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1.
  • Ahlin, Sofie, 1985-, et al. (författare)
  • Macrophage Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue is Associated with Insulin Sensitivity and Serum Lipid Levels Independent of Obesity.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.). - 1930-739X. ; 21:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Obesity is linked to both increased metabolic disturbances and increased adipose tissue macrophage infiltration. However, whether macrophage infiltration directly influences human metabolism is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are obesity-independent links between adipose tissue macrophages and metabolic disturbances. Design and Methods: Expression of macrophage markers in adipose tissue was analyzed by DNA microarrays in the SOS Sib Pair study and in patients with type 2 diabetes and a BMI-matched healthy control group. Results: The expression of macrophage markers in adipose tissue was increased in obesity and associated with several metabolic and anthropometric measurements. After adjustment for BMI, the expression remained associated with insulin sensitivity, serum levels of insulin, C-peptide, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) and triglycerides. In addition, the expression of most macrophage markers was significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our study shows that infiltration of macrophages in human adipose tissue, estimated by the expression of macrophage markers, is increased in subjects with obesity and diabetes and associated with insulin sensitivity and serum lipid levels independent of BMI. This indicates that adipose tissue macrophages may contribute to the development of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.
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2.
  • Anveden, Åsa, et al. (författare)
  • ITIH-5 Expression in Human Adipose Tissue Is Increased in Obesity.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Obesity. - 1930-7381. ; 20:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adipocytes secrete many proteins that regulate metabolic functions. The gene inter-α (globulin) inhibitor H5 (ITIH-5) encodes a secreted protein and is known to be expressed abundantly in the placenta. However, using gene expression profiles data we observed high expression of ITIH-5 in adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that ITIH-5 is strongly expressed in human adipocytes and adipose tissue, and is related to obesity and clinical metabolic variables. ITIH-5 adipose tissue mRNA expression was analyzed with DNA microarray and real-time PCR, and its association with clinical variables was examined. ITIH-5 protein expression was analyzed using western blot. ITIH-5 mRNA expression was abundant in human adipose tissue, adipocytes, and placenta, and higher in subcutaneous (sc) compared to omental adipose tissue (P < 0.0001). ITIH-5 mRNA and protein expression in sc adipose tissue were higher in obese compared to lean subjects (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001, respectively). ITIH-5 mRNA expression was reduced after diet-induced weight loss (P < 0.0001). ITIH-5 mRNA expression was associated with anthropometry and clinical metabolic variables. In conclusion, ITIH-5 is highly expressed in sc adipose tissue, increased in obesity, down regulated after weight loss, and associated with measures of body size and metabolism. Together, this indicates that ITIH-5 merits further investigation as a regulator of human metabolism.
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3.
  • Berteus Forslund, Helene, 1952-, et al. (författare)
  • Meal patterns and obesity in Swedish women-a simple instrument describing usual meal types, frequency and temporal distribution
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Eur J Clin Nutr. - 0954-3007. ; 56:8, s. 740
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To characterize meal patterns in relation to obesity in Swedish women using a simple instrument describing meal frequency, meal types and temporal distribution. DESIGN: Cross-sectional parallel group design. SUBJECTS: Eighty-three obese women from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study were compared with 94 reference women, randomly recruited from the population. METHOD: A new, simplified and self-instructing questionnaire was used to assess meal patterns. Usual meal pattern was reported as time and meal type for each intake episode during a typical day. RESULTS: The obese women consumed 6.1 meals/day compared with 5.2 meals/day among the reference women (P<0.0001). All types of meals except 'drink meals' were significantly more frequently consumed in the obese group. The obese women also displayed a different meal pattern across the day, consuming a larger number of meals later in the day. As a result a larger fraction of each obese woman's total meals were consumed in the afternoon and in the evening/night. There was no difference in the number of obese vs reference women consuming breakfast. Snack meals were positively associated with total energy intake in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: A new simplified method assessing meal pattern revealed that the number of reported intake occasions across a usual day was higher in obese women compared with controls and the timing was shifted to later in the day. These findings should be considered in the treatment of obesity.
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4.
  • Berteus Forslund, Helene, 1952-, et al. (författare)
  • Snacking frequency in relation to energy intake and food choices in obese men and women compared to a reference population.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: International journal of obesity (2005). - 0307-0565. ; 29:6, s. 711-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To investigate snacking frequency in relation to energy intake and food choices, taking physical activity into account, in obese vs reference men and women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. SUBJECTS: In total, 4259 obese, middle-aged subjects (1891 men and 2368 women) from the baseline examination of the XENDOS study and 1092 subjects (505 men and 587 women) from the SOS reference study were included. MEASUREMENTS: A meal pattern questionnaire describing habitual intake occasions (main meals, light meals/breakfast, snacks, drink-only), a dietary questionnaire describing habitual energy and macronutrient intake and a questionnaire assessing physical activity at work and during leisure time were used. RESULTS: The obese group consumed snacks more frequently compared to the reference group (P<0.001) and women more frequently than men (P<0.001). Energy intake increased with increasing snacking frequency, irrespective of physical activity. Statistically significant differences in trends were found for cakes/cookies, candies/chocolate and desserts for the relation between energy intake and snacking frequency, where energy intake increased more by snacking frequency in obese subjects than in reference subjects. CONCLUSION: Obese subjects were more frequent snackers than reference subjects and women were more frequent snackers than men. Snacks were positively related to energy intake, irrespective of physical activity. Sweet, fatty food groups were associated with snacking and contributed considerably to energy intake. Snacking needs to be considered in obesity treatment, prevention and general dietary recommendations.
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5.
  • Björnheden, Tom, 1945-, et al. (författare)
  • Computerized determination of adipocyte size.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Obesity research. - 1071-7323. ; 12:1, s. 95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Fat cell size is a fundamental parameter in the study of adipose tissue metabolism, because it markedly influences the cellular rates of metabolism. Previous techniques for the sizing of adipocytes are often complicated or time-consuming. The aim of this study was to develop a new, computerized method for rapid and accurate determination of adipocyte size in a cell suspension obtained by incubating human or rat adipose tissue biopsies with collagenase. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The cell suspension was placed between a siliconized glass slide and a cover slip. Using the reference method [designated as (R)], the cell diameters were determined manually using a microscope with a calibrated ocular. The new method presented here [designated as (C)] was based on computerized image analysis. RESULTS: After two well-defined corrective adjustments, measurements with (R) and (C) agreed very well. The small remaining differences seemed, in fact, to depend on inconsistencies in (R). DISCUSSION: We propose that (C) constitutes a valuable tool to study fat cell size, because this method is fast and allows the assessment of a sufficient number of cells to get reliable data on size distribution. Furthermore, images of cell preparations may be stored for future reference.
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6.
  • Brandberg, John, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Accurate tissue area measurements with considerably reduced radiation dose achieved by patient-specific CT scan parameters
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Radiology. - 1748-880X. ; 81:970, s. 801
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A low-dose technique was compared with a standard diagnostic technique for measuring areas of adipose and muscle tissue and CT numbers for muscles in a body composition application. The low-dose technique was intended to keep the expected deviation in the measured area of adipose and muscle tissue to <1% of the total tissue area. The largest diameter of the patient determined the parameters for the low-dose technique. 17 patients - chosen to cover a wide range of diameters (31-47 cm) for both abdomen and thighs - were examined using both techniques. Tissue areas were compared, as were CT numbers for muscle tissue. Image noise was quantified by standard deviation measurements. The area deviation was <1%, except in the smallest subjects, in whom it was <2%. The integral radiation dose of the low-dose technique was reduced to 2-3% for diameters of 31-35 cm and to 7.5-50% for diameters of 36-47 cm as compared with the integral dose by the standard diagnostic technique. The CT numbers of muscle tissue remained unchanged with reduced radiation dose. Image noise was on average 20.9 HU (Hounsfield units) for subjects with diameters of 31-35 cm and 11.2 HU for subjects with diameters in the range of 36-47 cm. In conclusion, for body composition studies with CT, scan protocols can be adjusted so that the integral dose is lowered to 2-60% of the standard diagnostic technique at our centre without adversely altering area measurements of adipose and muscle tissue and without altering CT numbers of muscle tissue.
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7.
  • Brandhagen, Martin, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol and macronutrient intake patterns are related to general and central adiposity.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European journal of clinical nutrition. - 1476-5640. ; 66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Objectives:Alcohol and dietary fat have high energy densities and may therefore be related to body weight and fat deposition. We studied associations between alcohol and macronutrient intake patterns and general and central adiposity.Subjects/Methods:A population-based cross-sectional study of 524 men and 611 women. The participants answered a dietary questionnaire describing habitual food consumption including intake of alcoholic beverages. Macronutrient intake was analysed in relation to anthropometric measures and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry determined body fat.Results:In women, total alcohol intake was negatively associated with body fat percentage (β:-0.67, P<0.01). In men, total alcohol intake was positively associated with sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) (β: 0.28, P=0.01). In addition, positive associations were found between intake of alcohol from spirits and body fat percentage (β: 1.17, P<0.05), SAD (β: 0.52, P<0.05) and waist circumference (β: 2.29, P=0.01). In men, protein intake was positively associated with body mass index (BMI) (β: 0.03, P=0.001), body fat percentage (β: 0.04, P<0.05), SAD (β: 0.02, P=0.01) and waist circumference (β: 0.09, P<0.01). Also in men only, negative associations between fat intake and BMI (β: -0.03, P<0.01), SAD (β: -0.02, P<0.05) and waist circumference (β: -0.05, P<0.05) were found.Conclusions:Alcohol intake was inversely associated to relative body fat in women whereas spirits consumption was positively related to central and general obesity in men. Macronutrient intakes, particularly protein and fat, were differently associated with obesity indicators in men versus women. This may reflect a differential effect by gender, or differential obesity related reporting errors in men and women.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 16 November 2011; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.189.
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8.
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9.
  • Burza, Maria A, et al. (författare)
  • Long-Term Effect of Bariatric Surgery on Liver Enzymes in the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) Study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 8:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Aim: Obesity is associated with elevated serum transaminase levels and non- Methods: The Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study is a prospective controlled intervention study Results: Compared to usual care, bariatric surgery was associated with lower serum ALT and AST levels Conclusions: Bariatric surgery results in a sustained reduction in transaminase levels and a long-term
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10.
  • Burza, Maria A, et al. (författare)
  • PNPLA3 I148M (rs738409) genetic variant is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in obese individuals
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Digestive and Liver Disease. - 1590-8658. ; 44:12, s. 1037-1041
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Obesity is a risk factor for cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma. Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) I148M (rs738409) genetic variant has been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in individuals with chronic alcohol abuse or hepatic viral infection. In the present study we examined the association between the PNPLA3I148M genetic variant and hepatocellular carcinoma in obese individuals from the Swedish Obese Subjects cohort (n=4047). Methods: We performed a matched, prospective, controlled, interventional trial, investigating the effect of bariatric surgery (surgery group) compared to conventional treatment (control group) for obesity. Results: A total of 9 events were observed in the 15-year median follow up (5 in the control group and 4 in the surgery group). A significantly higher incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in PNPLA3 148M allele carriers was found in obese individuals in the control group (log-rank P-value=0.001), but not in the surgery group (log-rank P-value=0.783). Consistently, an increased risk (for each PNPLA3 148M allele, hazard ratio: 5.9; 95% confidence interval 1.5-23.8; P-value=0.013) of developing hepatocellular carcinoma was observed only in the control group. Conclusion: The current study is the first prospective report showing the association of the PNPLA3I148M genetic variant and hepatocellular carcinoma in severely obese individuals.
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