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  • Abeler-Dörner, Lucie, et al. (författare)
  • Butyrophilins: an emerging family of immune regulators
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Trends in immunology. - 1471-4906. ; 33:1, s. 34-41
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Butyrophilins (Btns) and butyrophilin-like (Btnl) molecules are emerging as novel regulators of immune responses in mice and humans. Several clues point to their probable importance: many of the genes are located within the MHC; they are structurally related to B7-co-stimulatory molecules; they are functionally implicated in T cell inhibition and in the modulation of epithelial cell-T cell interactions; and they are genetically associated with inflammatory diseases. Nonetheless, initial immersion into the current literature can uncover confusion over even basic information such as gene names and expression patterns, and seemingly conflicting data regarding the biological activities of different family members. This review addresses each of these issues, concluding with the attractive potential of Btn and Btnl molecules to act as specific attenuators of tissue-associated inflammatory responses.
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4.
  • Abramowicz, Marek A, 1945-, et al. (författare)
  • Introduction
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: New Astronomy Reviews. ; 51
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)
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7.
  • Adiels, Martin, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Fatty liver, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Current diabetes reports. - 1539-0829. ; 8:1, s. 60
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • After recently being recognized as a feature of the metabolic syndrome, fatty liver has evolved as a key player in the pathogenesis of dyslipidemia. Development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease comes from an imbalance between the influx and production of fatty acids and the use of fatty acids for oxidation or secretion as very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides. Previously, we have shown a strong relationship between increased liver fat and overproduction of large VLDL particles. We observed recently that in patients with high liver fat, insulin was unable to regulate VLDL production. The result is increased concentrations of VLDL particles in the circulation. Consequently, changes are seen in the metabolism of other lipoproteins that interact with VLDL particles, the net result being decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased formation of small, dense low-density lipoprotein. In this article, we review recent findings on the development of fatty liver and its role in the diabetic dyslipidemia pathogenesis.
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8.
  • Adiels, Martin, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Overproduction of very low-density lipoproteins is the hallmark of the dyslipidemia in the metabolic syndrome.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. - 1524-4636. ; 28:7, s. 1225-36
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Insulin resistance is a key feature of the metabolic syndrome and often progresses to type 2 diabetes. Both insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are characterized by dyslipidemia, which is an important and common risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Diabetic dyslipidemia is a cluster of potentially atherogenic lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities that are metabolically interrelated. Recent evidence suggests that a fundamental defect is an overproduction of large very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles, which initiates a sequence of lipoprotein changes, resulting in higher levels of remnant particles, smaller LDL, and lower levels of high-density liporotein (HDL) cholesterol. These atherogenic lipid abnormalities precede the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes by several years, and it is thus important to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the overproduction of large VLDL particles. Here, we review the pathophysiology of VLDL biosynthesis and metabolism in the metabolic syndrome. We also review recent research investigating the relation between hepatic accumulation of lipids and insulin resistance, and sources of fatty acids for liver fat and VLDL biosynthesis. Finally, we briefly discuss current treatments for lipid management of dyslipidemia and potential future therapeutic targets.
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9.
  • Adlerberth, Ingegerd, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Establishment of the gut microbiota in Western infants.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). - 1651-2227. ; 98:2, s. 229-38
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In adult individuals, the intestinal microbiota comprises several hundred, mostly anaerobic, bacterial species. This complex ecosystem is formed through the successive establishment of different bacteria in infancy and early childhood. Facultative and aerotolerant bacteria establish first, followed by more and more strict anaerobes. The bacteria derive from different sources and the colonization pattern is influenced by delivery mode and environmental factors. Commensal microbes provide the major drive for maturation of the immune system. Increased hygiene appears to have changed the gut flora of Western infants, which may affect the risk of developing immune mediated diseases. CONCLUSION: It is clear that the process of infant colonization needs to be studied further, since composition of the microbiota may impact on child health.
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10.
  • Admyre, C, et al. (författare)
  • Exosomes - nanovesicles with possible roles in allergic inflammation.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Allergy. - 1398-9995. ; 63:4, s. 404-8
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Exosomes are nano-sized membrane vesicles which are released extracellularly after fusion of multivesicular endosomes with the cell membrane. Despite their characteristic composition of proteins compared to the cell membrane, no exosome-specific molecule has so far been characterized. Exosomes are found in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), urine, serum and breast milk, and are released from several cells implicated in allergy including mast cells, dendritic cells (DC), T cells and epithelial cells. Antigen-loaded exosomes have been shown to be highly immunogenic and we propose that exosomes could be a modulating factor in allergic responses. Allergen-presenting exosomes could transport allergen and stimulate allergen-specific T cells, and possibly also biasing T cell responses depending on the molecules present on the exosome surface. Furthermore, exosomes from mast cells, highly active in allergic reactions, have been found to induce DC maturation and also to be able to transport functional RNA to recipient cells, suggesting a new pathway for cell communication. Reversely, tolerizing exosomes e.g. tolerosomes, from gut or breast milk, could block an allergic response or prevent allergy development. A better understanding of the role of exosomes in allergies could make us understand how allergy can be prevented or lead to the development of more efficient treatments.
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