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  • Abarca-Gómez, Leandra, et al. (författare)
  • Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: A pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - 01406736 .- 1474547X. ; 390:Dec 16, s. 2627-2642
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults.METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5-19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity).FINDINGS: Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (-0·01 kg/m(2) per decade; 95% credible interval -0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m(2) per decade (0·69-1·35, PP>0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m(2) per decade (0·64-1·25, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m(2) per decade (-0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m(2) per decade (0·50-1·06, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4-1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8-6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5-1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7-9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0-12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8-10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4-19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3-14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7-29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5-38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44-117) million girls and 117 (70-178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24-89) million girls and 74 (39-125) million boys worldwide were obese.INTERPRETATION: The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults.FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, AstraZeneca Young Health Programme.
  • Ahlqwist, M, et al. (författare)
  • Concentrations of blood, serum and urine components in relation to number of amalgam tooth fillings in Swedish women
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Community dentistry and oral apidemiology. ; 23, s. 217-221
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Department of Oral Diagnostic Radiology, Sahlgrenska Hospital, Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden. Altogether 1462 women aged 38, 46, 50, 54 and 60 yr were examined in 1968/69 in a combined medical and dental population study in Gothenburg, Sweden. Number of tooth surfaces restored with amalgam fillings was assessed. The examination was repeated in 1980/81 including a new dental examination. The results from a number of biochemical analyses of blood, serum and urine were analyzed for a possible statistical relationship to number of dental amalgam fillings. As emphasis has been put in the literature on special influence from amalgam on kidney function and on the immunological system, special attention was paid to variables which might reflect these functions in our analyses. When potential confounders were taken into consideration, no significant correlations remained which seemed to be of clinical importance. Specifically, amalgam fillings were not found to be associated with impairment of the kidney function or the immunological status. PMID: 7587142 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
  • Ahrens, W, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of overweight and obesity in European children below the age of 10.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International journal of obesity (2005). - 1476-5497. ; 38, s. S99-107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is a lack of common surveillance systems providing comparable figures and temporal trends of the prevalence of overweight (OW), obesity and related risk factors among European preschool and school children. Comparability of available data is limited in terms of sampling design, methodological approaches and quality assurance. The IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health Effects in Children and infantS) study provides one of the largest European data sets of young children based on state-of-the-art methodology.
  • Ahrens, W, et al. (författare)
  • The IDEFICS cohort: design, characteristics and participations in the baseline survey.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - 1476-5497. ; 35:suppl 1, s. 3-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The European IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study was set up to determine the aetiology of overweight, obesity and related disorders in children, and to develop and evaluate a tailored primary prevention programme. OBJECTIVE: This paper focuses on the aetiological element of the multicentre study, the measures and examinations, sociodemographic characteristics of the study sample and proportions of participation. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with an embedded intervention study that started with a baseline survey in eight countries in 2007-2008. SUBJECTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Baseline participants of the prospective cohort study were 16,224 children aged 2-9 years. Parents reported sociodemographic, behavioural, medical, nutritional and other lifestyle data for their children and families. Examinations of children included anthropometry, blood pressure, fitness, accelerometry, DNA from saliva and physiological markers in blood and urine. The built environment, sensory taste perception and other mechanisms of children's food choices and consumer behaviour were studied in subgroups. RESULTS: Between 1507 and 2567, children with a mean age of 6.0 years and an even sex distribution were recruited from each country. Of them, 82% lived in two-parent families. The distribution of standardised income levels differed by study sample, with low-income groups being strongly represented in Cyprus, Italy and Germany. At least one 24-h dietary recall was obtained for two-thirds of the children. Blood pressure and anthropometry were assessed in more than 90%. A 3-day accelerometry was performed in 46%, motor fitness was assessed in 41%, cardiorespiratory fitness in 35% and ∼11% participated in taste perception tests. The proportion of children donating venous blood, urine and saliva was 57, 86 and 88%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The IDEFICS cohort provides valuable data to investigate the interplay of social, environmental, genetic, physiological and behavioural factors in the development of major diet- and lifestyle-related disorders affecting children at present.
  • Andersson, B., et al. (författare)
  • Testosterone concentrations in women and men with NIDDM
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. ; 17, s. 405-411
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Department of Medicine, Sahlgren's Hospital, University of Göteborg, Sweden. OBJECTIVE--To evaluate androgen concentrations in relation to insulin resistance in men and women with and without NIDDM. Recent studies have indicated the potential importance of the regulation of insulin sensitivity by androgens in both women and men. Low sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentration is an independent risk factor for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in women and is strongly associated statistically with signs of insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--We compared measurements of anthropometric variables and SHBG, steroid hormone, and insulin concentrations of women and men who have NIDDM with those of control subjects. RESULTS--Women with NIDDM had somewhat higher plasma insulin concentrations, lower SHBG, and higher free testosterone values than did control subjects with similar body mass index (BMI). Women with NIDDM had marginally higher waist-to-hip ratios (WHR). Plasma insulin concentrations correlated positively with BMI, WHR, and free testosterone and negatively with SHBG. In multivariate analyses, insulin concentrations remained positively associated with BMI and free testosterone. Men with NIDDM had higher fasting plasma insulin concentrations than did the nondiabetic control subjects. Testosterone and SHBG were lower in the diabetic men than in both control groups. The derived value of free testosterone was not different between groups. Univariate correlation analyses revealed tight statistical couplings between plasma insulin on the one hand and SHBG and testosterone concentrations (negative) on the other. In multivariate analyses, only the insulin-testosterone association remained. CONCLUSIONS: Women with NIDDM have high levels of free testosterone and low levels of SHBG. Insulin resistance is closely correlated with these signs of hyperandrogenicity as well as with obesity. Men with NIDDM also have low levels of SHBG and, in contrast to women, low testosterone values. Insulin values correlate negatively with these hormonal factors. Based on the results of experimental work and intervention studies, we suggest that these androgen abnormalities might be causally related to insulin resistance in NIDDM. PMID: 8062607 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
  • Andersson, Christina, 1955-, et al. (författare)
  • Drinking context and problematic alcohol consumption in young Swedish women Drinking context and problematic alcohol consumption
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Addiction Research and Theory. - 1606-6359 .- 1476-7392. ; 21:6, s. 457-468
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous research has indicated that a variety of contextual factors are involved in the development of drinking behavior. An integrated perspective can extend our understanding of the context and circumstances in which individuals drink. In this study, a person-oriented approach, cluster analysis, was used to identify drinking context clusters in a population of 20- and 25-year-old Swedish women. A further aim was to analyze how these clusters were associated with problematic alcohol consumption (high episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol use disorder (AUD)). A total of 760 respondents were interviewed, some in 1996 and some in 2001. Self-reported effects of drinking and situational factors associated with drinking alcohol were used in the cluster analysis procedure. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations with problematic alcohol consumption. The results revealed four distinct clusters of drinking patterns: coping drinkers, social drinkers, controlled drinkers, and moderate drinkers. Differences between clusters concerning problematic alcohol consumption were found. HED was significantly more common among the social drinkers and alcohol use disorder was more prevalent among the coping drinkers. Age differences and to a lesser extent secular trends in drinking pattern could be observed. The findings suggest that information on drinking context can help to explain differences in patterns of risky drinking and AUD. This highlights the importance of identifying groups of individuals with potentially harmful drinking patterns, which could be the target of specific preventive actions.
  • Arvidsson, Louise, et al. (författare)
  • Bidirectional associations between psychosocial well-being and adherence to healthy dietary guidelines in European children: prospective findings from the IDEFICS study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Bmc Public Health. - 1471-2458. ; 17:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In children the relationship between a healthy diet and psychosocial well-being has not been fully explored and the existing evidence is inconsistent. This study investigates the chronology of the association between children's adherence to healthy dietary guidelines and their well-being, with special attention to the influence of weight status on the association. Methods: Seven thousand six hundred seventy five children 2 to 9 years old from the eight-country cohort study IDEFICS were investigated. They were first examined between September 2007 and June 2008 and re-examined again 2 years later. Psychosocial well-being was measured using self-esteem and parent relations questions from the KINDL (R) and emotional and peer problems from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. A Healthy Dietary Adherence Score (HDAS) was calculated from a 43-item food frequency questionnaire as a measure of the degree to which children's dietary intake follows nutrition guidelines. The analysis employed multilevel logistic regression (country as random effect) with bidirectional modeling of dichotomous dietary and well-being variables as both exposures and outcomes while controlling for respective baseline values. Results: A higher HDAS at baseline was associated with better self-esteem (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0; 1.4) and fewer emotional and peer problems (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1; 1.3 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2; 1.4) 2 years later. For the reversed direction, better self-esteem was associated with higher HDAS 2 years later (OR 1.1 95% CI 1.0; 1.29). The analysis stratified by weight status revealed that the associations between higher HDAS at baseline and better well-being at follow-up were similar in both normal weight and overweight children. Conclusion: Present findings suggest a bidirectional relation between diet quality and self-esteem. Additionally, higher adherence to healthy dietary guidelines at baseline was associated with fewer emotional and peer problems at follow-up, independent of children's weight status.
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