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  • Arvidson, Elin, et al. (författare)
  • The level of leisure time physical activity is associated with work ability-a cross sectional and prospective study of health care workers
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Bmc Public Health. - 1471-2458. ; 13:855
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: With increasing age, physical capacity decreases, while the need and time for recovery increases. At the same time, the demands of work usually do not change with age. In the near future, an aging and physically changing workforce risks reduced work ability. Therefore, the impact of different factors, such as physical activity, on work ability is of interest. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between physical activity and work ability using both cross sectional and prospective analyses.METHODS: This study was based on an extensive questionnaire survey. The number of participants included in the analysis at baseline in 2004 was 2.783, of whom 2.597 were also included in the follow-up in 2006. The primary outcome measure was the Work Ability Index (WAI), and the level of physical activity was measured using a single-item question. In the cross-sectional analysis we calculated the level of physical activity and the prevalence of poor or moderate work ability as reported by the participants. In the prospective analysis we calculated different levels of physical activity and the prevalence of positive changes in WAI-category from baseline to follow-up. In both the cross sectional and the prospective analyses the prevalence ratio was calculated using Generalized Linear Models.RESULTS: The cross-sectional analysis showed that with an increased level of physical activity, the reporting of poor or moderate work ability decreased. In the prospective analysis, participants reporting a higher level of physical activity were more likely to have made an improvement in WAI from 2004 to 2006.CONCLUSIONS: The level of physical activity seems to be related to work ability. Assessment of physical activity may also be useful as a predictive tool, potentially making it possible to prevent poor work ability and improve future work ability. For employers, the main implications of this study are the importance of promoting and facilitating the employees' engagement in physical activity, and the importance of the employees' maintaining a physically active lifestyle.
  • Carlsson, S, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for an adrenergic innervation of the adrenal cortical blood vessels in rats.
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Acta physiologica Scandinavica. - 0001-6772. ; 149:1, s. 23-30
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to investigate the blood flow in the adrenal cortex of the rat. Relative changes in the adrenal cortical blood flow were continuously measured by Laser Doppler flowmetry in 33 chloralose-anaesthetized artificially ventilated rats during electrical stimulation (1 ms, 5 V) of the left great splanchnic nerve (LGSN), which conveys both pre- and post-ganglionic nerve fibres to the adrenal gland. Laser Doppler flux (LDF) was decreased and regional resistance (RR) was increased by augmenting nerve stimulation at increasingly higher frequencies (2, 4, 8, 20 and 40 Hz). The decrease in LDF, when compared to pre-drug stimulations at 4 Hz was partially or totally inhibited by the adrenergic blocking agents trimethaphan (TRIM), guanethidine (GUA) and alpha 1-blockade with prazosin (PRAZ). Furthermore, both the decrease in LDF and the increase in RR were either completely or partially blocked by stimulation at 40 Hz after TRIM-treatment and GUA-treatment. It is concluded that the adrenal cortex in the rat is innervated by post-ganglionic adrenergic nerve fibres, which are involved in the regulation of blood flow in the adrenal cortex.
  • Fredriksson-Larsson, Ulla, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • The single-item measure of stress after myocardial infarction and its association with fatigue
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Open Journal of Nursing. - 2162-5336 .- 2162-5344. ; 5:4, s. 345-353
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Surviving a myocardial infarction (MI) can be a stressful event entailing challenges in daily life during the recovery period. Experiencing fatigue symptoms post-MI has been described as bothersome and occurs in nearly half of patients four months and two years after MI. The aetiology of fatigue disorder is unclear, but research has shown that fatigue plays an important role in the relationship between stress and perceived poor health. Previous findings indicate that having access to an easily administered stress measurement is worthwhile both in the clinic and in research. The single-item measure of stress symptoms has not been validated in persons treated for MI. The aim was to validate the single-item measure of stress symptoms and to explore its association with fatigue in a sample of persons treated for MI. Methods: 142 respondents completed the questionnaires of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20, the single-item measure of stress symptoms and the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PPS-10) two months post-MI. Correlation analysis and t-tests were used to validate the single-item stress measure and its association with post-MI fatigue. Results: The convergent validity of the single-item measure of stress symptoms was confirmed. In analyses of relations between stress and fatigue, it was found that the single-item stress measure was strongly associated with both the global fatigue score and all four fatigue dimension scores (general, physical and mental fatigue as well as reduced activity). Conclusion: The single-item measure of stress symptoms was found to be a valid measure of post-MI stress. Also, the measure was useful in assessing associations between stress and fatigue and could therefore indicate that post-MI fatigue experiences should be further explored in full using multidimensional fatigue assessment.
  • Gerber, Markus, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiorespiratory fitness protects against stress-related symptoms of burnout and depression
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Patient Education and Counseling. - 0738-3991 .- 1873-5134. ; 93:1, s. 146-152
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To examine how cardiorespiratory fitness and self-perceived stress are associated with burnout and depression. To determine if any relationship between stress and burnout/depression is mitigated among participants with high fitness levels.METHODS: 197 participants (51% men, mean age=39.2 years) took part in the study. The Åstrand bicycle test was used to assess cardorespiratory fitness. Burnout was measured with the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), depressive symptoms with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD-D). A gender-matched stratified sample was used to ensure that participants with varying stress levels were equally represented.RESULTS: Participants with moderate and high fitness reported fewer symptoms of burnout and depression than participants with low fitness. Individuals with high stress who also had moderate or high fitness levels reported lower scores on the SMBQ Tension subscale and the HAD-D than individuals with high stress, but low fitness levels.CONCLUSION: Better cardiovascular fitness seems to be associated with decreased symptoms of burnout and a better capacity to cope with stress.PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Promoting and measuring cardiorespiratory fitness can motivate employees to adopt a more physically active lifestyle and thus strengthen their ability to cope with stress exposure and stress-related disorders.
  • Gerber, M, et al. (författare)
  • Concerns regarding hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress in exercise and sport science
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. - 1303-2968. ; 11, s. 571-581
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hair cortisol has the potential to fill the methodological void of long-term cortisol assessment while becoming a widely accepted measure in biopsychology. This review critically examines the applicability and relevance of hair cortisol measurement specifically within the field of exercise and sport science. Current measures of the HPA axis only cover a brief time period, whereas hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive means to capture long-term cortisol secretion. Studies have shown that individuals who have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to diseases associated with a disturbed activation of the HPA axis or exposure to stressful life events) reveal increased hair cortisol. By contrast, only weak correlations exist between hair cortisol and perceived stress, and the direction of the relationship between hair cortisol levels and mental disorders is unclear. Acute exercise, however, results in increased levels of cortisol that eventually is reflected in higher levels of cortisol in hair samples and studies have shown that exercise intensity is related to hair cortisol level. Thus, elevated hair cortisol levels found among regular exercisers are not necessarily pathological. Thus, one should practice caution when associating athletes’ elevated hair cortisol with poor mental health or disease. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol elevation mediates stress-related effects on the health and performance of recreational exercisers and elite athletes. Nevertheless, it is crucial for exercise and sport scientists to consider whether their research questions can be adequately addressed, given that regular intense exercise results in substantially augmented hair cortisol levels.
  • Gerber, M., et al. (författare)
  • Objectively assessed physical activity is associated with increased hair cortisol content in young adults
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Stress-the International Journal on the Biology of Stress. - 1025-3890. ; 16:6, s. 593-599
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Assessing long-term cortisol secretion presents difficulties when cortisol measurement is carried out by saliva, plasma and urine analyses. Hair cortisol has gained increased interest as an alternative biological marker. So far, one study has been published studying hair cortisol in endurance athletes, showing higher levels compared to controls. Using accelerometer data in the present study, we cross-sectionally explored the relationship between moderate physical activity (MPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) levels and hair cortisol concentrations after taking into account age, gender, and perceived stress. Hair specimens were collected from 46 university students (20 males, 26 females, M-age +/- SD = 21.2 +/- 1.87 years). Participants provided information about their socio-demographic background and levels of perceived stress. Accelerometer data were collected to assess physical activity. Cortisol concentrations were measured in the first 3-cm hair segment nearest to the scalp. MPA was not correlated with hair cortisol content (r = -0.08). A significant correlation was found between VPA and hair cortisol (r = 0.34, p < 0.05). A regression analysis revealed that participants with higher VPA had elevated hair cortisol concentrations even after taking into account age, gender and perceived stress (beta = 0.33, p < 0.05, Delta R-2 = 0.106). This is the first study showing that objectively assessed VPA is associated with increased hair cortisol levels in young adults. As VPA can be regarded as a physical stressor, it seems imperative that researchers consider participants' levels of VPA if they examine the relationship between stress exposure, hair cortisol and health.
  • Gerber, M, et al. (författare)
  • Physical Activity in Employees with Differing Occupational Stress and Mental Health Profiles: A Latent Profile Analysis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise. - 1469-0292. ; 15:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To examine whether employees with differing occupational stress and mental health profiles differ in their self-reported levels of physical activity. Design: Cross-sectional survey data. Method: The sample consisted of 2660 Swedish health care workers and social insurance officers (85% women, M = 46.3 years). Latent profile analysis was performed to identify classes. Between-class-differences in physical activity were tested via c2-tests and multinominal logistic regression analyses using sex, age, BMI, marital status, children at home, caregiving, and smoking as covariates. Results: Latent profile analysis resulted in a six-profile solution. Two pairs of classes had equal stress levels, one pair with high stress, one pair with moderate stress. Within each pair, one group showed some resilience (i.e. only moderate mental health problems despite high stress or good mental health despite moderate stress), whereas the other did not. The other two classes were characterized by either low stress and good mental health or moderate-tohigh stress and elevated mental health problems. Participants who were resilient to high or moderate stress were more active than participants of the corresponding non-resilient classes. Participants with low stress and good mental health reported the highest physical activity levels, participants with high stress and high mental health problems reported the lowest physical activity levels. Conclusions: The findings suggest that physical activity is associated with resilience to occupational stress, and that beyond primary prevention efforts to make work less stressful regular physical activity should be a target variable for health professionals working in the occupational setting.
  • Gerber, Markus, et al. (författare)
  • Promoting Graded Exercise as a Part of Multimodal Treatment in Patients Diagnosed with Stress-Related Exhaustion
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing. - 0962-1067 .- 1365-2702. ; 24:13-14, s. 1904-1915
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims and objectives The purpose of this study was to examine, by using patient cohort data, the changes in exercise habits during a 12-month multimodal treatment period, in patients seeking specialist care for stress-related exhaustion. Background Randomised controlled trials have greatly contributed to the fact that both physicians and patients regard regular exercise participation as a highly valuable and effective treatment for mental health disorders. Nevertheless, little is known about the adherence to physical activity recommendations for patients with stress-related mental problems in a clinical setting. Knowledge about what can be achieved within the clinical context, and how current treatments can be improved, is crucial for clinicians, researchers, educators, managers and policy makers involved in nursing practice. Design Longitudinal analysis of patient cohort data. Methods The sample consisted of 169 patients (79% women; mean age = 42·7 years) who were referred to a stress clinic due to stress-related exhaustion. All patients received multimodal treatment with similar components. Two different approaches to promote exercise were used in the clinical work (general comprehensive instruction either with or without an 18-week coached exercise programme). The self-reported overall exercise level was assessed at baseline and at three, six and 12 months after the first visit. Group by time effects were examined with repeated measures analyses of variance. Results The frequency, duration and intensity of exercise increased substantially during the first three months of multimodal treatment. Although exercise levels tended to decrease thereafter, there was still a significant time effect at the 12-month follow-up showing that follow-up exercise levels were higher than at baseline. Conclusion Both general exercise instructions and coached exercise were effective in promoting exercise involvement. Relevance to clinical practice Exercise can be successfully promoted as a part of multimodal treatment in patients with stress-related exhaustion.
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