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  • Sjöberg, Trygve, et al. (författare)
  • Antagonism of thromboxane receptor induced contractions in isolated human groin lymphatics
  • 1989
  • Ingår i: Lymphology. - International Society of Lymphology. - 0024-7766. ; 22:3, s. 135-140
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In vitro studies were performed on lymphatics obtained from the groin in 19 patients undergoing vascular surgery. The lymphatics were mounted in tissue baths, and isometric contractions were induced by increasing concentrations of the thromboxane A2 (TXA2) mimetic U-46619. In comparison to K+ (124mM)-induced contraction, which were used as an internal standard, the response to U-46619 had an Emax of 105 +/- 5.9%. The pEC50-value was 8.14 +/- 0.09. The effects of two thromboxane receptor (TP-receptor) antagonists, L-636,499 and BM-13,505, were investigated. Both antagonists caused concentration-dependent right-ward shifts without depression of Emax of the U-46619 concentration-response curves. The slopes of the regression lines in a Schild plot for both antagonists did not differ from one, indicating competitive antagonism. The pA2-value of BM-13,505 (7.89) was 65 times higher than that of L-636,499 (6.08). The results suggest that the receptor involved in the prostanoid contraction in human groin lymphatics is of the TP-subtype.
  • Sjöberg, Trygve, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative effects of the alpha-adrenoceptor agonists noradrenaline, phenylephrine and clonidine in the human saphenous vein in vivo and in vitro
  • 1989
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-6772. ; 136:3, s. 463-471
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated contractile effects of noradrenaline (alpha 1 + alpha 2), phenylephrine (alpha 1) and clonidine (alpha 2) on human saphenous veins were investigated in vivo and in vitro. By infusion (0.3 ml min-1) of the drugs (increasing concentrations in the infused solution) into distended (40 mmHg) saphenous veins in six healthy subjects, local vasoconstriction was induced, measured by a photo-electric device. The drugs induced dose-dependent contractions in all subjects, and dose-response curves were constructed. These were compared with concentration-response curves based on in-vitro results. Macroscopically normal saphenous veins, taken at saphenousectomies, were used, and the preparations were contracted isometrically in organ baths by the agonists. From the curves obtained in vivo and in vitro, the relative potencies of phenylephrine and clonidine (in relation to noradrenaline) were calculated and compared. The relative potencies of phenylephrine in vivo (76%) and in vitro (82%) did not differ significantly. However, the relative potency of clonidine was significantly (P less than 0.05) lower in vivo (90%) than in vitro (99%). Thus, it is concluded that there are differences between the results obtained in vivo and in vitro, stressing the importance of comparative in vivo-in vitro studies.
  • Sjöberg, Trygve, et al. (författare)
  • Contractile response in isolated human groin lymphatics
  • 1987
  • Ingår i: Lymphology. - International Society of Lymphology. - 0024-7766. ; 20:3, s. 152-160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lymphatics from the human superficial groin removed at operation in 21 patients (one with lymphedema) were examined in vitro. Histochemically no nerves were identified with either specific catecholamine fluorescence or immunoreactivity to tyrosine hydroxylase or dopamine beta-hydroxylase. Ring preparations of the lymphatics were mounted in tissue baths and isometric induced contractions were recorded after administration of K+ (124 mM), acetylcholine, selected amines and prostanoids. Noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline, dopamine, and acetylcholine had no or only weak contractile effects. In some segments, serotonin induced contractions. Prostaglandin E2 showed no contractile effect and prostaglandin F2 alpha induced contraction in most of the tested lymphatics. The prostaglandin-endoperoxide analogue U44069 uniformly elicited marked concentration-dependent contraction. In the lymphatic segment from the patient with lymphedema, a slightly greater contractile response to NA and serotonin was observed. The results overall suggest an absence of sympathetic innervation and contraction-mediating alpha adrenergic receptors in human superficial groin lymphatics, and support that certain prostanoids may be important regulators of human lymphatic contractility.
  • Sjöberg, Trygve, et al. (författare)
  • Contractility of human leg lymphatics during exercise before and after indomethacin
  • 1989
  • Ingår i: Lymphology. - International Society of Lymphology. - 0024-7766. ; 22:4, s. 186-193
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Subcutaneous lymphatics in the lower leg were catheterized in the retrograde direction in 6 healthy male subjects. The catheter was connected to a pressure transducer, and pressure was measured during three stages of exercise including standing, tip-toeing, and running in place. Before the third stage, indomethacin (50mg) was given i.v. Rhythmic pressure waves were registered in each subject. During the second stage, when the subjects were "warmed up," the frequency (min-1) was 2.4 +/- 0.5 (mean +/- SEM). The corresponding values during tip-toeing and running were 5.8 +/- 0.7 (p less than 0.05) and 5.4 +/- 0.5 (p less than 0.05), respectively. The amplitudes (mean values between 3.2-4.7mmHg while standing) were not consistently altered during tip-toeing or running in any of the three stages. During standing there was a negative correlation between frequency and amplitude. No such correlation was found during tip-toeing or running, or after injection of indomethacin. Indomethacin did not significantly alter any of the measured parameters, but in two subjects the frequencies and amplitudes were decreased (about 50%) during standing, tip-toeing, and running.
  • Hallengren, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • Normal visual fields as assessed by computerized static threshold perimetry in patients with untreated primary hypothyroidism
  • 1989
  • Ingår i: Acta Endocrinologica. - Society of the European Journal of Endocrinology. - 0001-5598. ; 121:4, s. 495-500
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this prospective study, 25 consecutive patients with untreated primary hypothyroidism were tested with a highly sensitive perimetric technique, since a high prevalence of visual field defects has been described in this condition. All patients had clinical hypothyroidism, a serum TSH value greater than 20 mU/l (reference range 0.4-4.0) and decreased/low normal serum total T4 concentration. Visual fields were tested with fully automated threshold-measuring computerized perimetry of the central 30 degrees field. Interpretation of fields included computer-assisted analysis provided by a perimetric statistical programme package. In 23 patients, conventional inspection and computer-assisted analysis showed no visual field defects. Two patients were excluded from the latter analysis: one patient who did not respond adequately at computerized perimetry and in whom manual field tests were entirely normal: one patient who had low sensitivity values in the uppermost parts of both visual fields owing to markedly swollen upper eye lids. In conclusion, although pituitary hyperplasia has been well documented in primary hypothyroidism, the present prospective study clearly indicates that visual field defects are not a common finding in patients with this disease.
  • Herbst, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Infections and antibiotic prophylaxis in reconstructive vascular surgery
  • 1989
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Vascular Surgery. - Elsevier. - 0950-821X. ; 3:4, s. 303-307
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 98 patients undergoing elective vascular surgery, specimens for bacterial cultures were obtained from urine, ischaemic ulcers, incisional wounds and the implanted grafts. Wound and graft infections were registered and compared with the results of these cultures and suspected risk factors in an attempt to find the source of infections. Antibiotic prophylaxis with cefuroxime was given for 24 h beginning at the start of surgery. Patients with ischaemic ulcers also received "spread prophylaxis", directed against isolated bacteria, for ten days. Three cases of graft infection and twelve cases of wound infection occurred. Positive postoperative cultures from wounds did not correlate with pre- or peroperative cultures. Peroperative cultures revealed small numbers of staphylococcus epidermidis in eleven patients, and none of them developed graft infection. Ischaemic ulcers, diabetes or re-do procedures were not accompanied by a significantly increased frequency of wound or graft infection, although each of three patients with graft infection had one of these risk factors. Bacteria, sensitive to cefuroxime, were found in one graft infection, six wound infections, and in two patients with urosepsis, whereas cefuroxime resistant organisms were isolated from one graft infection and three infected wounds. One of the three graft infections was probably caused by bacteria originating from the patient's ischaemic ulcer. In the other two patients the source of bacteria could not be determined. Cefuroxime seems to be an adequate alternative for prophylaxis of vascular graft infection, but in some patients with bacteriuria or indwelling catheters, a one day regimen may be too short.
  • Lindén, Thomas, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of central pontine myelinolysis in the treatment of severe hyponatremia
  • 1989
  • Ingår i: Läkartidningen. - 0023-7205. ; 86:20, s. 1905-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Central pontine myelinolysis is a life-threatening condition involving the demyelination of axons in certain areas of the brain. It has been shown almost invariably to occur in connection with hospital care. In recent years, a connection has been noted between the rapid restitution of low serum sodium and the development of the condition. In this review, the most recent scientific information is summarized. It is concluded that the risk should always be considered in treating a hyponatremic patient. The serum sodium level should be raised slowly and the acute treatment ended before normal serum sodium levels are reached, ie when the patient is still slightly hyponatremic.
  • Thörne, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of ticlopidine and prostaglandin E on endotoxin-induced pulmonary platelet sequestration in vivo
  • 1986
  • Ingår i: Circulatory Shock. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0092-6213. ; 20:1, s. 61-69
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prostaglandin E1 has earlier been shown to decrease pulmonary platelet trapping (PPT) following shock. This experiment was performed to evaluate a new method to study PPT in vivo, and to study the effect of prostaglandin E1 and a new antiplatelet drug (ticlopidine) on PPT in rabbits after i.v. administration of endotoxin. Following platelet labeling with In-111, the rabbits were placed under a scintillation camera for continuous measuring of the activity distribution for 40 minutes. The first five minutes represented reference values, whereafter endotoxin E. coli was injected i.v. The following 2-4 minutes showed a sudden increase of radioactivity over the lungs and a simultaneous decrease over the heart, indicating PPT in the nontreated animals, followed by a slow decrease to almost preshock values during the following 30 minutes. Animals receiving prostaglandin E1 showed a significantly lower activity peak in the lungs after the administration of endotoxin, while the corresponding peak in ticlopidine-treated animals did not differ from that seen in the nontreated animals. In all groups, endotoxin caused a decrease in platelet count, but it was significantly lower in the PGE1-treated animals. The results have shown that this diagnostic model for PPT is reliable and may be used for evaluation of the effect on platelet aggregation in vivo of different drugs
  • Lundquist, Ingmar, et al. (författare)
  • Monoamines in pancreatic islets of guinea pig, hamster, rat, and mouse determined by high performance liquid chromatography
  • 1989
  • Ingår i: Pancreas. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0885-3177. ; 4:6, s. 662-667
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous studies on the occurrence of catecholamines and serotonin in pancreatic islets using various histochemical and chemical methods have given widely different results. We therefore performed a comparative analysis of these amines in whole pancreas and islet tissue from hamster, guinea pig, rat, and mouse by the use of high performance liquid chromatography. Whole pancreas of guinea pig, hamster, and rat had a norepinephrine concentration of approximately 1.1 [mu]mol/kg of pancreatic wet weight. The mouse pancreas had less than one-half of that concentration. Epinephrine and dopamine concentrations were on the order of 0.02 [mu]mol/kg of pancreatic wet weight in all four species. The serotonin concentration was 2.1 [mu]mol/kg of pancreatic wet weight in the guinea pig pancreas and approximately 0.2 [mu]mol/kg in the other three species studied. The catecholamine concentrations were much higher in the pancreatic islets than in the exocrine pancreas. Thus, the norepinephrine concentration was approximately 35 [mu]mol/kg of islet wet weight in hamster islets and 5-10 [mu]mol/kg in rat, guinea pig, and mouse islets. The epinephrine concentration in islet tissue ranged between 1 and 7 [mu]mol/kg of islet wet weight and the dopamine concentration between 0.5 and 4 [mu]mol/kg except for guinea pig islets (12 [mu]mol/kg). The islet tissue in the mouse, rat, and guinea pig contained disproportionately more epinephrine and dopamine relative to norepinephrine than did the exocrine pancreas. Chemical sympathectomy (6- hydroxydopamine treatment) in the mouse reduced the norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations in islet tissue to nondetectable levels, whereas the dopamine concentration was essentially unchanged, thus suggesting an extraneuronal source of this amine in addition to its occurrence in adrenergic nerves. The islets of hamster, rat, and mouse contained no serotonin, whereas guinea pig islets contained approximately 275 [mu]mol/kg of islet wet weight. We conclude that, although species differences exist, the pancreatic islets have markedly higher levels of catecholamines than the exocrine pancreas, and that serotonin occurs in the exocrine pancreas of all four species studied but in the endocrine pancreas only in the guinea pig.
  • Hanner, P, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical observations of effects on central nervous system in patients with acute facial palsy.
  • 1987
  • Ingår i: Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery. - 0886-4470. ; 113:5, s. 516-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Twenty-eight consecutive patients with acute unilateral facial palsy were examined with special reference to clinical signs of central nervous system involvement. The clinical investigation in the acute stage of the disease showed that only seven patients had solitary facial nerve dysfunction, while the remaining patients had evidence of more widespread disease involvement. The most frequent finding was a trigeminal dysfunction of the paretic side, as shown by paresthesia and sensibility disturbance corresponding to the sensoritrigeminal area, as well as a dysfunction of the trigeminal component of the corneal reflex of the paretic side. Three patients showed migrating symptoms that were suggestive of a brain-stem disorder. In addition, four patients had an optic neuropathy, while an abnormal brain-stem audiometry response was demonstrated in five patients. The outcome of acute facial palsy one to two years after onset, however, could not be predicted from the clinical central nervous system signs. The degree of the palsy in the acute stage of the disease still seemed to be one of the most important prognostic factors. It is concluded that acute facial palsy is not a single entity, but rather a feature of different neurologic conditions.
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