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  • Abad, A., et al. (författare)
  • Fuel reactor model validation: Assessment of the key parameters affecting the chemical-looping combustion of coal
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. - 1750-5836. ; 19, s. 541-551
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The success of a Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) system for coal combustion is greatly affected by the performance of the fuel reactor. When coal is gasified in situ in the fuel reactor, several parameters affect the coal conversion, and hence the capture and combustion efficiencies. In this paper, a mathematical model for the fuel reactor is validated against experimental results obtained in a 100 kW(th) CLC unit when reactor temperature, solids circulation flow rate or solids inventory are varied. This is the first time that a mathematical model for Chemical Looping Combustion of coal with in situ gasification (iG-CLC) has been validated against experimental results obtained in a continuously operated unit. The validated model can be used to evaluate the relevance of operating conditions on process efficiency. Model simulations showed that the reactor temperature, the solids circulation flow rate and the solids inventory were the most relevant operating conditions affecting the oxygen demand. However, high values of the solids circulation flow rate must be prevented because they cause a decrease in the CO2 capture. The high values of CO2 capture efficiency obtained were due to the highly efficient carbon stripper. The validated model is a helpful tool in designing the fuel reactor to optimize the CLC process. A CO2 capture efficiency of eta(CC) = 98.5% and a total oxygen demand of Omega(T) = 9.6% is predicted, operating at 1000 C and 1500 kg/MWth in the fuel reactor.
  • Abad, Alberto, 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • The use of iron oxide as oxygen carrier in a chemical-looping reactor
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Fuel. - 0016-2361. ; 86:7-8, s. 1021-1035
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a method for the combustion of fuel gas with inherent separation of carbon dioxide. This technique involves the use of two interconnected reactors, an air reactor and a fuel reactor. The oxygen demanded in the fuel combustion is supplied by a solid oxygen carrier, which circulates between both reactors. Fuel gas and air are never mixed and pure CO2 can be obtained from the flue gas exit. This paper presents the results from the use of an iron-based oxygen-carrier in a continuously operating laboratory CLC unit, consisting of two interconnected fluidized beds. Natural gas or syngas was used as fuel, and the thermal power was between 100 and 300 W. Tests were performed at four temperatures: 1073, 1123, 1173 and 1223 K. The prototype was successfully operated for all tests and stable conditions were maintained during the combustion. The same particles were used during 60 h of hot fluidization conditions, whereof 40 h with combustion. The combustion efficiency of syngas was high, about 99% for all experimental conditions. However, in the combustion tests with natural gas, there was unconverted methane in the exit flue gases. Higher temperature and lower fuel flows increase the combustion efficiency, which ranged between 70% and 94% at 1123 K. No signs of agglomeration or mass loss were detected, and the crushing strength of the oxygen carrier particles did not change significantly. Complementary experiments in a batch fluidized bed were made to compare the reactivity of the oxygen carrier particles before and after the 40 h of operation, but the reactivity of the particles was not affected significantly.
  • Abanades, J. C., et al. (författare)
  • Emerging CO2 capture systems
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control. - 1750-5836. ; 40, s. 126-166
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2005, the IPCC SRCCS recognized the large potential for developing and scaling up a wide range of emerging CO2 capture technologies that promised to deliver lower energy penalties and cost. These included new energy conversion technologies such as chemical looping and novel capture systems based on the use of solid sorbents or membrane-based separation systems. In the last 10 years, a substantial body of scientific and technical literature on these topics has been produced from a large number of R&D projects worldwide, trying to demonstrate these concepts at increasing pilot scales, test and model the performance of key components at bench scale, investigate and develop improved functional materials, optimize the full process schemes with a view to a wide range of industrial applications, and to carry out more rigorous cost studies etc. This paper presents a general and critical review of the state of the art of these emerging CO2 capture technologies paying special attention to specific process routes that have undergone a substantial increase in technical readiness level toward the large scales required by any CO2 capture system.
  • Adanez-Rubio, Inaki, et al. (författare)
  • Investigation of Combined Supports for Cu-based Oxygen Carriers for Chemical-Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Energy & Fuels. - 0887-0624. ; 27:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) process is a novel solution for efficient combustion with inherent separation of carbon dioxide. The process uses a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier to transfer oxygen from an air to a fuel reactor. In the fuel reactor, the metal oxide releases gas phase oxygen which oxidizes the fuel through normal combustion. In this study, Cu-based oxygen carrier materials that combine different supports of MgAl2O4, TiO2 and SiO2 are prepared and characterized with the objective of obtaining highly reactive and attrition resistant particles. The oxygen carrier particles were produced by spray-drying and were calcined at different temperatures ranging from 950 to 1030oC for 4 h. The chemical-looping performance of the oxygen carriers was examined in a batch fluidized-bed reactor in the temperature range of 900-950oC under alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions. The mechanical stability of the oxygen carriers was tested in a jet-cup attrition rig. All of the oxygen carriers showed oxygen uncoupling behaviour with oxygen concentrations close to equilibrium. During reactivity tests with methane, oxygen carriers with lower mechanical stability showed higher reactivity, yielding almost complete fuel conversion. Oxygen carrier materials based on support mixtures of MgAl2O4/TiO2, MgAl2O4/SiO2 and TiO2/SiO2 showed a combination of high mechanical stability, low attrition rates, good reactivity with methane and oxygen uncoupling behaviour.
  • Arjmand, Mehdi, 1986-, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of CuAl2O4 as an Oxygen Carrier in Chemical-Looping Combustion
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. - 1520-5045. ; 51:43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process is a novel solution for efficient combustion with intrinsic separation of carbon dioxide. The process uses a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier to transfer oxygen from an air to a fuel reactor where the fuel, or gasification products of the fuel, reacts with the solid oxygen carrier. In this work, copper(II) aluminate (CuAl2O4) was assessed as a potential oxygen carrier using methane as fuel. The carrier particles were produced by freeze–granulation and calcined at 1050 °C for a duration of 6 h. The chemical-looping characteristics were evaluated in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor in the temperature range of 900–950 °C during 45 alternating redox cycles. The oxygen carrier exhibited reproducible and stable reactivity behavior in this temperature range. Neither agglomeration nor defluidization was noticed in any of the cycles carried out at 900–925 °C. However, after reactivity tests at 950 °C, soft agglomeration and particle fragmentation were observed. Systematic phase analysis of the Cu–Al–O system during the redox cycle was carried out as a function of duration of reduction and oxygen concentration during the oxidation period. It was found that the CuAl2O4 is reduced to copper(I) aluminate (CuAlO2; delafossite), Cu2O, and elemental Cu. The CuAlO2 phase is characterized by slow kinetics for oxidation into CuO and CuAl2O4. Despite this kinetic limitation, complete conversion of methane with reproducible reactivity of the oxygen carrier is achieved. Thus, CuAl2O4 could be a potential oxygen carrier for chemical-looping combustion.
  • Arjmand, Mehdi, 1986-, et al. (författare)
  • Investigation of Different Manganese Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical-Looping Combustion (CLC) for Solid Fuels
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Applied Energy. - 0306-2619. ; 113, s. 1883-1894
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process is a novel solution for efficient combustion with direct capture of carbon dioxide. The process uses a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier to transfer oxygen from an air to a fuel reactor, where the fuel reacts with the solid oxygen carrier. In this work, six different manganese ores are investigated as oxygen carriers for CLC application. The chemical-looping characteristics of the oxygen carriers were evaluated in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor in the temperature range of 900-970oC during alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions. Three of the manganese ores showed a small oxygen release in inert environment between 850 and 950oC. During reactivity tests, the gas yield with methane increased with the temperature and complete conversion of 50% CO in H2 was obtained for all of the ores. The rates of char gasification of two fuels, namely Mexican petroleum coke and Swedish wood char, were compared for the different manganese ores at 970oC and with 50% H2O in N2 as fluidizing gas. Ilmenite and a manufactured Mn-oxide oxygen carrier consisting of Mn3O4 and MgO-stabilized ZrO2 as support were also included for comparison. The char gasification rate and the gas conversion were higher with the manganese ores and the Mn-oxide oxygen carrier compared to ilmenite. However, the higher reactivity of the manganese ores with H2 and the ensuing decrease in H2 inhibition for manganese ores is not sufficient to explain their higher rate of char gasification. Surface analysis of partially gasified petcoke particles in the presence of manganese ores showed formation of cavities and channels as well as a uniform distribution of potassium and sodium elements. The rate of char gasification also increased with the concentration of potassium and sodium impurities in the manganese ores. Thus the results suggest that the increased rate of char conversion for manganese ores is due to alkali-catalyzed steam gasification. The increase in rate of char gasification, in combination with potentially low costs of these materials suggests that manganese ores could be interesting materials for CLC with solid fuels.
  • Arjmand, Mehdi, 1986-, et al. (författare)
  • Oxygen Release and Oxidation Rates of MgAl2O4-Supported CuO Oxygen Carrier for Chemical-Looping Combustion with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU)
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Energy & Fuels. - 0887-0624. ; 26:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The chemical-looping combustion (CLC) and chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) processes are novel solutions for efficient combustion with inherent separation of carbon dioxide. These processes use a metal oxide as an oxygen carrier to transfer oxygen from an air reactor to a fuel reactor, where the fuel reacts with the solid oxygen carrier. When solid fuel is used in CLC, the char must be gasified by, e.g., steam to form H2 and CO, that can be subsequently oxidized to H2O and CO2 by the oxygen carrier. In the case of CLOU, the oxygen carrier releases oxygen gas in the fuel reactor. This enables a high rate of conversion of char from solid fuels, because it eliminates the need for the gasification step needed in normal CLC with solid fuels. In this work, the rate of oxygen release and oxidation of an oxygen carrier consisting of CuO supported by MgAl2O4 (40/60 wt %) for the CLOU process is investigated. The oxygen carrier was produced by freeze-granulation, calcined at 950 °C, and sieved to a size range of 125–180 μm. The reaction rates were obtained in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor in the temperature range of 850–900 °C, under alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions. The rate of oxygen release was obtained using devolatilized wood char as the fuel in N2 fluidization. Care was taken to obtain reliable measurements not affected by the availability of the fuel and temperature increase in the bed during combustion of the fuel with the released oxygen from the carrier. The Avrami–Erofeev mechanism was used to model the rates of oxygen release and the values of ko and Eapp were estimated to be 2.5 × 105 s–1 and 139.3 kJ mol–1, respectively. The rates of Cu2O oxidation were investigated in a flow of 5% O2 at the inlet of the reactor. However, it was observed that the oxidation rate is limited by the oxygen supply, indicating rapid conversion of the oxygen carrier. From the obtained reaction rates, the minimum total amount of the investigated oxygen carrier needed in the air and the fuel reactor is estimated to be between 69–139 kg MWth–1.
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