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Sökning: Nicaragua > (2005-2009)

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  • Bucardo, Filemon, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic susceptibility to symptomatic norovirus infection in Nicaragua.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of medical virology. - 1096-9071. ; 81:4, s. 728
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Host genetic resistance to Norovirus (NoV) has been observed in challenge and outbreak studies in populations from Europe, Asia, and USA. In this study, we have investigated if histo-blood group antigens can predict susceptibility to diarrhea caused by NoV in Nicaragua, Central America, and if this can be reflected in antibody-prevalence and titer to NoV among individuals with different histo-blood group antigen phenotypes. Investigation of 28 individuals infected with NoV and 131 population controls revealed 6% of non-secretors in the population and nil non-secretors among patients infected with NoV, suggesting that non-secretors may be protected against NoV disease in Nicaragua. Surprisingly, 25% of the population was Lewis negative (Le(a-b-)). NoV infections with genogroup I (GI) and GII occurred irrespective of Lewis genotype, but none of the Lewis a positive (Le(a + b-)) were infected. The globally dominating GII.4 virus infected individuals of all blood groups except AB (n = 5), while the GI viruses (n = 4) infected only blood type O individuals. Furthermore, O blood types were susceptible to infections with GI.4, GII.4, GII.7, GII.17, and GII.18-Nica viruses, suggesting that secretors with blood type O are susceptible (OR = 1.52) and non-secretors resistant. The overall antibody-prevalence to NoV GII.3 VLP was 62% with the highest prevalence among blood type B carriers (70%) followed by A (68%) and O (62%). All four investigated individuals carrying blood type AB were antibody-negative. Among secretors, 63% were antibody-positive compared to 33% among non-secretors (P = 0.151). This study extends previous knowledge about the histo-blood group antigens role in NoV disease in a population with different genetic background than North American and European.
  • Dahlblom, Kjerstin, 1950- (författare)
  • Home alone sibling caretakers in León, Nicaragua
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sibling caretaking, although common across time and cultures, has not been well researched from the carer’s point of view. In Nicaragua, ranked as one of the poorest countries in the Americas, sibling caretaking is common. The country’s historical background and its state of chronic poverty, widespread unemployment, loose family structures, and migration and mobility makes of the old practise of shared management child care a necessity. Households headed by sing¬le mothers constitute a particular Nica¬raguan charact¬eristic. Many children are expected to help in their own families and care for their siblings and other children living in their households. In its broadest sense sibling caretaking is a public health concern, and we conducted this study to widen the understanding of the phenomenon as it is represented in a setting undergoing a rapid social transition.The main objectives were to identify, describe and analyse the life situation of sibling caretakers in poor areas in León, Nicaragua, with focus on how they perceived it themselves. A combined qualitative and quantitative methodological design was used, mainly applying an ethnographic approach. A further ambition was to explore involvement of children in a participatory research process in accordance with the ‘Convention on the Rights of the Child’.The overall emotion expressed among the caretakers was pride, even if their situation often was characterized by stress and coping problems. They perceived their work as important for their families and they appreciated to fend for their siblings. Household work and nurturing of siblings were shaping the future lives of the caretakers and constituted part of their socialization.Even if many of these children achieve essential life skills as caretakers, they are at risk of falling behind as they grow older. Their long-term personal development is likely to be hampered by the obligations they have as caretakers. The carers' awareness of missing out on education was the most problematic issue for them.From a societal point of view, caretaking has negative consequences. The individual child is marginalised with limited access to basic education, contributing to overall low educational levels in Nicaragua.While the structuring conditions leading to sibling caretaking may be difficult to change, awareness of how these can affect children might make way for improvements in terms of access to school education and support from the society. The knowledge gained from this study should be further utilised to plan for interventions that take children’s perspectives into consideration.
  • Åsling Monemi, Kajsa, 1960- (författare)
  • The Impact of Violence Against Women on Child Growth, Morbidity and Survival Studies in Bangladesh and Nicaragua
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this thesis was to explore the impact of physical, sexual and emotional violence against women of reproductive age and the level of controlling behaviour in marriage on child health and survival in two different cultural settings: Bangladesh and Nicaragua. Data were acquired from four quantitative community-based studies. In two studies, a cohort including a prospective two year follow-up of 3164 mother-infant pairs in rural Bangladesh was investigated. A third study was a case-referent study in Nicaragua including mothers of 110 cases of under-five deaths and 203 referents, and in a forth study an other cohort of 1048 rural Bangladeshi women and their 2691 children was followed until 5 years of age. Maternal exposure to any form of violence, including physical, sexual, emotional, and controlling behaviour was independently associated with lower body size at birth, increased risk of stunting and under-weight at 24 months of age, slower growth velocity during the first two years of life and a higher incidence of diarrhoeal episodes and respiratory tract infections. In the Nicaraguan setting, the children of women who experienced any history of physical violence had a two-fold increase in risk of death before the age of 5 years, and those whose mothers experienced both physical and sexual violence had a six-fold increase in risk of death. In Bangladesh, an association between violence against women and under-five mortality was found among daughters of educated mothers who were exposed to severe physical violence or a high level of controlling behaviour in marriage. In all four studies, lifetime violence experience among participating mothers was high (37-69%), and the timing was less relevant than the exposure to violence per se. In conclusion, this investigation revealed that violence against women severely affects child health and survival. The findings are especially relevant in a context of high level of child under-nutrition, morbidity and under-five mortality. Efforts for protecting women from all forms of violence are needed as part of the interventions for improved child health.
  • Espinoza, Felix, et al. (författare)
  • Shifts of rotavirus G and P types in Nicaragua - 2001-2003
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. - 0891-3668. ; 25:11, s. 1078-1080
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The present study reports the diversity of rotavirus strains circulating in León, Nicaragua during three years. There was a shift of G and P genotypes with increment of one specific genotype during the second most important peak of diarrhea occurring in the beginning of every year. © 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
  • Lebbad, M, et al. (författare)
  • Dominance of Giardia assemblage B in León, Nicaragua.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Tropica. - 0001-706X. ; 106:1, s. 44-53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Giardiasis is a major problem in León, Nicaragua, yet despite this no data are available regarding the prevalence of different Giardia genotypes in this area. To address this question, a molecular analysis of Giardia isolates from humans and dogs living in the same area in León, Nicaragua was performed. Giardia isolates from 119 Nicaraguan patients and 8 dogs were successfully genotyped using single and/or nested beta-giardin PCR with subsequent restriction length fragment polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The analyses of human samples yielded 94 (79%) assemblage B isolates and 25 (21%) assemblage A isolates. Only the non-human-associated assemblages C and D were found in the dog samples. Sixteen isolates with assemblage A pattern, 26 isolates with assemblage B pattern and all dog isolates were further characterized by sequencing the nested beta-giardin PCR product and by molecular analyses of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene. Within the study area the assemblage A isolates were highly genetically homogenous, showing only sub-genotypes A2 (n=3) or A3 (n=13) at the beta-giardin locus and AII only at the gdh locus while assemblage B showed a high genetic polymorphism at both loci. Seven different sub-genotypes were identified within 13 of the sequenced assemblage B beta-giardin isolates. The remaining 13 sequenced assemblage B-isolates appeared to contain several different variants of the beta-giardin gene since the chromatograms displayed one to seven double peaks. The gdh sequences showed an even higher polymorphism since only 2 of 26 assemblage B isolates were without double peaks. Two mixed infections between assemblage A and B were found when the gdh gene was analyzed. Polymorphisms were also observed in the dog-associated assemblages C and D, but to a lesser extent than in assemblage B.
  • Corriols, Marvin, et al. (författare)
  • Geophysical characterization of the Leon-Chinandega aquifer, Nicaragua
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Hydrogeology Journal. - Springer. - 1431-2174 .- 1435-0157. ; 16:2, s. 349-362
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Electrical geophysical surveys in the mode of vertical electrical soundings (VES) and continuous vertical electrical soundings (CVES) were conducted in the Leon-Chinandega plains, northwestern Nicaragua, in order to obtain detailed information about the geometry of the different hydrogeological layers in the aquifer and depth to the basement. A total of 51 VES were carried out within the plains. The results show a complex structure towards the north east of the area, and the southwestern part of the plains presents a smoother stratification. The geoelectrical measurements and borehole information indicate that the basement topography is characterized by hills and deep valleys with highly variable basement depths. Fifty CVES where done in a smaller area in the center of the plain. The resistivity data yielded considerable information revealing the existence of two main geo-electrical units. The combined interpretation of geological and geophysical data shows an environment typical of sedimentary volcanic coastal plains. The information collected during this investigation provides valuable data for estimating the fresh-water resources of the Leon-Chinandega aquifer system and for development of a groundwater management plan.
  • Mendoza, Alfredo, et al. (författare)
  • Aquifer interactions with a polluted mountain river of Nicaragua
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Hydrological Processes. - John Wiley & Sons Ltd. - 1099-1085 .- 0885-6087. ; 22:13, s. 2264-2273
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The interactions between a stream and nearby shallow aquifers were investigated in a mountain basin being polluted by mercury released during mining in central Nicaragua. Hourly data series of water levels and temperatures were analysed using cross-correlation. Resistivity imaging was used to map the subsurface and to complement the hydrological data interpretation. The results show the complex hydrogeological conditions that characterize the region, with weathering and fractured rock as main contributors to groundwater transport. The resistivity images suggest the presence of two vertical dykes perpendicular to the stream, and zones rich in clay. The data series indicate a rapid response from the aquifers to recharge events, followed by immediate discharge on a yearly basis. Furthermore, alternating periods of stream infiltration and aquifer discharge were identified. This work demonstrates that surface water pollution is a threat to groundwater quality in the area.
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