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  • Andersson, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • How to measure renal artery stenosis - a retrospective comparison of morphological measurement approaches in relation to hemodynamic significance
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Imaging. - BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. - 1471-2342. ; 15:42
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Although it is well known that renal artery stenosis may cause renovascular hypertension, it is unclear how the degree of stenosis should best be measured in morphological images. The aim of this study was to determine which morphological measures from Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) and Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) are best in predicting whether a renal artery stenosis is hemodynamically significant or not. Methods: Forty-seven patients with hypertension and a clinical suspicion of renovascular hypertension were examined with CTA, MRA, captopril-enhanced renography (CER) and captopril test (Ctest). CTA and MRA images of the renal arteries were analyzed by two readers using interactive vessel segmentation software. The measures included minimum diameter, minimum area, diameter reduction and area reduction. In addition, two radiologists visually judged the diameter reduction without automated segmentation. The results were then compared using limits of agreement and intra-class correlation, and correlated with the results from CER combined with Ctest (which were used as standard of reference) using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Results: A total of 68 kidneys had all three investigations (CTA, MRA and CER + Ctest), where 11 kidneys (16.2 %) got a positive result on the CER + Ctest. The greatest area under ROC curve (AUROC) was found for the area reduction on MRA, with a value of 0.91 (95 % confidence interval 0.82-0.99), excluding accessory renal arteries. As comparison, the AUROC for the radiologists visual assessments on CTA and MRA were 0.90 (0.82-0.98) and 0.91 (0.83-0.99) respectively. None of the differences were statistically significant. Conclusions: No significant differences were found between the morphological measures in their ability to predict hemodynamically significant stenosis, but a tendency of MRA having higher AUROC than CTA. There was no significant difference between measurements made by the radiologists and measurements made with fuzzy connectedness segmentation. Further studies are required to definitely identify the optimal measurement approach.
  • Andreev, N. E., et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of laser wakefield dynamics in capillary tubes
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: New Journal of Physics. - IOP Publishing Ltd.. - 1367-2630. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A general approach to the modifications of the spectrum of a laser pulse interacting with matter is elaborated and used for spectral diagnostics of laser wakefield generation in guiding structures. Analytical predictions of the laser frequency red shift due to the wakefield excited in a capillary waveguide are confirmed by self-consistent modeling results. The role of ionization blue shift, and nonlinear laser pulse and wakefield dynamics on the spectrum modification, is analyzed for recent experiments on plasma wave excitation by an intense laser pulse guided in hydrogen-filled glass capillary tubes up to 8 cm long. The dependence of the spectral frequency shift, measured as a function of filling pressure, capillary tube length and incident laser energy, is in excellent agreement with the simulation results, and the associated longitudinal accelerating field is in the range 1-10 GV m(-1).
  • Aurand, Bastian, et al. (författare)
  • A setup for studies of laser-driven proton acceleration at the Lund Laser Centre
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Laser and Particle Beams. - Cambridge University Press. - 0263-0346. ; 33:1, s. 59-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on a setup for the investigation of proton acceleration in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration. The main interest here is to focus on stable laser beam parameters as well as a reliable target setup and diagnostics in order to do extensive and systematic studies on the acceleration mechanism. A motorized target alignment system in combination with large target mounts allows for up to 340 shots with high repetition rate without breaking the vacuum. This performance is used to conduct experiments with a split mirror setup exploring the effect of spatial and temporal separation between the pulses on the acceleration mechanism and on the resulting proton beam.
  • Axelsson, Emil, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Feldspar: A Domain Specific Language for Digital Signal Processing algorithms
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Eighth ACM/IEEE International Conference on Formal Methods and Models for Codesign. - 978-142447885-9 ; s. 169-178
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A new language, Feldspar, is presented, enabling high-level and platform-independent description of digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms. Feldspar is a pure functional language embedded in Haskell. It offers a high-level dataflow style of programming, as well as a more mathematical style based on vector indices. The key to generating efficient code from such descriptions is a high-level optimization technique called vector fusion. Feldspar is based on a low-level, functional core language which has a relatively small semantic gap to machine-oriented languages like C. The core language serves as the interface to the back-end code generator, which produces C. For very small examples, the generated code performs comparably to hand-written C code when run on a DSP target. While initial results are promising, to achieve good performance on larger examples, issues related to memory access patterns and array copying will have to be addressed.
  • Axelsson, Emil, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • The Design and Implementation of Feldspar: An Embedded Language for Digital Signal Processing
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Implementation and Application of Functional Languages. - 03029743. - 978-3-642-24275-5 ; 6647, s. 121-136
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Feldspar is a domain specific language, embedded in Haskell, for programming digital signal processing algorithms. The final aim of a Feldspar program is to generate low level code with good performance. Still, we chose to provide the user with a purely functional DSL. The language is implemented as a minimal, deeply embedded core language, with shallow extensions built upon it. This paper presents full details of the essential parts of the implementation. Our initial conclusion is that this approach works well in our domain, although much work remains.
  • Axelsson, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Communication Analysis of Public Forms Discovering Multi-functional Purposes in Citizen and Government Communication
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Public Information Systems. - Sundsvall : MidSweden University. - 1653-4360. ; :3, s. 161-181
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper adopts a communication perspective on forms in public e-services. This perspective emphasizes that the main purpose of such forms is to facilitate communication between citizens and government agencies. The form is perceived as a tool for performing communicative actions. A communication analysis (CA) method, originally developed for systems requirements engineering, is applied on a public form; i.e. the medical certificate used in connection with a citizen’s application for a provisional driving license in Sweden. The CA method consists of a set of questions related tothree communicative categories; conditions, actions, and consequences. The CA method is used in order to explore the communicative roles of forms in public e-services. As a result of the communication analysis four multi-functional purposes of citizen and government agency communication are discovered. These purposes contribute to the understanding and evaluation of forms in public e-services. The communicative roles, and their multi-functional purposes, are important design features to focus in the development of e-services and electronic forms. Besides these findings, another outcomeis that the CA method has been tested in an e-government context. The communication perspective, as well as the CA method, contribute with useful insights in this context.
  • Backman, Ylva, et al. (författare)
  • Ethics in school from moral development to children's conceptions of justice
  • 2009
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A main issue in Swedish school debate is the question of how to teach the student a common value system based on democracy and western humanism. The debate is rather intense, to say the least. Not only is the premise that there exists one value system that we share a target for critique, but there is also the question of what value education is or could be. There is, as well, quite a body of research on children's moral development, where many take as their departure the work of Kohlberg. However, there has been little or no attention on how the individual learner conceptualizes and makes meaning out of ethical issues. That is, descriptions of processes. In this paper we will present what we take to be urgent questions that need to be investigated against the background of prior research and practical work at Södra teatern in Stockholm, Sweden. For eight years in a row, Södra teatern has had as a main project to lead a practice on the subject of philosophy with children. Several groups of youths in the age of nine to eighteen have regularly met to discuss philosophical thoughts and problems, which in a democratic manner are settled for discussion by the participants. Today this philosophical practice has spread to the north of Sweden. In Backman's final exam within the teacher education she has explored the development of children's (7‐8 years old) ability to argue for different ethical positions, both verbally and in writing and painting. This practice has been inspired by the tradition at Södra teatern, but customized to fit a regular school class in Luleå, with very little experience of philosophical discussion. In the very short period of five weeks Backman has been able to see quite significant changes in the children's ability to argue for their ethical positions. The study was initiated by examining some argumentative abilities of the pupils, for instance the ability of expressing an argument for an ethical position in writing. In the final part of the study, the same ability was examined in very similar circumstances, and the augment of expressed arguments in writing was significant. Another consideration that was raised as a consequence of the study regards the pupil's conceptualizing of ethical issues. In some conversations about the notion of justice it became clear that children interpreted the term very differently. This is not very surprising but important to pay further attention to. As mentioned earlier, there has been very little attention on how individual children conceptualize ethical issues. In this paper we argue that more interest should be put on investigating these issues in more depth, and we will do this by an outlining of a research application.
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