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  • Ahlqwist, M, et al. (författare)
  • Concentrations of blood, serum and urine components in relation to number of amalgam tooth fillings in Swedish women
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Community dentistry and oral apidemiology. ; 23, s. 217-221
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Department of Oral Diagnostic Radiology, Sahlgrenska Hospital, Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden. Altogether 1462 women aged 38, 46, 50, 54 and 60 yr were examined in 1968/69 in a combined medical and dental population study in Gothenburg, Sweden. Number of tooth surfaces restored with amalgam fillings was assessed. The examination was repeated in 1980/81 including a new dental examination. The results from a number of biochemical analyses of blood, serum and urine were analyzed for a possible statistical relationship to number of dental amalgam fillings. As emphasis has been put in the literature on special influence from amalgam on kidney function and on the immunological system, special attention was paid to variables which might reflect these functions in our analyses. When potential confounders were taken into consideration, no significant correlations remained which seemed to be of clinical importance. Specifically, amalgam fillings were not found to be associated with impairment of the kidney function or the immunological status. PMID: 7587142 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
  • Ahrens, W, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of overweight and obesity in European children below the age of 10.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International journal of obesity (2005). - 1476-5497. ; 38, s. 99
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is a lack of common surveillance systems providing comparable figures and temporal trends of the prevalence of overweight (OW), obesity and related risk factors among European preschool and school children. Comparability of available data is limited in terms of sampling design, methodological approaches and quality assurance. The IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health Effects in Children and infantS) study provides one of the largest European data sets of young children based on state-of-the-art methodology.
  • Ahrens, W, et al. (författare)
  • The IDEFICS cohort: design, characteristics and participations in the baseline survey.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - 1476-5497. ; 35:suppl 1, s. 3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The European IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study was set up to determine the aetiology of overweight, obesity and related disorders in children, and to develop and evaluate a tailored primary prevention programme. OBJECTIVE: This paper focuses on the aetiological element of the multicentre study, the measures and examinations, sociodemographic characteristics of the study sample and proportions of participation. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with an embedded intervention study that started with a baseline survey in eight countries in 2007-2008. SUBJECTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Baseline participants of the prospective cohort study were 16,224 children aged 2-9 years. Parents reported sociodemographic, behavioural, medical, nutritional and other lifestyle data for their children and families. Examinations of children included anthropometry, blood pressure, fitness, accelerometry, DNA from saliva and physiological markers in blood and urine. The built environment, sensory taste perception and other mechanisms of children's food choices and consumer behaviour were studied in subgroups. RESULTS: Between 1507 and 2567, children with a mean age of 6.0 years and an even sex distribution were recruited from each country. Of them, 82% lived in two-parent families. The distribution of standardised income levels differed by study sample, with low-income groups being strongly represented in Cyprus, Italy and Germany. At least one 24-h dietary recall was obtained for two-thirds of the children. Blood pressure and anthropometry were assessed in more than 90%. A 3-day accelerometry was performed in 46%, motor fitness was assessed in 41%, cardiorespiratory fitness in 35% and ?11% participated in taste perception tests. The proportion of children donating venous blood, urine and saliva was 57, 86 and 88%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The IDEFICS cohort provides valuable data to investigate the interplay of social, environmental, genetic, physiological and behavioural factors in the development of major diet- and lifestyle-related disorders affecting children at present.
  • Andersson, B., et al. (författare)
  • Testosterone concentrations in women and men with NIDDM
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. ; 17, s. 405-411
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Department of Medicine, Sahlgren's Hospital, University of Göteborg, Sweden. OBJECTIVE--To evaluate androgen concentrations in relation to insulin resistance in men and women with and without NIDDM. Recent studies have indicated the potential importance of the regulation of insulin sensitivity by androgens in both women and men. Low sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentration is an independent risk factor for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in women and is strongly associated statistically with signs of insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--We compared measurements of anthropometric variables and SHBG, steroid hormone, and insulin concentrations of women and men who have NIDDM with those of control subjects. RESULTS--Women with NIDDM had somewhat higher plasma insulin concentrations, lower SHBG, and higher free testosterone values than did control subjects with similar body mass index (BMI). Women with NIDDM had marginally higher waist-to-hip ratios (WHR). Plasma insulin concentrations correlated positively with BMI, WHR, and free testosterone and negatively with SHBG. In multivariate analyses, insulin concentrations remained positively associated with BMI and free testosterone. Men with NIDDM had higher fasting plasma insulin concentrations than did the nondiabetic control subjects. Testosterone and SHBG were lower in the diabetic men than in both control groups. The derived value of free testosterone was not different between groups. Univariate correlation analyses revealed tight statistical couplings between plasma insulin on the one hand and SHBG and testosterone concentrations (negative) on the other. In multivariate analyses, only the insulin-testosterone association remained. CONCLUSIONS: Women with NIDDM have high levels of free testosterone and low levels of SHBG. Insulin resistance is closely correlated with these signs of hyperandrogenicity as well as with obesity. Men with NIDDM also have low levels of SHBG and, in contrast to women, low testosterone values. Insulin values correlate negatively with these hormonal factors. Based on the results of experimental work and intervention studies, we suggest that these androgen abnormalities might be causally related to insulin resistance in NIDDM. PMID: 8062607 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
  • Andersson, Christina, 1955-, et al. (författare)
  • Drinking context and problematic alcohol consumption in young Swedish women
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Addiction Research and Theory. - 1606-6359. ; 21:6, s. 457-468
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous research has indicated that a variety of contextual factors are involved in the development of drinking behavior. An integrated perspective can extend our understanding of the context and circumstances in which individuals drink. In this study, a person-oriented approach, cluster analysis, was used to identify drinking context clusters in a population of 20- and 25-year-old Swedish women. A further aim was to analyze how these clusters were associated with problematic alcohol consumption (high episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol use disorder (AUD)). A total of 760 respondents were interviewed, some in 1996 and some in 2001. Self-reported effects of drinking and situational factors associated with drinking alcohol were used in the cluster analysis procedure. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations with problematic alcohol consumption. The results revealed four distinct clusters of drinking patterns: coping drinkers, social drinkers, controlled drinkers, and moderate drinkers. Differences between clusters concerning problematic alcohol consumption were found. HED was significantly more common among the social drinkers and alcohol use disorder was more prevalent among the coping drinkers. Age differences and to a lesser extent secular trends in drinking pattern could be observed. The findings suggest that information on drinking context can help to explain differences in patterns of risky drinking and AUD. This highlights the importance of identifying groups of individuals with potentially harmful drinking patterns, which could be the target of specific preventive actions.
  • Baker, JH, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic risk factors for disordered eating in adolescent males and females
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: J Abnorm Psychol. - 0021-843X. ; 118:3, s. 576-86
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The etiologic role of genetic and environmental factors on disordered eating was examined in a sample of 15- to 17-year-old female-female, male-male, and opposite-sex twin pairs. Also assessed was whether a single factor is underlying 3 facets (body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimia) of disordered eating, including the possible importance of sex differences. Univariate model-fitting analyses indicated that genetic factors are more important for girls and environment more important for boys for body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness. A multivariate common factor analysis indicated that a single factor accounted for the association among these 3 facets of disordered eating in both sexes. However, only 50% of the genetic risk for this factor is shared between the sexes.
  • Baker, Jennifer L, et al. (författare)
  • Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 1938-3207. ; 88:6, s. 1543-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding duration is long. DESIGN: We selected women from the Danish National Birth Cohort who ever breastfed (>98%), and we conducted the interviews at 6 (n = 36 030) and 18 (n = 26 846) mo postpartum. We used regression analyses to investigate whether breastfeeding (scored to account for duration and intensity) reduced PPWR at 6 and 18 mo after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). RESULTS: GWG was positively (P < 0.0001) associated with PPWR at both 6 and 18 mo postpartum. Breastfeeding was negatively associated with PPWR in all women but those in the heaviest category of prepregnancy BMI at 6 (P < 0.0001) and 18 (P < 0.05) mo postpartum. When modeled together with adjustment for possible confounding, these associations were marginally attenuated. We calculated that, if women exclusively breastfed for 6 mo as recommended, PPWR could be eliminated by that time in women with GWG values of approximately 12 kg, and that the possibility of major weight gain (>or=5 kg) could be reduced in all but the heaviest women. CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding was associated with lower PPWR in all categories of prepregnancy BMI. These results suggest that, when combined with GWG values of approximately 12 kg, breastfeeding as recommended could eliminate weight retention by 6 mo postpartum in many women.
  • Bammann, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of diet, physical activity and biological, social and environmental factors in a multi-centre European project on diet- and lifestyle-related disorders in children (IDEFICS)
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Public Health. - 0943-1853. ; 14, s. 279-289
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity is a major public health problem in developed countries. We present a European project, called Identification and Prevention of Dietary and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants (IDEFICS), that focuses on diet- and lifestyle-related diseases in children. This paper outlines methodological aspects and means of quality control in IDEFICS. IDEFICS will use a multicentre survey design of a population-based cohort of about 17,000 2- to 10-year-old children in nine European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden). The project will investigate the impact of dietary factors such as food intake and food preferences, lifestyle factors such as physical activity, psychosocial factors and genetic factors on the development of obesity and other selected diet- and lifestyle-related disorders. An intervention study will be set up in pre-school and primary school settings in eight of the survey centres. Standardised survey instruments will be designed during the first phase of the project and applied in the surveys by all centres. Standard operation procedures (SOPs) will be developed, as well as a plan for training the personnel involved in the surveys. These activities will be accompanied by a quality control strategy that will encompass the evaluation of process and result quality throughout the project. IDEFICS will develop comparable Europe-wide health indicators and instruments for data collection among young children. Establishment of a new European cohort within IDEFICS will provide a unique opportunity to document the development of the obesity epidemic in the current generation of young Europeans and investigate the impact of primary prevention in European children populations.
  • Bammann, K, et al. (författare)
  • Socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight in Europe: results from multi-centre IDEFICS study.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Pediatric obesity. - 2047-6302. ; 8:1, s. 1-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To assess the association between different macro- and micro-level socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight. Methods Data from the IDEFICS baseline survey is used to investigate the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic factors, like socioeconomic status (SES), and the prevalence of childhood overweight. Differences and similarities regarding this relationship in eight European regions (located in Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden) are explored. 11?994 children (50.9% boys, 49.1% girls) and their parents were included in the analyses. Results In five of the eight investigated regions (in Belgium, Estonia, Germany, Spain and Sweden), the prevalence of childhood overweight followed an inverse SES gradient. In the other three regions (in Cyprus, Hungary and Italy), no association between SES and childhood overweight was found. The SES-overweight association in a region was best explained by the country-specific human development index and the centre-specific mean income. For the investigated association between other socioeconomic factors and overweight, no clear pattern could be found in the different regions. Conclusion The association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight was shown to be heterogeneous across different European regions. Further research on nationwide European data is needed to confirm the results and to identify target groups for prevention. •Overweight and obesity can be linked to different parental socioeconomic factors already in very young children. •In Western developed countries, the association of childhood overweight and obesity and parental socioeconomic status shows a negative gradient. •Ambiguous results have been obtained regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight and obesity in different countries and over time. •European regions show heterogeneous associations between socioeconomic factors and overweight and obesity in a multi-centre study with highly standardized study protoco. •The strength of association between SES and overweight and obesity varies across European regions. •In our study, the SES gradient is correlated with the regional mean income and the country-specific Human development index indicating a strong influence not only of the family but also of region and country on the overweight and obesity prevalence.
  • Bel-Serrat, S, et al. (författare)
  • Relative validity of the Children's Eating Habits Questionnaire-food frequency section among young European children: the IDEFICS Study.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition. - 1368-9800. ; 17:2, s. 266-276
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract OBJECTIVE: To compare, specifically by age group, proxy-reported food group estimates obtained from the food frequency section of the Children's Eating Habits questionnaire (CEHQ-FFQ) against the estimates of two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR). DESIGN: Estimates of food group intakes assessed via the forty-three-food-group CEHQ-FFQ were compared with those obtained by a computerized 24-HDR. Agreement on frequencies of intakes (equal to the number of portions per recall period) between the two instruments was examined using crude and de-attenuated Pearson's correlation coefficients, cross-classification analyses, weighted kappa statistics (? w) and Bland-Altman analysis. SETTING: Kindergartens/schools from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) Study cross-sectional survey (2007-2008). SUBJECTS: Children aged 2-9 years (n 2508, 50·4 % boys). RESULTS: The CEHQ-FFQ provided higher intake estimates for most of the food groups than the 24-HDR. De-attenuated Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0·01 (sweetened fruit) to 0·48 (sweetened milk) in children aged 2-<6 years (mean = 0·25) and from 0·01 (milled cereal) to 0·44 (water) in children aged 6-9 years (mean = 0·23). An average of 32 % and 31 % of food group intakes were assigned to the same quartile in younger and older children, respectively, and classification into extreme opposite quartiles was ?12 % for all food groups in both age groups. Mean ? w was 0·20 for 2-<6-year-olds and 0·17 for 6-9-year-olds. CONCLUSIONS: The strength of association estimates assessed by the CEHQ-FFQ and the 24-HDR varied by food group and by age group. Observed level of agreement and CEHQ-FFQ ability to rank children according to intakes of food groups were considered to be low.
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