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  • Peolsson, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Modelling human musculoskeletal functional movements using ultrasound imaging
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Imaging. - 1471-2342. ; 10, s. 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A widespread and fundamental assumption in the health sciences is that muscle functions are related to a wide variety of conditions, for example pain, ischemic and neurological disorder, exercise and injury. It is therefore highly desirable to study musculoskeletal contributions in clinical applications such as the treatment of muscle injuries, post-surgery evaluations, monitoring of progressive degeneration in neuromuscular disorders, and so on.The spatial image resolution in ultrasound systems has improved tremendously in the last few years and nowadays provides detailed information about tissue characteristics. It is now possible to study skeletal muscles in real-time during activity.Methods: The ultrasound images are transformed to be congruent and are effectively compressed and stacked in order to be analysed with multivariate techniques. The method is applied to a relevant clinical orthopaedic research field, namely to describe the dynamics in the Achilles tendon and the calf during real-time movements.Results: This study introduces a novel method to medical applications that can be used to examine ultrasound image sequences and to detect, visualise and quantify skeletal muscle dynamics and functions.Conclusions: This new objective method is a powerful tool to use when visualising tissue activity and dynamics of musculoskeletal ultrasound registrations.
  • Sjöström, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Internet-based treatment of stress urinary incontinence 1- and 2-year results of a randomized controlled trial with a focus on pelvic floor muscle training.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BJU International. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1464-4096. ; 116:6, s. 955-964
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term effects of two non-face-to-face treatment programmes for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) based on pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT).SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The present study was a randomized controlled trial with online recruitment of 250 community-dwelling women aged 18-70 years with SUI ≥ one time/week. Diagnosis was based on validated self-assessed questionnaires, 2-day bladder diary and telephone interview with a urotherapist. Consecutive computer-generated block randomization was carried out with allocation by an independent administrator to 3 months of treatment with either an internet-based treatment programme (n = 124) or a programme sent by post (n = 126). Both interventions focused mainly on PFMT. The internet group received continuous e-mail support from a urotherapist, whereas the postal group trained on their own. Follow-up was performed after 1 and 2 years via self-assessed postal questionnaires. The primary outcomes were symptom severity (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form [ICIQ-UI SF]) and condition-specific quality of life (ICIQ-Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Quality of Life [ICIQ-LUTSqol]). Secondary outcomes were the Patient Global Impression of Improvement, health-specific quality of life (EQ-visual analogue scale [EQ-VAS]), use of incontinence aids, and satisfaction with treatment. There was no face-to-face contact with the participants at any time. Analysis was based on intention-to-treat.RESULTS: We lost 32.4% (81/250) of participants to follow-up after 1 year and 38.0% (95/250) after 2 years. With both interventions, we observed highly significant (P < 0.001) improvements with large effect sizes (>0.8) for symptoms and condition-specific quality of life (QoL) after 1 and 2 years, respectively. No significant differences were found between the groups. The mean (sd) changes in symptom score were 3.7 (3.3) for the internet group and 3.2 (3.4) for the postal group (P = 0.47) after 1 year, and 3.6 (3.5) for the internet group and 3.4 (3.3) for the postal group (P = 0.79) after 2 years. The mean changes (sd) in condition-specific QoL were 5.5 (6.5) for the internet group and 4.7 the for postal group (6.5) (P = 0.55) after 1 year, and 6.4 (6.0) for the internet group and 4.8 (7.6) for the postal group (P = 0.28) after 2 years. The proportions of participants perceiving they were much or very much improved were similar in both intervention groups after 1 year (internet, 31.9% [28/88]; postal, 33.8% [27/80], P = 0.82), but after 2 years significantly more participants in the internet group reported this degree of improvement (39.2% [29/74] vs 23.8% [19/80], P = 0.03). Health-specific QoL improved significantly in the internet group after 2 years (mean change in EQ-VAS, 3.8 [11.4], P = 0.005). We found no other significant improvements in this measure. At 1 year after treatment, 69.8% (60/86) of participants in the internet group and 60.5% (46/76) of participants in the postal group reported that they were still satisfied with the treatment result. After 2 years, the proportions were 64.9% (48/74) and 58.2% (46/79), respectively.CONCLUSION: Non-face-to-face treatment of SUI with PFMT provides significant and clinically relevant improvements in symptoms and condition-specific QoL at 1 and 2 years after treatment.
  • Carlsson, Annica, et al. (författare)
  • Scoring of Hand Eczema : : Good reliability of the Hand Eeczema Extent Score (HEES)
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Acta Dermato-Venereologica. - Medical Journals Limited. - 0001-5555. ; 97:2, s. 193-197
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is good agreement between dermatological staff and patients using the Hand Eczema Extent Score (HEES). The aim of this study was to assess inter- and intra-observer reliability of the HEES in dermatologists and intra-observer reliability of the HEES in patients with hand eczema. Six dermatologists assessed 18 patients twice. Only the hands of the patients were visible to the assessors. Patients performed a self-assessment twice. Inter- and intra-observer reliability was tested with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The mean HEES score for all dermatologists’ assessments was 21.0 (range 3.6–46.3). The corresponding mean scores for all patients’ own assessments were 24.9 (range 4.0–54.0). Inter-observer reliability in the dermatologists’ observations ICC classification was very good, median value 0.82 (range 0.56–0.92). The overall intra-observer reliability for the 6 der matologists’ ICC classification was very good (range 0.88–0.94). Intra-observer reliability in the patients’ 2 self-assessments ICC classification was very good (ICC 0.95). In conclusion, HEES is a reliable tool for both dermatologists and patients to grade the extent of hand eczema.
  • Brink, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Multiplex analyses of antibodies against citrullinated peptides in individuals prior to development of rheumatoid arthritis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Arthritis and Rheumatism. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0004-3591. ; 65:4, s. 899-910
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The presence of antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides has been demonstrated to precede the symptom onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by several years. Antibodies against 10 citrullinated autoantigen-derived peptides were analysed for reactivity before onset of symptoms. METHODS: In the Medical Biobank of Northern Sweden 409 individuals were identified, of whom 386 provided 717 samples, obtained before onset of symptoms of RA (median time 7.4 (IQR 9.3) years); 1305 population based controls were also identified. Antibodies to 10 citrullinated peptides; fibrinogen (Fib) Fibα573, Fibα591, Fibß36-52, Fibß72, Fibß74, α-enolase (CEP-1), Type II Collagen citC1(III) , filaggrin, vimentin (Vim)2-17, and Vim60-75 were analysed using a microarray system. RESULTS: The antibody fluorescence intensity of Fibß36-52, Fibß74, CEP-1, citC1(III) , and filaggrin was significantly increased in pre-disease individuals compared with controls (p<0.001). The levels of the earliest detectable antibodies (Fibα591 and Vim60-75) fluctuated over time, with only a slight increase after onset of disease. Antibodies against Fibß36-52, CEP-1 and filaggrin increased gradually reaching the highest levels of all antibodies before symptom onset. A cluster of antibodies, citC1(III) , Fibα573 and Fibß74 increased only slightly before onset of symptoms but prominently after disease onset. The odds ratio for development of RA with a combination of CEP-1 and Fibß36-52 antibodies (<3.35 years pre-dating) was 38.8 (CI95%14.5-103.5) compared with having either. CONCLUSION: Development of an immune response towards citrullinated peptides is initially restricted but expands with time to induce a more specific response with increasing levels towards onset of symptoms, particularly invoving antibodies against CEP-1, Fibß36-52 and filaggrin.
  • Dapi N., Léonie, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Energy and nutrient intakes in relation to sex and socio-economic status among school adolescents in urban Cameroon, Africa.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Public health nutrition. - 1475-2727. ; 14:5, s. 904-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To assess energy and nutrient intakes and physical activity of adolescents in urban Cameroon according to sex and socio-economic status (SES). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with adolescents randomly selected from schools in low-, middle- and high-SES areas. Weight and height were measured and information about food intake and physical activity was obtained through repeated individual 24 h recalls. Under- and over-reporting of energy intake and inadequacy of nutrient intake were assessed. SETTING: Yaoundé, Cameroon. SUBJECTS: Boys and girls aged 12-16 years (n 227). RESULTS: Boys had a lower BMI and reported higher energy expenditures and physical activity levels (PAL) than girls. Under-reporting of energy intake was large among boys and girls regardless of PAL; boys under-reported more than girls. Among those with low PAL, over-reporting of energy intake was common. Over 50 % of boys and girls had protein below the recommendations. The intake of fat varied; 26 % of the adolescents were below and 25 % were above the recommendations. Inadequate intakes of vitamin B1, vitamin B3 and Fe were more common among girls, while boys more often had inadequate intake of vitamin A. Adolescents with low SES were more likely to be below the recommendations for fat and vitamins B2, B3, B6 and B12 than those with high SES. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of boys and girls reported inadequate intakes. However under- and over-reporting were also very common. Boys under-reported energy intake more than girls and inadequate nutrient intake was more frequently reported by adolescents with low SES than by those with high SES.
  • Gorzsás, András, et al. (författare)
  • Cell specific chemotyping and multivariate imaging by combined FT-IR microspectroscopy and OPLS analysis reveals the chemical landscape of secondary xylem
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Plant Journal. - Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0960-7412. ; 66:5, s. 903-914
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy combined with microscopy enables acquiring chemical information from native plant cell walls with high spatial resolution. Combined with a 64 x 64 focal plane array (FPA) detector 4096 spectra from a 0.3 x 0.3 mm image can be simultaneously obtained, where each spectrum represents a compositional and structural "fingerprint" of all cell wall components. For optimal use and analysis of such large amount of information, multivariate approaches are preferred. Here, FT-IR microspectroscopy with FPA detection is combined with orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). This allows for 1) the extraction of spectra from specific cell types, 2) identification and characterization of different chemotypes using the full spectral information, and 3) further visualising the pattern of identified chemotypes by multivariate imaging. As proof of concept, the chemotypes of Populus tremula xylem cell types are described. The approach revealed unknown features about chemical plasticity and patterns of lignin composition in wood fibers that would have remained hidden in the dataset with traditional data analysis. The applicability of the method on Arabidopsis xylem, and its usefulness in mutant chemotyping is also demonstrated. The methodological approach is not limited to xylem tissues but can be applied to any plant organ/tissue also using other microspectroscopy techniques such as Raman- and UV-microspectroscopy.
  • Myléus, Anna, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Celiac disease revealed in 3% of Swedish 12-year-olds born during an epidemic
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN. - New York : Raven P. - 0277-2116. ; 49:2, s. 170-176
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objetive: Sweden experienced a marked epidemic of celiac disease between 1984 and 1996 in children younger than 2 years of age, partly explained by changes in infant feeding. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of celiac disease in 12-year-olds born during the epidemic (1993), including both symptomatic and screening detected cases.Patients and methods: All sixth-grade children in participating schools were invited (n = 10,041). Symptomatic and, therefore, previously diagnosed celiac disease cases were ascertained through the National Swedish Childhood Celiac Disease Register and/or medical records. All serum samples were analyzed for antihuman tissue transglutaminase (tTG)-IgA (Celikey), and serum-IgA, and some for tTG-IgG and endomysial antibodies. A small intestinal biopsy was recommended for all children with suspected undiagnosed celiac disease.Results: Participation was accepted by 7567 families (75%). Previously diagnosed celiac disease was found in 67 children; 8.9/1000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.7-11). In another 192 children, a small intestinal biopsy was recommended and was performed in 180. Celiac disease was verified in 145 children, 20/1000 (95% CI 17-23). The total prevalence was 29/1000 (95% CI 25-33).Conclusions: The celiac disease prevalence of 29/1000 (3%)-with two thirds of cases undiagnosed before screening-is 3-fold higher than the usually suggested prevalence of 1%. When these 12-year-olds were infants, the prevailing feeding practice was to introduce gluten abruptly, often without ongoing breast-feeding, which might have contributed to this unexpectedly high prevalence.
  • Stenlund, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis Modeling on in Situ FT-IR Spectral Imaging of Liver Tissue for Identifying Sources of Variability.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Analytical Chemistry. - 1520-6882. ; 80:18, s. 6898-906
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study, the orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) method was used to assess the in situ chemical composition of two different cell types in mouse liver samples, hepatocytes and erythrocytes. High spatial resolution FT-IR microspectroscopy equipped with a focal plan array (FPA) detector is capable of simultaneously recording over 4000 spectra from 64 x 64 pixels with a maximum spatial resolution of about 5 mum x 5 mum, which allows for the differentiation of individual cells. The main benefit with OPLS-DA lies in the ability to separate predictive variation (between cell type) from variation that is uncorrelated to cell type in order to facilitate understanding of different sources of variation. OPLS-DA was able to differentiate between chemical properties and physical properties (e.g., edge effects). OPLS-DA model interpretation of the chemical features that separated the two cell types clearly highlighted proteins and lipids/bile acids. The modeled variation that was uncorrelated to cell type made up a larger portion of the total variation and displayed strong variability in the amide I region. This could be traced back to a gradient in the high intensity (high-density) areas vs the low intensity areas (close to empty areas) that as a result of normalization had an adverse effect on FT-IR spectral profiles. This highlights that OPLS-DA provides an effective solution to identify different sources of variability, both predictive and uncorrelated, and also facilitates understanding of any sampling, experimental, or preprocessing issues.
  • Thögersen, Anna M, et al. (författare)
  • Interactions between fibrinolysis, lipoproteins and leptin related to a first myocardial infarction.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation. - 1741-8267. ; 11:1, s. 33-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The summarized importance of haemostatic and metabolic variables (insulin, lipids including lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and leptin) in predicting first myocardial infarction, as well as possible interactions among these variables, have not been reported. DESIGN: A prospective case-control study nested within the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Cohort. METHODS: Sixty-two men diagnosed with a first myocardial infarction were sex- and age-matched with 124 controls. Conditional logistic regression was conducted including established risk factors, plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mass concentration, von Willebrand factor, insulin, proinsulin, specific insulin, apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), Lp(a), and leptin. Interaction analysis was also performed for tPA, apo A-I, Lp(a), leptin and proinsulin. RESULTS: Smoking, low plasma levels of apo A-I and high plasma levels of cholesterol, Lp(a), tPA, PAI-1, proinsulin and leptin were associated with myocardial infarction in univariate conditional logistic regression analysis. High tPA [odds ratio (OR), 21.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.04-222] and Lp(a) (OR, 7.21; 95% CI, 1.31-39.8) and low apo A-I (OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.02-0.93) remained significant risk determinants in multivariate analysis with smoking habits, body mass index, hypertension, cholesterol, and diabetes included as covariates. There were non-significant synergic interactions between high Lp(a) and leptin and tPA, respectively, and between high Lp(a) and low apo A-I. CONCLUSION: Plasma levels of tPA, Lp(a), and apo A-I are independently associated with subsequent development of a first myocardial infarction in men.
  • Nyström, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • ICIQ symptom and quality of life instruments measure clinically relevant improvements in women with stress urinary incontinence
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Neurourology and Urodynamics. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0733-2467. ; 34:8, s. 747-751
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: To determine whether changes in questionnaire scores on symptoms and condition-specific quality of life reflect clinically relevant improvements in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI).METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed questionnaires collected during a randomized controlled trial in women with SUI, that received pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) in two different formats. We included 218 women that answered validated self-assessment questionnaires at baseline and at a 4-month follow-up. We registered changes on two questionnaires, the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF) and the Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Quality of Life (ICIQ-LUTSqol). We compared these score changes to responses from the Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) questionnaire. Differences were analyzed with the Spearman rho and one-way-ANOVA. The minimum important difference (MID) was the mean change in score for women that experienced a small improvement.RESULTS: The PGI-I correlated significantly to both the ICIQ-UI SF (r = 0.547, P < 0.0001) and ICIQ-LUTSqol (r = 0.520, P < 0.0001). Thus, larger reductions in symptoms or quality of life scores were associated with greater impressions of improvement. The changes in ICIQ-UI SF and ICIQ-LUTSqol scores were significant across all PGI-I groups from "no change" to "very much improved" (P < 0.05). The MIDs were 2.52 (SD 2.56) for ICIQ-UI SF and 3.71 (SD 4.95) for ICIQ-LUTSqol.CONCLUSIONS: The change in ICIQ-UI SF and ICIQ-LUTSqol scores after PFMT reflected clinically relevant improvements in women with SUI. The MIDs established for this population may facilitate future research, treatment evaluations, and comparisons between studies. 
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