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Träfflista för sökning "hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Cancer och onkologi) ;srt2:(2000-2004)"

Sökning: hsv:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP) hsv:(Klinisk medicin) hsv:(Cancer och onkologi) > (2000-2004)

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  • Björkman-Burtscher, Isabella, et al. (författare)
  • Proton MR spectroscopy and preoperative diagnostic accuracy: an evaluation of intracranial mass lesions characterized by stereotactic biopsy findings
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: AJNR. - : American Society of Neuroradiology. - 1936-959X. ; 21:1, s. 84-93
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging has made it easier to distinguish among the different types of intracranial mass lesions. Nevertheless, it is sometimes impossible to base a diagnosis solely on clinical and neuroradiologic findings, and, in these cases, biopsy must be performed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that proton MR spectroscopy is able to improve preoperative diagnostic accuracy in cases of intracranial tumors and may therefore obviate stereotactic biopsy. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with intracranial tumors underwent MR imaging, proton MR spectroscopy, and stereotactic biopsy. MR spectroscopic findings were evaluated for the distribution pattern of pathologic spectra (NAA/Cho ratio < 1) across the lesion and neighboring tissue, for signal ratios in different tumor types, and for their potential to improve preoperative diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS: Gliomas and lymphomas showed pathologic spectra outside the area of contrast enhancement while four nonastrocytic circumscribed tumors (meningioma, pineocytoma, metastasis, and germinoma) showed no pathologic spectra outside the region of enhancement. No significant correlation was found between different tumor types and signal ratios. MR spectroscopy improved diagnostic accuracy by differentiating infiltrative from circumscribed tumors; however, diagnostic accuracy was not improved in terms of differentiating the types of infiltrative or circumscribed lesions. CONCLUSION: MR spectroscopy can improve diagnostic accuracy by differentiating circumscribed brain lesions from histologically infiltrating processes, which may be difficult or impossible solely on the basis of clinical or neuroradiologic findings.
  • Jestin, Pia, et al. (författare)
  • Elective surgery for colorectal cancer in a defined Swedish population.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Surgical Oncology. - 0748-7983 .- 1532-2157. ; 30:1, s. 26-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: The aim of this study was to describe variability in compliance to clinical guidelines in colorectal cancer surgery related to hospital structure.METHODS: All patients registered in the databases of the Regional Oncologic Centre, operated upon electively for colon cancer between the start of the register in 1997 until 2000 (n=1771) and for rectal cancer between the start of the register in 1995 until 2000 (n=1841) were selected for analysis.RESULTS: There was no difference in 5-year survival rate between colon and rectal cancer (mean follow-up 2.6 and 3.0 years, respectively; p=0.22). There was a significant difference in frequency of preoperative liver scan depending on hospital category with an increase in colon cancer from 39 to 46% (p=0.02) and in rectal cancer from 42 to 64% (p<0.001). For colon cancer there was no difference, according to hospital category, in quotient sigmoid and high anterior resection to left-sided resection. Furthermore, high anterior resection was more common at university and general district hospitals (8%) compared with district hospitals (4%) (p=0.01). Sphincter-saving surgery was more common at university hospitals and district general hospitals than at district hospitals (low anterior/abdomino-perineal resection quotients 2.3, 2.4 and 1.6, respectively; p<0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Population-based audit forms an appropriate and valuable basis for quality assurance projects. In addition to describing compliance to guidelines and pointing to process steps that can be improved, such investigations may also indicate changes due to scientific development. Linked to case-costing data, such results may form an important basis for decisions about modifications in health care.
  • Sjöbeck, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Alzheimer's disease and the cerebellum: a morphologic study on neuronal and glial changes
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. - : Karger. - 1420-8008. ; 12:3, s. 211-218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Structural manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) including neuronal loss were investigated in 12 cases of AD and in 10 healthy age-matched controls, with focus on the cerebellum. Linear Purkinje cell (PC) density was measured in the vermis and cerebellar hemispheres. Neurons were also counted in the inferior olivary nucleus. In vermis of the AD cases, the mean PC number was significantly lower (p = 0.019) than in the controls. The neurons in the inferior olive were similarly fewer, though not significantly (p = 0.13). Molecular layer gliosis and atrophy in the vermis was clearly severer in AD than in the controls. Features typical of cerebral Alzheimer encephalopathy (plaques, tangles and microvacuolization) were inconspicious. The structural cerebellar changes in the AD cases were thus neuronal loss, atrophy and gliosis, judged to represent the disease process, and with a main involvement in the vermis. This may be reflected in some of the symptoms and signs seen in AD, signs that are generally overlooked or judged to be of noncerebellar origin.
  • Eberhard, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of therapy and androgen receptor polymorphism on sperm concentration in men treated for testicular germ cell cancer: a longitudinal study.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Human Reproduction. - : Oxford University Press. - 0268-1161. ; 19:6, s. 1418-1425
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract in Undetermined BACKGROUND: Testicular cancer (TC) patients have a high survival rate, and the question of post-therapy recovery of sperm production and its dependence on genetic predisposition is of major interest. METHODS: Ejaculates were obtained from 112 TC patients at one or more of the following time points: post-orchidectomy, or 6, 12, 24, 36 and 60 months post-therapy. The lengths of the androgen receptor (AR) function modulating CAG and GGN repeats in leukocyte DNA were also analysed. RESULTS: No significant decrease in sperm concentration was seen in men who received 1-2 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT). Radiotherapy (RT) or more than two cycles of chemotherapy (HCT) caused an initial decline in sperm concentration, which returned to pre-treatment levels 2-5 years after therapy. In the HCT group, sperm concentration 12-24 months post-treatment (T(12-24)) was inversely correlated with CAG length (rho = -0.72, P = 0.03). The type of treatment, but not the concentration at T(0), was an independent predictor of sperm concentration at T(6) (P < 0.0005) and T(12-24) (P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: ACT did not induce a significant decline in sperm concentration. After HCT and RT, a significant reduction of sperm concentration was observed, recovering to pre-treatment levels 2-5 years post-treatment. In HCT-treated patients, the AR CAG length influenced the recovery of spermatogenesis.
  • Guerin, S, et al. (författare)
  • Radiation dose as a risk factor for malignant melanoma following childhood cancer
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - : Elsevier. - 1879-0852. ; 39:16, s. 2379-2386
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to determine therapy-related risk factors for the development of melanoma after childhood cancer. Among 4401 3-year survivors of a childhood cancer in eight French and British centres and 25 120 patients younger than 20 years old at first malignant neoplasm (FMN) extracted from the Nordic Cancer Registries, 16 patients developed a melanoma as a second malignant neoplasm (SMN). A cohort study of the French and British cohorts was performed. In a nested case-control study, the 16 patients who developed a melanoma as a SMN (cases) were matched with 3-5 controls in their respective cohort according to gender, age at the first cancer, the calendar year of occurrence of the first cancer and follow-up. Radiotherapy appeared to increase the risk of melanoma for local doses > 15 Gy, Odds Ratio (OR)= 13 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.94-174). Regarding chemotherapy, we observed an increased OR for both alkylating agents and spindle inhibitors, OR 2.7 (95% CI: 0.5-14). Children treated for a gonadal tumour as a FMN were found to be at a higher risk of melanoma, OR 8.7 (95% CI: 0.9-86). The adjusted OR for the local radiation dose was 1.07 (95% CI: 1.00-1.15). In conclusion, radiotherapy may contribute to an increased risk of melanoma as a SMN, but only at very high doses of low linear energy transfer radiation. Common genetic origins between gonadal tumours and malignant melanomas are likely. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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