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  • Arne, B., et al. (författare)
  • Laser ablation breakdown spectroscopy technique for simultaneous analysis of steel and slags in metallurgical samples
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Yejin Fenxi/Metallurgical Analysis. - 10007571. ; 29:2, s. s.8-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The original purpose of this research was to develop a method for fast, simultaneous analysis of both the steel and slag content of heterogeneous metallurgical samples for process control. The method is based on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The reason for choosing LIBS is that it can be employed for both conductive and non-conductive materials, and is relatively insensitive to sample shape and surface finish. The heterogeneous samples produced contain large numbers of sub-millimetre slag particles that cannot be completely separated from the surrounding steel in a LIBS analysis. A method has therefore been developed to perform a line scan analysis with approximately 0.5 mm resolution and 10 mm length along the sample. The laser pulse rate is 20 Hz and the scan speed is 1 mm/s. Slag particles appear in the line scan as "polluted areas" of the steel with very high concentrations of e. g. Ca, Al and Si. A mathematical model was developed to evaluate the data in steps, based on a single calibration. Firstly, "clean steel" areas are identified and the steel composition determined. In the second step, the average composition across the entire length of the scan is determined. In the final step, the average slag composition is determined by means of a difference calculation. The method was tested on several samples from the development of the heterogeneous sampler. It was found that the elements C, Si, Mn, P, S and Al can be determined in the steel with an RSD of a few percent. In the slag, the RSD's are higher, around10% for several important elements. It is expected that the method can be further developed for rapid analysis of smaller non-metallic inclusions.
  • Baoren, Che, et al. (författare)
  • Aging effects of exercise training on erythrocyte
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Journal of Shanghai Physical Education Institute. - 1000-5498. ; 19:S1, s. 102-104
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 长时间剧烈运动能引起循环中的红细胞损伤和老化;而长期运动训练有可能导致运动性贫血的发生,据最近的一些研究表明,尽管一次长时间剧烈运动可引起红细胞被破坏增多,但长期运动训练引起的运动性贫血,在很多情况下属于血液稀释作用造成的。本文设计6周身体训练并在训练的不同阶段进行剧烈运动,测定反映红细咆老化状态的几个敏感指标:2,3—DPG、红细胞肌酸含量及红细胞生成素等,旨在确认不同强度的训练及剧烈运动对红细胞生成和老化的影响,为进一步完善运动性贫血理论提供依据。
  • Bassin, Mark, 1953- (författare)
  • 地理的不确定性: 关于俄罗斯、欧洲和亚洲的四个论题   
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Eluosi Yanjiu = Russian Studies (Shanghai). - Shanghai. - 1009-721X. ; 164:4, s. 58-70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • English Title:  "Geographical Uncertainties: Four Theses on Russia, Europe and Asia"Traditionally accepted explanations of the question of whether Russia belongs to Europe or Asia include: Russia is a European country; Russia is different from Asia; Russia is a Eurasian country. Each of these views contains some truth, but all of then need to be further refined. The following theses will contribute to further understanding of the Russia’s belonging to Europe or Asia: 1) Russia is not only a European country, but is also a European empire. 2) Radical advocates of Eurasian doctrine do not oppose European nature of Russia, but speak against the view that Russia is an empire. 3) The advocates of Eurasian doctrine claim thatRussia is a part of Eurasia and not Asia. Advocates of Eurasian doctrine see Eurasia as a civilization completely different from either Europe or Asia. 4) The advocates of Eurasian doctrine view Russia — Eurasia as a potential colony, and Russia's mission is to be an anti-colonial leader. 
  • Bengtson, Arne, et al. (författare)
  • Expert systems for prediction of corrosion properities of Zn-based coatings from the chemical analysis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Yejin Fenxi/Metallurgical Analysis. - 10007571. ; 32:4, s. s.1-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of the work is to develop a general method, to predict the corrosion resistance of Zn-based coatings, expressed as total mass loss in an accelerated salt spray test. The method is to be based on just three analytical parameters; the total coating weights of Zn, Al and Mg. The reason for this restriction is that determination of these three parameters is possible in on-line analysis. The predicted corrosion resistance could then be included in a process/quality control system. Accelerated corrosion tests have been carried out by Swerea KIMAB IC (Institut de Corrosion) in Brest, and CRM in Belgium. Test were run according to the Renault ECC1 test D172028/-C (12 weeks), and with an accelerated cyclic corrosion test developed by CRM. The materials were divided into four corrosion classes according to total mass loss. All corrosion experiments show clearly the well documented positive influence of magnesium and aluminium. In relation to the masses of these elements in the coatings, the influence of both elements is considerably higher than the influence of zinc alone. For this reason, a new quantity is introduced, called "equivalent Zn coating weight". This quantity is a linear combination of the coating weights of zinc, aluminium and magnesium. A model for prediction of corrosion resistance was developed with the expert system, based on a combination of regression analysis and a "decision tree" algorithm. The model was able to correctly classify 25 out of 27 materials based on just the three analytical parameters mentioned above: the total coating weights of zinc, aluminium and magnesium. In conclusion, the approach shows that an accurate prediction of the corrosion behaviour is possible even on-line. For purposes of material development, the expert system can also be expanded to include additional analytical parameters.
  • Bengtson, Arne, et al. (författare)
  • Rapid inclusion characterisation by pulse distribution analysis optical emission spectroscopy-recent development
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Yejin Fenxi/Metallurgical Analysis. - 10007571. ; 33:1, s. s.7-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of the work is to further develop and validate the optical emission method pulse distribution analysis (PDA) for rapid inclusion characterisation in steel production. The experimental work was focused on investigation of several operational parameters: spark energy, spark frequency and time gating of signal acquisition. The results showed that a low spark energy improves the detection limit, but at the expense of measuring statistics due to a smaller sample volume. The measuring frequency proved to have no significant influence on the analytical results, but several existing instruments cannot handle the highest spark frequencies above about 300 Hz in PDA mode due to limitations in the electronics. Investigation of time gating (TRS) gave only a marginal improvement in the detection limit of Si outliers above the metallic content. The work also revealed that there is a risk to detect "false" outliers due to asymmetric intensity distributions. This has resulted in the development of more advanced algorithms for outlier detection, increasing the accuracy of the method. Another limitation found is that the particle number density must not exceed about 10 000 inclusions/mm3 for the method to effectively detect single inclusions. A method to overcome this limitation has been suggested, but not yet evaluated. The accuracy of quantitative determination of the Al content in inclusions has been verified by reference methods. In conclusion, it has been demonstrated that state-of-the-art PDA is a very powerful technique for rapid inclusion characterisation in steels. Furthermore, the speed of analysis is sufficiently high for process feedback and controllable.
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