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Sökning: WFRF:(Holmér Ingvar) > Lunds universitet

  • Resultat 1-10 av 138
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  • Geng, Qiuqing, et al. (författare)
  • Temperature limit values for touching cold surfaces with the fingertip
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene. - Oxford University Press. - 0003-4878. ; 50:8, s. 851-862
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: At the request of the European Commission and in the framework of the European Machinery Directive, research was performed in five different laboratories to develop specifications for surface temperature limit values for the short-term accidental touching of the fingertip with cold surfaces. Methods: Data were collected in four laboratories with a total of 20 males and 20 females performing a grand total of 1655 exposures. Each touched polished blocks of aluminium, stainless steel, nylon-6 and wood using the distal phalanx of the index finger with a contact force of 1.0, 2.9 and 9.8 N, at surface temperatures from +2 to -40 degrees C for a maximum duration of 120 s. Conditions were selected in order to elicit varying rates of skin cooling upon contact. Contact temperature (T-C) of the fingertip was measured over time using a T-type thermocouple. Results: A database obtained from the experiments was collated and analysed to characterize fingertip contact cooling across a range of materials and surface temperatures. The database was subsequently used to develop a predictive model to describe the contact duration required for skin contact temperature to reach the physiological criteria of onset of pain (15 degrees C), onset of numbness (7 degrees C) and onset of frostbite risk (0 degrees C). Conclusions: The data reflect the strong link between the risk of skin damage and the thermal properties of the material touched. For aluminium and steel, skin temperatures of 0 degrees C occurs within 2-6 s at surface temperatures of -15 degrees C. For non-metallic surfaces, onset of numbness occurs within 15-65 s of contact at -35 degrees C and onset of cold pain occurs within 5 s of contact at -20 degrees C. The predictive model subsequently developed was a non-linear exponential expression also reflecting the effects of material thermal properties and initial temperature. This model provides information for the protection of workers against the risk of cold injury by establishing the temperature limits of cold touchable surfaces for a broad range of materials, and it is now proposed as guidance values in a new international standard.
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  • Holmer, I, et al. (författare)
  • Classification of metabolic and respiratory demands in fire fighting activity with extreme workloads
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics. - Elsevier. - 0003-6870. ; 38:1, s. 45-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fire fighting work comprises work tasks requiring an energy yield at maximal or close to maximal levels of the individual. Due to the very nature of fire fighting more complex physiological variables are difficult to measure. We measured metabolic and respiratory responses in 15 male.. professional fire fighters during simulated work tasks on a test ground. Work time was on the average 22 min with individual components of work tasks lasting 2-4 min. The mean oxygen consumption for the whole exercise (22 min) was 2.75 +/- 0.291/min. The most demanding work task demanded an oxygen uptake of 3.55 +/- 0.271/min. Corresponding values for respiratory minute volumes were 82 +/- 14 and 102 +/- 141/min, respectively. Heart rates averaged 168 +/- 12 for the whole test and 179 +/- 13 beats/min for the heaviest work task. Two new classes for classification of intensive and exhausting, short term physical work are proposed for inclusion in ISO8996 and values for relevant parameters are proposed. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Bohgard, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Fysikaliska faktorer
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Arbete och teknik på människans villkor. - Prevent. - 978-91-7365-037-3 ; s. 191-307
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • Bohgard, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Physical Factors
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Work and Technology on Human Terms. - Prevent. - 978-91-7365-058-8 ; s. 191-306
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • Broede, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI Compared to Ergonomics Standards for Assessing the Thermal Environment
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Industrial Health. - National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan. - 0019-8366. ; 51:1, s. 16-24
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The growing need for valid assessment procedures of the outdoor thermal environment in the fields of public weather services, public health systems, urban planning, tourism & recreation and climate impact research raised the idea to develop the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI based on the most recent scientific progress both in thermo-physiology and in heat exchange theory. Following extensive validation of accessible models of human thermoregulation, the advanced multi-node 'Fiala' model was selected to form the basis of UTCI. This model was coupled with an adaptive clothing model which considers clothing habits by the general urban population and behavioral changes in clothing insulation related to actual environmental temperature. UTCI was developed conceptually as an equivalent temperature. Thus, for any combination of air temperature, wind, radiation, and humidity, UTCI is defined as the air temperature in the reference condition which would elicit the same dynamic response of the physiological model. This review analyses the sensitivity of UTCI to humidity and radiation in the heat and to wind in the cold and compares the results with observational studies and internationally standardized assessment procedures. The capabilities, restrictions and potential future extensions of UTCI are discussed.
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  • Bröde, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Deriving the operational procedure for the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI)
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Biometeorology. - Springer. - 0020-7128. ; 56:3, s. 481-494
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) aimed for a one-dimensional quantity adequately reflecting the human physiological reaction to the multi-dimensionally defined actual outdoor thermal environment. The human reaction was simulated by the UTCI-Fiala multi-node model of human thermoregulation, which was integrated with an adaptive clothing model. Following the concept of an equivalent temperature, UTCI for a given combination of wind speed, radiation, humidity and air temperature was defined as the air temperature of the reference environment, which according to the model produces an equivalent dynamic physiological response. Operationalising this concept involved (1) the definition of a reference environment with 50% relative humidity (but vapour pressure capped at 20 hPa), with calm air and radiant temperature equalling air temperature and (2) the development of a one-dimensional representation of the multivariate model output at different exposure times. The latter was achieved by principal component analyses showing that the linear combination of 7 parameters of thermophysiological strain (core, mean and facial skin temperatures, sweat production, skin wettedness, skin blood flow, shivering) after 30 and 120 min exposure time accounted for two-thirds of the total variation in the multi-dimensional dynamic physiological response. The operational procedure was completed by a scale categorising UTCI equivalent temperature values in terms of thermal stress, and by providing simplified routines for fast but sufficiently accurate calculation, which included look-up tables of pre-calculated UTCI values for a grid of all relevant combinations of climate parameters and polynomial regression equations predicting UTCI over the same grid. The analyses of the sensitivity of UTCI to humidity, radiation and wind speed showed plausible reactions in the heat as well as in the cold, and indicate that UTCI may in this regard be universally useable in the major areas of research and application in human biometeorology.
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