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  • Holgersson, Georg, et al. (författare)
  • [In Process Citation].
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Läkartidningen. - 0023-7205. ; 112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The work-up process for lung cancer patients consists of several steps from suspicion of malignant disease to start of treatment. Delays between these steps should be minimized. Data in the Swedish National Lung Cancer Register show that the work-up times for lung cancer patients vary greatly between different counties in central Sweden. In order to reduce delays, a trial of implementing patient guides (Sw: patientlotsar) for patients referred to the hospital was conducted. When comparing the work-up times before and after implementation of patient guides the median waiting time from suspicion of lung cancer to start of treatment in the region was reduced from 71 to 45 days. Furthermore, the duration of most of the steps in the work-up process were shortened despite more complex investigation procedures, e.g. increased use of PET/CT in the guided patient group.
  • Murray, Christopher J. L., et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - Elsevier. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 386:10009, s. 2145-2191
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development. Methods We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95% UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological transition with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time. Findings Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6.2 years (95% UI 5.6-6.6), from 65.3 years (65.0-65.6) in 1990 to 71.5 years (71.0-71.9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5.4 years (4.9-5.8), from 56.9 years (54.5-59.1) to 62.3 years (59.7-64.8), total DALYs fell by 3.6% (0.3-7.4), and age-standardised DALY rates per 100 000 people fell by 26.7% (24.6-29.1). For communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, global DALY numbers, crude rates, and age-standardised rates have all declined between 1990 and 2013, whereas for non-communicable diseases, global DALYs have been increasing, DALY rates have remained nearly constant, and age-standardised DALY rates declined during the same period. From 2005 to 2013, the number of DALYs increased for most specific non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, in addition to dengue, food-borne trematodes, and leishmaniasis; DALYs decreased for nearly all other causes. By 2013, the five leading causes of DALYs were ischaemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, cerebrovascular disease, low back and neck pain, and road injuries. Sociodemographic status explained more than 50% of the variance between countries and over time for diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; maternal disorders; neonatal disorders; nutritional deficiencies; other communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases; musculoskeletal disorders; and other non-communicable diseases. However, sociodemographic status explained less than 10% of the variance in DALY rates for cardiovascular diseases; chronic respiratory diseases; cirrhosis; diabetes, urogenital, blood, and endocrine diseases; unintentional injuries; and self-harm and interpersonal violence. Predictably, increased sociodemographic status was associated with a shift in burden from YLLs to YLDs, driven by declines in YLLs and increases in YLDs from musculoskeletal disorders, neurological disorders, and mental and substance use disorders. In most country-specific estimates, the increase in life expectancy was greater than that in HALE. Leading causes of DALYs are highly variable across countries. Interpretation Global health is improving. Population growth and ageing have driven up numbers of DALYs, but crude rates have remained relatively constant, showing that progress in health does not mean fewer demands on health systems. The notion of an epidemiological transition-in which increasing sociodemographic status brings structured change in disease burden-is useful, but there is tremendous variation in burden of disease that is not associated with sociodemographic status. This further underscores the need for country-specific assessments of DALYs and HALE to appropriately inform health policy decisions and attendant actions.
  • Carlsson, Axel C, et al. (författare)
  • Association between circulating endostatin, hypertension duration, and hypertensive target-organ damage
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - 0194-911X. ; 62:6, s. 1146-1151
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Our aim is to study associations between circulating endostatin, hypertension duration, and hypertensive target-organ damage. Long-term hypertension induces cardiovascular and renal remodeling. Circulating endostatin, a biologically active derivate of collagen XVIII, has been suggested to be a relevant marker for extracellular matrix turnover and remodeling in various diseases. However, the role of endostatin in hypertension and hypertensive target-organ damage is unclear. Serum endostatin was measured in 2 independent community-based cohorts: the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS; women 51%; n=812; mean age, 75 years) and the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM; n=785; mean age, 77.6 years). Retrospective data on blood pressure measurements and antihypertensive medication (PIVUS >5 years, ULSAM >27 years), and cross-sectional data on echocardiographic left ventricular mass, endothelial function (endothelium-dependent vasodilation assessed by the invasive forearm model), and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio were available. In PIVUS, participants with ≥5 years of history of hypertension portrayed 0.42 SD (95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.61; P<0.001) higher serum endostatin, compared with that of normotensives. This association was replicated in ULSAM, in which participants with 27 years hypertension duration had the highest endostatin (0.57 SD higher; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.80; P<0.001). In addition, higher endostatin was associated with higher left ventricular mass, worsened endothelial function, and higher urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (P<0.03 for all) in participants with prevalent hypertension. Circulating endostatin is associated with the duration of hypertension, and vascular, myocardial, and renal indices of hypertensive target-organ damage. Further studies are warranted to assess the prognostic role of endostatin in individuals with hypertension.
  • Kassebaum, Nicholas J, et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national levels and causes of maternal mortality during 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - 0140-6736. ; 384:9947, s. 980-1004
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) established the goal of a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100 000 livebirths) between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to measure levels and track trends in maternal mortality, the key causes contributing to maternal death, and timing of maternal death with respect to delivery.METHODS: We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to analyse a database of data for 7065 site-years and estimate the number of maternal deaths from all causes in 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. We estimated the number of pregnancy-related deaths caused by HIV on the basis of a systematic review of the relative risk of dying during pregnancy for HIV-positive women compared with HIV-negative women. We also estimated the fraction of these deaths aggravated by pregnancy on the basis of a systematic review. To estimate the numbers of maternal deaths due to nine different causes, we identified 61 sources from a systematic review and 943 site-years of vital registration data. We also did a systematic review of reports about the timing of maternal death, identifying 142 sources to use in our analysis. We developed estimates for each country for 1990-2013 using Bayesian meta-regression. We estimated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) for all values.FINDINGS: 292 982 (95% UI 261 017-327 792) maternal deaths occurred in 2013, compared with 376 034 (343 483-407 574) in 1990. The global annual rate of change in the MMR was -0·3% (-1·1 to 0·6) from 1990 to 2003, and -2·7% (-3·9 to -1·5) from 2003 to 2013, with evidence of continued acceleration. MMRs reduced consistently in south, east, and southeast Asia between 1990 and 2013, but maternal deaths increased in much of sub-Saharan Africa during the 1990s. 2070 (1290-2866) maternal deaths were related to HIV in 2013, 0·4% (0·2-0·6) of the global total. MMR was highest in the oldest age groups in both 1990 and 2013. In 2013, most deaths occurred intrapartum or postpartum. Causes varied by region and between 1990 and 2013. We recorded substantial variation in the MMR by country in 2013, from 956·8 (685·1-1262·8) in South Sudan to 2·4 (1·6-3·6) in Iceland.INTERPRETATION: Global rates of change suggest that only 16 countries will achieve the MDG 5 target by 2015. Accelerated reductions since the Millennium Declaration in 2000 coincide with increased development assistance for maternal, newborn, and child health. Setting of targets and associated interventions for after 2015 will need careful consideration of regions that are making slow progress, such as west and central Africa.
  • Ruge, Toralph, et al. (författare)
  • Endostatin Level is Associated with Kidney Injury in the Elderly Findings from Two Community-Based Cohorts
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Nephrology. - 0250-8095. ; 40:5, s. 417-424
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: We aimed to investigate the associations between circulating endostatin and the different aspects of renal dysfunction, namely, estimated (cystatin C) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR).Methods: Two independent longitudinal community-based cohorts of elderly. ULSAM, n = 786 men; age 78 years; median GFR 74 ml/min/1.73 m(2); median ACR 0.80 mg/mmol); and PIVUS, n = 815; age 75 years; 51% women; median GFR; 67 ml/min/1.73 m(2); median ACR 1.39 mg/mmol. Cross-sectional associations between the endostatin levels and GFR as well as ACR, and longitudinal association between endostatin at baseline and incident CKD (defined as GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) were assessed.Results: In cross-sectional regression analyses adjusting for age, gender, inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors, serum endostatin was negatively associated with GFR (ULSAM: B-coefficient per SD increase -0.51, 95% CI (-0.57, -0.45), p < 0.001; PIVUS -0.47, 95% CI (-0.54, -0.41), p < 0.001) and positively associated with ACR (ULSAM: B-coefficient per SD increase 0.24, 95% CI (0.15, 0.32), p < 0.001; PIVUS 0.13, 95% CI (0.06-0.20), p < 0.001) in both cohorts. Moreover, in longitudinal multivariable analyses, higher endostatin levels were associated with increased risk for incident CKD defined as GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) at re-investigations in both ULSAM (odds ratio per SD increase of endostatin 1.39 (95% CI 1.01-1.90) and PIVUS 1.68 (95% CI 1.36-2.07)).Conclusions: Higher circulating endostatin is associated with lower GFR and higher albuminuria and independently predicts incident CKD in elderly subjects. Further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanisms linking endostatin to kidney pathology, and to evaluate the clinical relevance of our findings.
  • Sundelöf, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Cystatin C Levels are Positively Correlated with both Aβ42 and Tau Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Persons with Alzheimer's Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Healthy Controls
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - 1387-2877. ; 21:2, s. 471-478
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cystatin C is suggested to be involved in neurodegeneration and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by binding to soluble amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides. Studies of cystatin C levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in relation to risk of AD are conflicting and relations between cystatin C, Abeta42, and tau levels in CSF in AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls are unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate cystatin C, Abeta42, and tau levels in CSF in AD, MCI, and controls. As a secondary aim, the relationships between cystatin C, Abeta42, and tau levels across disease groups were investigated. Cystatin C, Abeta42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau levels in CSF were analyzed by turbidimetry (cystatin C) and xMAP Luminex technology (Abeta and tau) in persons with AD (n=101), MCI (n=84), and healthy control subjects (n=28). Mean cystatin C levels were similar in cases of AD (5.6 mumol/L +/- 1.7), MCI (5.4 mumol/L +/- 1.48), and controls (5.6 mumol/L +/- 1.6). However, CSF cystatin C levels were strongly and positively correlated with total tau and phosphorylated tau levels (r=0.61-0.81, p< 0.0001) and Abeta42 (r=0.35-0.65, p< 0.001) independent of age, gender, and APOE genotype. Mean CSF cystatin C levels did not differ between patients with AD and MCI and healthy controls. Interestingly, cystatin C levels were positively correlated with both tau and Abeta42 levels in CSF independent of age, gender, and APOE genotype.
  • Sundelöf, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Higher Cathepsin B Levels in Plasma in Alzheimer's Disease Compared to Healthy Controls
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - 1387-2877. ; 22:4, s. 1223-1230
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cathepsin B is suggested to be involved in amyloid-β (Aβ) processing and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Studies of cathepsin B levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have not been previously performed. We examined cathepsin B levels in plasma and CSF samples in persons with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls in order to test the hypothesis that cathepsin B levels can discriminate persons with AD or MCI from healthy controls. Cathepsin B, Cystatin C, Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42, total tau, phosphorylated tau, and albumin levels in plasma and CSF were analyzed by ELISA (Cathepsin B) turbidimetry (cystatin C), xMAP Luminex technology (Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 and tau), and Cobas C501 analyzer (albumin) in persons with AD (n=101), MCI (n=84), and healthy control subjects (n=28). Plasma cathepsin B levels were higher in persons with AD compared to healthy controls, both in unadjusted models and in multivariable models adjusting for age, gender, APOE genotype, cystatin C, and albumin levels: Odds ratio (OR) for AD per 1 SD of plasma cathepsin B; 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI); 1.01-4.14, p= 0.05. There was no difference between diagnostic groups in cathepsin B levels in CSF: OR for AD per 1 SD of CSF cathepsin B; 0.93, 95% CI; 0.37-2.30, p= 0.87. Plasma cathepsin B levels were higher in persons with AD compared to healthy controls whereas there was no difference between diagnostic groups in cathepsin B levels in CSF. Further investigation of cathepsin B as a predictor of AD is warranted.
  • Olofsson, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic links between the acute-phase response and arthritis development in rats.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Arthritis and Rheumatism. - American College of Rheumatology. - 1529-0131 .- 0004-3591. ; 46:1, s. 259-268
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The acute-phase inflammatory response is closely correlated with the development of rheumatoid arthritis, but the pathophysiologic role of its specific components is largely unknown. We investigated the genetic control of the acute-phase protein response in pristane-induced arthritis (PIA), which is a chronic erosive arthritis model in rats. METHODS: Plasma levels of the acute-phase proteins interleukin-6 (IL-6), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid), fibrinogen, and alpha1-inhibitor3 were quantified in 3 strains of rats during the development and progression of disease: DA and LEW.1F, which are susceptible to arthritis, and E3, which is resistant. Genetic linkage analysis was performed on an F2 intercross between E3 and DA to determine the genetic control of the acute-phase response in arthritis. Elevated levels of alpha1-acid glycoprotein were associated with acute inflammation, whereas levels of IL-6 were increased during the entire course of the disease. RESULTS: Using these acute-phase markers as quantitative traits in linkage analysis revealed a colocalization of loci controlling the acute-phase response and regions previously shown to control the development of arthritis in chromosomes 10, 12, and 14. In addition, 2 loci that were not associated with arthritis were found to regulate serum levels of the acute-phase protein Apr1 (acute-phase response 1) at the telomeric end of chromosome 12 and Apr2 on chromosome 5. CONCLUSION: The PIA model in rats is a useful tool for understanding some of the pathways leading to chronic erosive arthritis. The analysis of acute-phase proteins in PIA and its application as quantitative traits for studying the genetics of arthritis will promote the understanding of the genetic regulation of the acute-phase response.
  • James, Laura, et al. (författare)
  • Territorial knowledge dynamics and knowledge anchoring through localised networks: : the automotive sector in Västra Götaland
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Regional studies. - Routledge. - 0034-3404. ; 50:2, s. 233-244
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Regional Studies. Innovative firms often engage in knowledge interactions across regional boundaries, which is difficult to account for by territorial innovation models. The territorial knowledge dynamics perspective directs attention to the ways in which firms and other actors combine regional and extra-regional relations. It deals with the spatial aspects of innovation, emphasizing constantly evolving knowledge networks that are not confined to regional boundaries, which implies a new view on regional knowledge anchoring. The paper presents a case of innovation in the automotive sector in the Vastra Gotaland region of Sweden to show how a spatial pattern of knowledge interactions develops over time.
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