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  • Abeler-Dörner, Lucie, et al. (författare)
  • Butyrophilins: an emerging family of immune regulators
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Trends in immunology. - 1471-4906. ; 33:1, s. 34-41
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Butyrophilins (Btns) and butyrophilin-like (Btnl) molecules are emerging as novel regulators of immune responses in mice and humans. Several clues point to their probable importance: many of the genes are located within the MHC; they are structurally related to B7-co-stimulatory molecules; they are functionally implicated in T cell inhibition and in the modulation of epithelial cell-T cell interactions; and they are genetically associated with inflammatory diseases. Nonetheless, initial immersion into the current literature can uncover confusion over even basic information such as gene names and expression patterns, and seemingly conflicting data regarding the biological activities of different family members. This review addresses each of these issues, concluding with the attractive potential of Btn and Btnl molecules to act as specific attenuators of tissue-associated inflammatory responses.
  • Aboul-Ata, A. A. E., et al. (författare)
  • Plant-Based Vaccines: Novel and Low-Cost Possible Route for Mediterranean Innovative Vaccination Strategies
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Advances in Virus Research. - 0065-3527. - 0065-3527978-0-12-800172-1 ; 89, s. 1-37
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A plant bioreactor has enormous capability as a system that supports many biological activities, that is, production of plant bodies, virus-like particles (VLPs), and vaccines. Foreign gene expression is an efficient mechanism for getting protein vaccines against different human viral and nonviral diseases. Plants make it easy to deal with safe, inexpensive, and provide trouble-free storage. The broad spectrum of safe gene promoters is being used to avoid risk assessments. Engineered virus-based vectors have no side effect. The process can be manipulated as follows: (a) retrieve and select gene encoding, use an antigenic protein from GenBank and/or from a viral-genome sequence, (b) design and construct hybrid-virus vectors (viral vector with a gene of interest) eventually flanked by plant-specific genetic regulatory elements for constitutive expression for obtaining chimeric virus, (c) gene transformation and/or transfection, for transient expression, into a plant-host model, that is, tobacco, to get protocols processed positively, and then moving into edible host plants, (d) confirmation of protein expression by bioassay, PCR-associated tests (RT-PCR), Northern and Western blotting analysis, and serological assay (ELISA), (e) expression for adjuvant recombinant protein seeking better antigenicity, (f) extraction and purification of expressed protein for identification and dosing, (g) antigenicity capability evaluated using parental or oral delivery in animal models (mice and/or rabbit immunization), and (h) growing of construct-treated edible crops in protective green houses. Some successful cases of heterologous gene-expressed protein, as edible vaccine, are being discussed, that is, hepatitis C virus (HCV). R9 mimotope, also named hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), was derived from the HVR1 of HCV. It was used as a potential neutralizing epitope of HCV. The mimotope was expressed using cucumber mosaic virus coat protein (CP), alfalfa mosaic virus CP P3/RNA3, and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) CP-tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV) CP as expression vectors into tobacco plants. Expressed recombinant protein has not only been confirmed as a therapeutic but also as a diagnostic tool. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), HSV-2 gD, and HSV-2 VP16 subunits were transfected into tobacco plants, using TMV CP-TMGMV CP expression vectors.
  • Abramowicz, Marek A, 1945-, et al. (författare)
  • Introduction
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: New Astronomy Reviews. ; 51
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)
  • Adiels, Martin, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Fatty liver, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Current diabetes reports. - 1539-0829. ; 8:1, s. 60
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • After recently being recognized as a feature of the metabolic syndrome, fatty liver has evolved as a key player in the pathogenesis of dyslipidemia. Development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease comes from an imbalance between the influx and production of fatty acids and the use of fatty acids for oxidation or secretion as very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides. Previously, we have shown a strong relationship between increased liver fat and overproduction of large VLDL particles. We observed recently that in patients with high liver fat, insulin was unable to regulate VLDL production. The result is increased concentrations of VLDL particles in the circulation. Consequently, changes are seen in the metabolism of other lipoproteins that interact with VLDL particles, the net result being decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased formation of small, dense low-density lipoprotein. In this article, we review recent findings on the development of fatty liver and its role in the diabetic dyslipidemia pathogenesis.
  • Adiels, Martin, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Overproduction of very low-density lipoproteins is the hallmark of the dyslipidemia in the metabolic syndrome.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. - 1524-4636. ; 28:7, s. 1225-36
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Insulin resistance is a key feature of the metabolic syndrome and often progresses to type 2 diabetes. Both insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are characterized by dyslipidemia, which is an important and common risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Diabetic dyslipidemia is a cluster of potentially atherogenic lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities that are metabolically interrelated. Recent evidence suggests that a fundamental defect is an overproduction of large very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles, which initiates a sequence of lipoprotein changes, resulting in higher levels of remnant particles, smaller LDL, and lower levels of high-density liporotein (HDL) cholesterol. These atherogenic lipid abnormalities precede the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes by several years, and it is thus important to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the overproduction of large VLDL particles. Here, we review the pathophysiology of VLDL biosynthesis and metabolism in the metabolic syndrome. We also review recent research investigating the relation between hepatic accumulation of lipids and insulin resistance, and sources of fatty acids for liver fat and VLDL biosynthesis. Finally, we briefly discuss current treatments for lipid management of dyslipidemia and potential future therapeutic targets.
  • Adlerberth, Ingegerd, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Establishment of the gut microbiota in Western infants.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). - 1651-2227. ; 98:2, s. 229-38
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In adult individuals, the intestinal microbiota comprises several hundred, mostly anaerobic, bacterial species. This complex ecosystem is formed through the successive establishment of different bacteria in infancy and early childhood. Facultative and aerotolerant bacteria establish first, followed by more and more strict anaerobes. The bacteria derive from different sources and the colonization pattern is influenced by delivery mode and environmental factors. Commensal microbes provide the major drive for maturation of the immune system. Increased hygiene appears to have changed the gut flora of Western infants, which may affect the risk of developing immune mediated diseases. CONCLUSION: It is clear that the process of infant colonization needs to be studied further, since composition of the microbiota may impact on child health.
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