methods for determining and calculating total heat resistance of clothing sets accepted by Russian and international standards. Findings are that difference in the total heat resistance values calculated on humans and on dummies in relatively still air and quiet conditions is caused by measurement technique applied. Significant difference in the total heat resistance values calculated in windy conditions or during walk require further research aimed to study influence of those factors on clothes' heat resistance.
  • Gavhed, Désirée, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of the number of thermal layers on the clothing insulation of a cold-protective ensemble
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Arbete och hälsa. - National Institute for Working Life. - 0346-7821. - 91-7045-559-7 ; :2000:8, s. 167-170
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The required thermal insulation in cold conditions and time limits for cold exposure can be predicted by the thermal index IREQ/DLE (Insulation REQuired), described in ISO/TR-11079. The thermal insulation of a clothing ensemble can be measured with a thermal manikin or estimated according to ISO 9920. The basic thermal insulation of single garments (Iclu) can be summated to estimate the basic insulation (Icl) of a whole clothing ensemble. Air that is trapped in the garments may escape when layers are added to a single layer. Then, the insulation would be reduced. Addition of thermal layers to an ensemble is therefore not likely to have a simple additive effect on the thermal insulation of a multi-layer ensemble. The purpose of the study was to investigate the resulting thermal insulation of clothing ensembles with different numbers of thermal underwear and the relative contribution of the underwear to the insulation of a cold-protection clothing ensemble. The basic insulation, Icl, of different combinations of knitted sweaters and pants manufactured from various qualities of "Ullfrotte" (wool and synthetic fibres mixed), a heavy insulated coverall (HIC) and a less insulated coverall were measured on a standing thermal manikin at low air velocity. Seven pieces of clothing, sweaters, pants and coveralls were combined in different numbers of layers (1-6 layers). The garments were measured together with double pairs of thick socks, gloves and a hood. The resulting Icl of layers of knitted underwear was not purely the sum of Icl of the layers measured and worn as single layers. For example, the sum of Icl for U2 sweater/U2 pants and U4 sweater /U4 pants was 0.29 clo (0.045 m2°C /W) higher than Icl of the combination of U2+U4 sweaters/U2+U4 pants, which corresponded to 22 % of the insulation of the single layers added together. A third layer worn under CHI on the upper body barely contributed to Icl, only by 0.05 clo compared with two layers. A corresponding relevant table value would be about 0.30 clo (0.046 m2°C /W). In conclusion, the basic insulation of knitted wear combined in layers were 22-31 % lower than Icl of the sum of the garments in single layer. The insulation values of multi-layered clothing ensembles would be overestimated by summation of the Iclu of garments according to ISO 9920. The overestimation leads to wrong recommendations of cold-protective clothing or working time limits, at least during standing, but probably also during physical activity.
  • Gavhed, Désirée, et al. (författare)
  • Thermal insulation of multi-layer clothing ensembles measured on a thermal manikin and estimated by six individuals using the summation method in ISO 9920
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Arbete och hälsa. - National Institute for Working Life. - 0346-7821. - 91-7045-559-7 ; :2000:8, s. 171-174
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The thermal insulation of a clothing ensemble can be measured with a thermal manikin or estimated according to ISO 9920. In ISO 9920 there are insulation tables for a number of clothing ensembles with specified garments and other tables for a variety of single garments. The insulation of single garments can be summated to estimate the insulation for a clothing ensemble. However, when a clothing ensemble consists of multiple layers, the summation of the insulation of single garments may overestimate the ensemble insulation since the air volume between the layers and between the fibres is probably reduced. The purpose of this study was to investigate the error of the estimate of the insulation of cold-protective clothing ensembles comprising two or more clothing layers and the inter-rater reliability of the estimate. Two coveralls, sweaters, thermal pants, t-shirt, socks, gloves, hood and helmet were combined into seven clothing ensembles. The thermal insulation of the ensembles was measured on a standing thermal manikin. The insulation of all combinations were estimated by six individuals ("raters") instructed to use tables in ISO 9920. Five out of six raters underestimated the basic insulation (Icl) of most clothing ensembles. The maximal deviation of the estimated basic thermal insulation (IclEST) from the measured basic thermal insulation (IclMEAS) was 67 % (underestimation). IclMEAS of four ensembles was underestimated by on average 15 %, one ensemble was overestimated by on average 10 % and the average IclEST of two ensembles were similar to IclMEAS. One rater systematically overestimated IclMEAS. Contrary to the other raters, this individual used the fabric of the garment as a determinant for the insulation estimate. The insulation of the ensemble with only one layer on the upper and lower body beneath a heavy insulated coverall seemed to be most difficult to estimate correctly. The smaller garments (helmet, gloves, socks and hood) gave the highest variability among the raters, coefficient of variation 23-73 %. The raters commented that the tables were badly organised and that many types of garments were lacking in the tables, e g heavy insulated coverall and boots. In conclusion, the estimations of insulation were more accurate for the ensembles with lower insulation and with only one layer beneath the outer shell than for ensembles with higher insulation and multiple layers. The tables were considered to be difficult to use by the raters. Experience tended to improve the estimates of thermal insulation.
  • Geng, Qiuqing, et al. (författare)
  • Manual performance after gripping cold surfaces with and without gloves
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Arbete och hälsa. - National Institute for Working Life. - 0346-7821. - 91-7045-559-7 ; :2000:8, s. 208-211
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The European Directives on personal protective devices have increased the interest in protective and functional properties of work clothing and intensified standardisation work as well as stimulated research in areas with limited knowledge. There is a long tradition of research and information exchange in the Nordic countries on the subject. The NOrdisk KOrdineringsgruppe om BEskyttelseskläder som TEknisk Forebyggelsesmiddel (Nordic Coordination Group on Protective Clothing as a Technical Preventive Measure) was founded in 1984. NOKOBETEF is an independent society of professionals from the Nordic as well as other countries. NOKOBETEF has since its foundation organised symposia in Copenhagen (1984), Stockholm (1986), Gausdal, Norway (1989), Kittilä, Finland (1992), and Elsinor, Denmark (1997). The conferences have long had a good attendance from European countries and from overseas. The 6th Nokobetef conference was organised as the 1st European Conference on Protective Clothing to emphasize the European dimension. During the conference the European Society for Protective Clothing was founded. One of its first tasks will be to prepare for the 2nd conference to be held in Switzerland in 2003. The proceedings of this conference cover a broad spectrum of the subject protective clothing. Emphasis was given to the ergonomics aspects, which is in line with the present interest and priorities of the European standardisation bodies (CEN). A functional and comfortable use of protective clothing is a key element for a succesful implementation of this kind of preventive and protective measures in the workplaces. A total of 77 papers are presented in this book. They represent a qualified source of new, valuable and useful information for the advancement of the knowledge and the application of protective clothing.
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