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Sökning: WFRF:(Jonsson Anders) > Konferensbidrag

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  • Ambjörnsson, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Prehospital suspicion and identification of adult septic patients Experiences of a screening tool
  • 2016
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Sepsis is life threatening and requires urgent healthcare to reduce suffering and death. Therefore it is important that septic patients are identified early to enable treatment.Aim: To investigate to what extent EMS personnel identified patients with sepsis using the “BAS 90-30-90” model, and to describe assessments and medical procedures that were undertaken by the personnel.Methods: This was a retrospective study where 185 EMS medical records were reviewed. The inclusion was based on patients who were later diagnosed with sepsis in the hospital.Results: A physician assessed the patients in 74 of the EMS cases, which lead to exclusion of these records in regard to the EMS personnel’s ability to identify sepsis. The personnel documented suspicion of severe sepsis in eight (n=8) of the remaining 111 records (7.2%). The proportion of patients ˃65 years of age was 73% (n=135) of which 37% (n=50) were over 80 years old. Thirty-nine percent (39%, n=72) were females. The personnel documented blood pressure in 91% (n=168), respiratory rate in 76% (n=140), saturation in 100% (n=185), temperature in 76% (n=141), and heart rate in 94% (n=174) of the records. Systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg was documented in 14,2% (n=24), respiratory rate ˃30 in 36% (n=50), saturation <90 in 49%  (n=91), temperature >38°C in 37.6% (n=53), and heart rate ˃90 in 70% (n=121) of the records. Documented medical procedures and treatments were intravenous lines (70%, n=130), intravenous fluids (10%, n=19) and administration of oxygen (72%, n=133).Conclusion: The EMS personnel identified only a few septic patients with the help of the BAS 90-30-90 model when all three criteria would be met for severe sepsis. Either advanced age (>65 years), fever (>38°C) or tachypnea (˃20 breaths/min) appeared to increase the personnel’s suspicion of sepsis. Oxygen, but not intravenous fluids, was given in an adequate way.
  • Bäckström, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • From Macro Plans to Automata Plans
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: ECAI 2012. 20th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 27-31 2012,  August, Montpellier, France. - 978-1-61499-097-0 - 978-1-61499-098-7 ; s. 91-96
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Macros have a long-standing role in planning as a tool for representing repeating subsequences of operators. Macros are useful both for guiding search towards a solution and for representing plans compactly. In this paper we introduce automata plans which consist of hierarchies of finite state automata. Automata plans can be viewed as an extension of macros that enables parametrization and branching. We provide several examples of the utility of automata plans, and prove that automata plans are strictly more expressive than macro plans. We also prove that automata plans admit polynomialtime sequential access of the operators in the underlying “flat” plan, and identify a subset of automata plans that admit polynomial-time random access. Finally, we compare automata plans with other representations allowing polynomial-time sequential access.
  • Bäckström, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • Macros, Reactive Plans and Compact Representations
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: ECAI 2012. 20th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence 27-31 August 2+12, Montpellier, France. - 978-1-61499-097-0 - 978-1-61499-098-7 ; s. 85-90
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The use and study of compact representations of objects is widespread in computer science. AI planning can be viewed as the problem of finding a path in a graph that is implicitly described by a compact representation in a planning language. However, compact representations of the path itself (the plan) have not received much attention in the literature. Although both macro plans and reactive plans can be considered as such compact representations, little emphasis has been placed on this aspect in earlier work. There are also compact plan representations that are defined by their access properties, for instance, that they have efficient random access or efficient sequential access. We formally compare two such concepts with macro plans and reactive plans, viewed as compact representations, and provide a complete map of the relationships between them.
  • Holmqvist, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Increasing Ablation Volumes And A Shift Towards More Complex Arrhythmias : Data From The Swedish National Catheter Ablation Registry
  • 2018
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Catheter ablation has become the treatment of choice for many tachyarrhythmias. The ablation techniques are continuously refined and the indications expanded, enabling treatment of more complex substrates. Hence, the spectrum of treated arrhythmias is likely to have changed over time, but compelling data on this are lacking.Objective: The present study set out to explore the changing pattern of ablations performed in the setting of a universal, single-payer healthcare system, using data from the Swedish national catheter ablation registry.Methods: The Swedish National Catheter Ablation Registry covers virtually all (>97%) catheter ablations performed in Sweden since 2005 and comprises 42,192 ablations on 32,237 individual patients. In the present analysis, all ablations performed between 2005 and 2016 were included.Results: In 2005, there were 7 ablation centers in Sweden performing a total of 1,584 ablations (226/center; 175/million). In 2016, 11 ablation centers performed 5,022 ablations (457/center; 502/million). Ablation of atrial fibrillation increased from 326 ablations (21% of all) in 2005 to 2,063 (41%) in 2016. Although, the number of ablation procedures for ventricular tachycardia and premature ventricular contractions is increasing, it is still on a relatively modest level (Figure). In contrast to other reports, there is no apparent decline in the number of accessory pathway ablations.Conclusion: In the setting of a universal, single-payer healthcare system, the number of ablations more than tripled over a 10-year period. Ablation of atrial fibrillation is the main driver behind this increase and accounted for 41% of all ablations in Sweden in 2016.
  • Jonsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • When Acyclicity is not Enough: Limitations of the Causal Graph
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the Twenty-Third International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling. - AAAI Press. - 978-1-57735-609-7 ; s. 117-125
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Causal graphs are widely used in planning to capture the internal  structure of planning instances. In the past, causal graphs have been exploited to generate hierarchical plans, to compute heuristics, and  to identify classes of planning instances that are easy to solve. It  is generally believed that planning is easier when the causal graph is acyclic. In this paper we show that this is not true in the worst  case, proving that the problem of plan existence is PSPACE-complete  even when the causal graph is acyclic. Since the variables of the  planning instances in our reduction are propositional, this result  applies to STRIPS planning with negative pre-conditions. Having  established that planning is hard for acyclic causal graphs, we study  a subclass of planning instances with acyclic causal graphs whose  variables have strongly connected domain transition graphs. For this  class, we show that plan existence is easy, but that bounded plan  existence is hard, implying that optimal planning is significantly  harder than satisficing planning for this class.
  • Lindström, Per, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Non-linear fracture mechanics in LS-DYNA and LS-PrePost
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European LS-DYNA Conference 2015 : Conference Papers. - Würzburg : DYNAmore GmbH.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Fracture mechanics provides an engineering framework for assessing the consequences of defects instructures. In linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), stress intensity factors KI, KII and KIII are usedfor characterizing the stress singularity at the crack tip, which arises from the theory of linear elasticity.Crack growth is assumed to occur when KI exceeds the fracture toughness KC. LEFM can be usefulfor brittle materials, or when the size of the plastic zone is small compared to global dimensions. In non-linear fracture mechanics (EPFM), an energy based criterion is used for assessing the risk forcrack growth: if the energy release rate at the crack tip exceeds what is required for creating newsurfaces in the material, crack growth will occur. Under certain assumptions the energy release rate atthe crack tip can be calculated by a path independent integral, the so-called J-integral. In modernFE-based fracture mechanics applied to practical design, the structure under consideration ismodelled, including cracks at specific locations, and the J-integral values are computed and used asdesign criteria. From a numerics viewpoint, the J-integral has many appealing properties: it can beevaluated from the far-field solution, which reduces numerical errors that may arise close to the cracktip, and the expected path-independence can to some extent be used as a quick check on solutionvalidity.Evaluation of the J-integral from LS-DYNA simulation results has been implemented as a postprocessingtool in LS-PrePost, including consistent treatment of residual stresses. The implementationcovers both 2D (plane stress / plane strain) and 3D applications, using the virtual crack-tip extension(VCE) method. The tool is accessible both via the LS-PrePost GUI and via command file interface.
  • Akambih Tajam, Joseph, et al. (författare)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: ECO-TECH´10, 22-24 November 2010, Kalmar, Sweden : International Conference on Natural Sciences and Technologies for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Remediation, Emissions Related to Climate, Environmentaland Economic Effects. ; s. 827-835
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Spillage of diesel oil and other petroleum products is a commonly creating need for siteremediation of contaminated soils. In Sweden the most common remediation action isexcavation of the contaminated soil and off site biological treatment by composting.However, a number of small sites spread out in rural areas end up low on priority lists, andwill not be attended to within foreseeable future if ever. For such areas a low cost, easy toapply remediation techniques would be of interest. Enhanced bioremediation of dieselcontaminants in soil by whey addition has been demonstrated in lab scale. Whey is a byproductfrom cheese production. A first pilot remediation trial on an actual site in Gäddede,County of Jämtland, was started the summer of 2010. Using this site as a case study ascreening life cycle assessment model has been set up. The goal of the study was toinvestigate the environmental performance of the whey method, to benchmark the wheymethod toward the excavation and composting practice and to identify environmental hotspots in the whey treatment life cycle. The study aims at establishing if further work shouldbe put into developing the method, or if the environmental performance is such that the wheymethod should be abandoned. It should be noted that even with a slightly worseenvironmental performance compared to other remediation alternatives whey treatment couldstill be of interest, since the small scale sites in rural areas we talk about here otherwise mostoften would not be attended to.Results from the screening life cycle assessment indicate a rather good environmentalperformance of the whey method, partly depending on impact category considered. For thewhey method, impacts from farming activities in the milk production chain allocated to thewhey give significant contributions. Transportation gives important impacts from both thewhey method and the excavation and off site composting, thus logistics should always beconsidered and optimized. The whey on-site treatment could be an interesting alternative forbioremediation especially at sites that would not otherwise be treated, due to small size orremote location.
  • Backlund, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Pre-hospital training and simulation initiative
  • 2014
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The pre-hospital process is a complex one involving aspects such as medical skills as well as care taking, team performance, inter-organizational cooperation and communication. This calls for novel training methods and technology support. Our review of literature (covering the areas of pre-hospital care, training simulator technologies and methods and process modelling) indicates that the different aspects are typically trained in isolation, e.g. medical skills using patient simulators.Objective The pre-hospital training center project addresses the overall complexity of the pre-hospital process by taking all of the aspects into account when designing scenarios and technology support for training the complete prehospital process (covering alarm, on-scene activities, transportation and hand-over). This is indeed a challenging task as we need to develop both training methods and technology support for a very complex training situation.Methods The project will develop a prototype scenario along with technology support to enact it. The training scenario will involve many of the aspects listed above and will be tested in a field experiment with ambulance personnel. Results The expected outcome of the project is a platform for establishing a pre-hospital simulation and training center. The initial technologies, research results and experiences will be used to form a consortium for further work and development. Conclusions We have identified a need for a pre-hospital training center with the unique and ambitious idea of covering the entire pre-hospital process as well as its many interacting aspects. To the best of our knowledge this approach is not at all common and we expect the complexity to be so high that it is a challenging enough research area that can only be addressed if we have a well-designed simulation and training center in place with all the different areas of knowledge represented, i.e. pre-hospital medicine as well as simulation and visualization technology.
  • Bivall Persson, Petter, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Designing and Evaluating a Haptic System for Biomolecular Education
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: IEEE Virtual Reality Conference, 2007. VR '07.. - Piscataway, NJ, USA : IEEE. - 1-4244-0906-3 ; s. 171-178
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper we present an in situ evaluation of a haptic system, with a representative test population, we aim to determine what, if any, benefit haptics can have in a biomolecular education context. We have developed a haptic application for conveying concepts of molecular interactions, specifically in protein-ligand docking. Utilizing a semi-immersive environment with stereo graphics, users are able to manipulate the ligand and feel its interactions in the docking process. The evaluation used cognitive knowledge tests and interviews focused on learning gains. Compared with using time efficiency as the single quality measure this gives a better indication of a system's applicability in an educational environment. Surveys were used to gather opinions and suggestions for improvements. Students do gain from using the application in the learning process but the learning appears to be independent of the addition of haptic feedback. However the addition of force feedback did decrease time requirements and improved the students understanding of the docking process in terms of the forces involved, as is apparent from the students' descriptions of the experience. The students also indicated a number of features which could be improved in future development.
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