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  • Abdeen, G., et al. (författare)
  • Mechanism Underlying the Weight Loss and Complications of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass. Review
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Obesity Surgery. - 0960-8923. ; 26:2, s. 410-421
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Various bariatric surgical procedures are effective at improving health in patients with obesity associated co-morbidities, but the aim of this review is to specifically describe the mechanisms through which Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery enables weight loss for obese patients using observations from both human and animal studies. Perhaps most but not all clinicians would agree that the beneficial effects outweigh the harm of RYGB; however, the mechanisms for both the beneficial and deleterious (for example postprandial hypoglycaemia, vitamin deficiency and bone loss) effects are ill understood. The exaggerated release of the satiety gut hormones, such as GLP-1 and PYY, with their central and peripheral effects on food intake has given new insight into the physiological changes that happen after surgery. The initial enthusiasm after the discovery of the role of the gut hormones following RYGB may need to be tempered as the magnitude of the effects of these hormonal responses on weight loss may have been overestimated. The physiological changes after RYGB are unlikely to be due to a single hormone, or single mechanism, but most likely involve complex gut-brain signalling. Understanding the mechanisms involved with the beneficial and deleterious effects of RYGB will speed up the development of effective, cheaper and safer surgical and non-surgical treatments for obesity.
  • Abeler-Dörner, Lucie, et al. (författare)
  • Butyrophilins: an emerging family of immune regulators
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Trends in immunology. - 1471-4906 .- 1471-4981. ; 33:1, s. 34-41
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Butyrophilins (Btns) and butyrophilin-like (Btnl) molecules are emerging as novel regulators of immune responses in mice and humans. Several clues point to their probable importance: many of the genes are located within the MHC; they are structurally related to B7-co-stimulatory molecules; they are functionally implicated in T cell inhibition and in the modulation of epithelial cell-T cell interactions; and they are genetically associated with inflammatory diseases. Nonetheless, initial immersion into the current literature can uncover confusion over even basic information such as gene names and expression patterns, and seemingly conflicting data regarding the biological activities of different family members. This review addresses each of these issues, concluding with the attractive potential of Btn and Btnl molecules to act as specific attenuators of tissue-associated inflammatory responses.
  • Aboul-Ata, Aboul-Ata E, et al. (författare)
  • Plant-Based Vaccines: Novel and Low-Cost Possible Route for Mediterranean Innovative Vaccination Strategies
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Advances in Virus Research. - San Diego : Elsevier Academic Press Inc. - 0065-3527. ; 89, s. 1-37
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A plant bioreactor has enormous capability as a system that supports many biological activities, that is, production of plant bodies, virus-like particles (VLPs), and vaccines. Foreign gene expression is an efficient mechanism for getting protein vaccines against different human viral and nonviral diseases. Plants make it easy to deal with safe, inexpensive, and provide trouble-free storage. The broad spectrum of safe gene promoters is being used to avoid risk assessments. Engineered virus-based vectors have no side effect. The process can be manipulated as follows: (a) retrieve and select gene encoding, use an antigenic protein from GenBank and/or from a viral-genome sequence, (b) design and construct hybrid-virus vectors (viral vector with a gene of interest) eventually flanked by plant-specific genetic regulatory elements for constitutive expression for obtaining chimeric virus, (c) gene transformation and/or transfection, for transient expression, into a plant-host model, that is, tobacco, to get protocols processed positively, and then moving into edible host plants, (d) confirmation of protein expression by bioassay, PCR-associated tests (RT-PCR), Northern and Western blotting analysis, and serological assay (ELISA), (e) expression for adjuvant recombinant protein seeking better antigenicity, (f) extraction and purification of expressed protein for identification and dosing, (g) antigenicity capability evaluated using parental or oral delivery in animal models (mice and/or rabbit immunization), and (h) growing of construct-treated edible crops in protective green houses. Some successful cases of heterologous gene-expressed protein, as edible vaccine, are being discussed, that is, hepatitis C virus (HCV). R9 mimotope, also named hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), was derived from the HVR1 of HCV. It was used as a potential neutralizing epitope of HCV. The mimotope was expressed using cucumber mosaic virus coat protein (CP), alfalfa mosaic virus CP P3/RNA3, and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) CP-tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV) CP as expression vectors into tobacco plants. Expressed recombinant protein has not only been confirmed as a therapeutic but also as a diagnostic tool. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), HSV-2 gD, and HSV-2 VP16 subunits were transfected into tobacco plants, using TMV CP-TMGMV CP expression vectors.
  • Abramowicz, Marek A, 1945-, et al. (författare)
  • Introduction
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: New Astronomy Reviews. ; 51
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)
  • Adiels, Martin, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Fatty liver, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Current diabetes reports. - 1539-0829. ; 8:1, s. 60-4
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • After recently being recognized as a feature of the metabolic syndrome, fatty liver has evolved as a key player in the pathogenesis of dyslipidemia. Development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease comes from an imbalance between the influx and production of fatty acids and the use of fatty acids for oxidation or secretion as very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides. Previously, we have shown a strong relationship between increased liver fat and overproduction of large VLDL particles. We observed recently that in patients with high liver fat, insulin was unable to regulate VLDL production. The result is increased concentrations of VLDL particles in the circulation. Consequently, changes are seen in the metabolism of other lipoproteins that interact with VLDL particles, the net result being decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased formation of small, dense low-density lipoprotein. In this article, we review recent findings on the development of fatty liver and its role in the diabetic dyslipidemia pathogenesis.
  • Adiels, Martin, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Overproduction of very low-density lipoproteins is the hallmark of the dyslipidemia in the metabolic syndrome.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. - 1524-4636. ; 28:7, s. 1225-36
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Insulin resistance is a key feature of the metabolic syndrome and often progresses to type 2 diabetes. Both insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are characterized by dyslipidemia, which is an important and common risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Diabetic dyslipidemia is a cluster of potentially atherogenic lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities that are metabolically interrelated. Recent evidence suggests that a fundamental defect is an overproduction of large very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles, which initiates a sequence of lipoprotein changes, resulting in higher levels of remnant particles, smaller LDL, and lower levels of high-density liporotein (HDL) cholesterol. These atherogenic lipid abnormalities precede the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes by several years, and it is thus important to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the overproduction of large VLDL particles. Here, we review the pathophysiology of VLDL biosynthesis and metabolism in the metabolic syndrome. We also review recent research investigating the relation between hepatic accumulation of lipids and insulin resistance, and sources of fatty acids for liver fat and VLDL biosynthesis. Finally, we briefly discuss current treatments for lipid management of dyslipidemia and potential future therapeutic targets.
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