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  • Backman, Ylva, et al. (författare)
  • Ethics in school from moral development to children's conceptions of justice
  • 2009
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A main issue in Swedish school debate is the question of how to teach the student a common value system based on democracy and western humanism. The debate is rather intense, to say the least. Not only is the premise that there exists one value system that we share a target for critique, but there is also the question of what value education is or could be. There is, as well, quite a body of research on children's moral development, where many take as their departure the work of Kohlberg. However, there has been little or no attention on how the individual learner conceptualizes and makes meaning out of ethical issues. That is, descriptions of processes. In this paper we will present what we take to be urgent questions that need to be investigated against the background of prior research and practical work at Södra teatern in Stockholm, Sweden. For eight years in a row, Södra teatern has had as a main project to lead a practice on the subject of philosophy with children. Several groups of youths in the age of nine to eighteen have regularly met to discuss philosophical thoughts and problems, which in a democratic manner are settled for discussion by the participants. Today this philosophical practice has spread to the north of Sweden. In Backman's final exam within the teacher education she has explored the development of children's (7‐8 years old) ability to argue for different ethical positions, both verbally and in writing and painting. This practice has been inspired by the tradition at Södra teatern, but customized to fit a regular school class in Luleå, with very little experience of philosophical discussion. In the very short period of five weeks Backman has been able to see quite significant changes in the children's ability to argue for their ethical positions. The study was initiated by examining some argumentative abilities of the pupils, for instance the ability of expressing an argument for an ethical position in writing. In the final part of the study, the same ability was examined in very similar circumstances, and the augment of expressed arguments in writing was significant. Another consideration that was raised as a consequence of the study regards the pupil's conceptualizing of ethical issues. In some conversations about the notion of justice it became clear that children interpreted the term very differently. This is not very surprising but important to pay further attention to. As mentioned earlier, there has been very little attention on how individual children conceptualize ethical issues. In this paper we argue that more interest should be put on investigating these issues in more depth, and we will do this by an outlining of a research application.
  • Backman, Ylva, et al. (författare)
  • Philosophy with children moral argumentation and the role of pictures
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Education for complex thinking through philosophical inquiry. Models, advances, and proposals for the new millennium. : Proceedings of the 14th ICPIC Conference. - Padova : Liguori. - 978-88-207-5711-3 ; s. 131-140
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this paper is to outline the disposition and results of a short-time pilot study (Backman, 2009) of pupils’ ability to express ethical arguments and of the role of pictures in ethical argumentation. There were 18 pupils, in the ages 7-8 years, that participated in the study, which was carried out in a school in the northern part of Sweden. In this paper, we begin by giving a short description of some relevant statements in the Swedish national curriculum and put this in relation to some previous research on philosophical inquiry with children. Then we continue by describing some of the project’s influences from philosophical practice and theoretical groundwork. After this, some methodological concerns and ethical considerations are referred. Finally, some results of the study are described and shortly discussed.
  • Batani, D., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of laser prepulse on proton generation
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. - Elsevier. - 0168-9002. ; 620:1, s. 76-82
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Low-intensity laser prepulse ( < 10(13) W/cm(2), ns duration) are a major issue in experiments on laser-generation of protons, often limiting the performances of proton sources produced by high-intensity lasers (approximate to 10(19) W/cm(2), ps or fs duration) Several effects are associated to the prepulse and are discussed in this contribution: i) Destruction of thin foil targets by the shock generated by the laser prepulse ii) Creation of preplasma on target front side affecting laser absorption iii) Deformation of target rear side iv) Whole displacement of thin foil targets affecting focusing condition In particular, we show that under oblique high-intensity irradiation and for low prepulse intensities, the proton beam is directed away from the target normal. Deviation is towards the laser forward direction, with an angle that increases with the level and duration of the ASE pedestal. Also, for a given laser pulse, beam deviation increases with proton energy. The observations are discussed in terms of Target Normal Sheath Acceleration, in combination with a laser-controllable shock wave locally deforming the target surface. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Batani, D., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of laser prepulse on proton generation
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids. - Taylor & Francis. - 1042-0150. ; 165:6-10, s. 794-802
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prepulse is a major issue for laser generation of protons, often limiting the performances of laser sources. Here, we show the use of prepulse (1013W/cm2, ns duration) to actively manipulate the proton beam direction. Under oblique high-intensity irradiation (approximate to 1019W/cm2, ps duration) of the thin foil target, and for low prepulse intensities, the proton beam is directed away from the ounperturbedo target normal. Observations are discussed in terms of target normal sheath acceleration, in combination with a laser-controllable shock locally deforming the target surface.
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