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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(SOCIAL SCIENCES Business and economics) ;srt2:(2010-2011);lar1:(liu)"

Sökning: AMNE:(SOCIAL SCIENCES Business and economics) > (2010-2011) > Linköpings universitet

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  • Aronsson, Håkan, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Managing health care decisions and improvement through simulation modeling
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Quality Management in Health Care. - 1063-8628. ; 20:1, s. 15-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Simulation modeling is a way to test changes in a computerized environment to give ideas for improvements before implementation. This article reviews research literature on simulation modeling as support for health care decision making. The aim is to investigate the experience and potential value of such decision support and quality of articles retrieved. A literature search was conducted, and the selection criteria yielded 59 articles derived from diverse applications and methods. Most met the stated research-quality criteria. This review identified how simulation can facilitate decision making and that it may induce learning. Furthermore, simulation offers immediate feedback about proposed changes, allows analysis of scenarios, and promotes communication on building a shared system view and understanding of how a complex system works. However, only 14 of the 59 articles reported on implementation experiences, including how decision making was supported. On the basis of these articles, we proposed steps essential for the success of simulation projects, not just in the computer, but also in clinical reality. We also presented a novel concept combining simulation modeling with the established plan-do-study-act cycle for improvement. Future scientific inquiries concerning implementation, impact, and the value for health care management are needed to realize the full potential of simulation modeling.
  • Hansson, Lisa, et al. (författare)
  • Bypassing public procurement regulation : a study of rationality inlocal decision making
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Regulation and Governance. - Blackwell. - 1748-5983. ; 5:3, s. 368-385
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using private contractors through procurement is common in most public sector areas. Despite the benefits of procurement, officials are sometimes tempted to circumvent procurement regulations. The aim of the article is to examine strategies used by local governmental decision makers to bypass procurement regulations, analyzing the rationality underlying their actions. Interviews, court documents, municipal documents, and articles describing the actions of Swedish municipal officials concerning special transport service (STS) procurements were collected and analyzed. In a case in which rural municipalities lost regular taxi services after STS procurement, we demonstrate how decisions were driven by pressure from the public and local interest groups, making municipal officials deviate from procurement regulations in striving to secure the existence of regular taxi services. One outcome was that local businesses were given preferential treatment, violating regulations and reducing economic efficiency.
  • Holtström, Johan, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • Connected Synergy : a case study of mergers and acquisitins within business networks
  • 2010
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mergers and acquisitions are frequent phenomena in everyday business activities (Holtström,2008). For a merger or an acquisition, expected synergy is of fundamental importance. Thesynergy-concept emerged in the business strategy literature in the 1960s and has since then gainedimmense influence as a strategic tool for CEOs and company boards. In both theory and practice,synergy describes value creation of some kind (Pernod Ricard, 2008; Arya, 2002; Rozemeijer,2000; Tapper, 1999; Larsson & Finkelstein, 1999; SvD, 1998; Olsson, 1997; Chandler, 1992;Trautwein, 1990; Porter, 1987; Rydén, 1971; Ansoff, 1965). Having a business network structureperspective as point of departure, we assume that mergers and acquisitions will involve andintegrate not only the acquirer or the acquired company but also connected companies such ascustomers and suppliers (Holtström, 2008; 2003; Öberg, 2008; 2004; Dahlin, 2007; Öberg &Holtström, 2006; Anderson, Havila & Salmi, 2000; Havila & Salmi, 2000; Bengtsson, 1994).Synergy as concept (cf. Goold & Campbell, 1998; Itami, 1987; Lubatkin, 1983; Ansoff, 1965) isin this paper further developed and extended to comprise also synergy in the integratingcompanies’ business network. The paper aims to develop a framework to describe synergy inbusiness relationships with customers and suppliers. To achieve this we first need to analyse howsynergy is realised within a company. The analysis is based on a case study of mergers andacquisitions among industrial companies having business in Sweden.Our findings indicate that within a company synergy is the result of the interplay between creationof value, alignment between strategic prioritisations and functional performance. Thus theintegrating companies are at the core. The application of synergy in the M&A-companies businessnetwork is to include also their business relationships with other actors. So in a second analysis,we show that synergy in business relationships can be seen as the result of how companies a) adaptto changes in the business network, b) how the changes affects interdependency among actors, c)to what extent there is a co-ordination of activities between actors, but most importantly d) howthis is carried out over time.The resulting framework on connected synergy, combines the perspectives on synergy describedabove with also the development over time. Within the M&A-companies, two forms of synergyappears; (i) planned in the early phases of integration and, (ii) emerging over time. In the M&Acompanies’business relationship synergy can appear as (iii) something planned by the integratingcompanies to purposely influence other actors and, (iv) developing when different actors adapt tothese changes over time.
  • Ahmed, Ali, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Sexual orientation and occupational rank
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Economics Bulletin. - 1545-2921. ; 31:3, s. 2422-2433
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents a study of differences in occupational rank between gay and heterosexual males as well as between lesbian and heterosexual females. We estimate different specifications of an ordered probit model on register data from Sweden. Our data consist of married heterosexual men and women and homosexual men and women living in civil unions. We find that homosexual men have a lower probability of working in a profession demanding a longer university education or a management profession than heterosexual men. In contrast, we find that homosexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to work in such professions.
  • Ahmed, Ali, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Can discrimination in the housing market be reduced by increasing the information about the applicants?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Land Economics. - 0023-7639. ; 86:1, s. 79-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigate how increasing the information about applicants affects discrimination in the rental housing market. We let four fictitious applicants, two with typical Arab/Muslim names and two with typical Swedish names, use application letters containing different amounts of information to apply for apartments over the Internet in Sweden. The Arab/Muslim applicants received fewer responses from the landlords than did the Swedish applicants. All of the applicants gained by providing more information about themselves, but the amount of discrimination against the Arab/Muslim applicants remained unchanged, indicating that increasing the amount of information about the applicants will not reduce discrimination.
  • Ahmed, Ali, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Inter- and intra-household earnings differentials among homosexual and heterosexual couples
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Industrial Relations. - Blackwell Publishing Ltd/London School of Economics. - 0007-1080. ; 49:s2, s. s258-s278
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present earnings differentials between homosexuals and heterosexuals. In line with previous research, we find that gay males earn less than heterosexual males, and that lesbians earn more than heterosexual females. However, when combining the individuals into households, our results are strikingly different: very small earnings differentials between gay households and heterosexual households are found. Lesbian households earn considerably less. The largest earnings inequalities between spouses are found among gay males followed by heterosexuals. Studying sexual orientation and earnings is complex, and household earnings have to be taken into consideration when conclusions are drawn.
  • Ahmed, Ali, 1977- (författare)
  • Muslim discrimination: : Evidence from two lost letter experiments
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Social Psychology. - 0021-9029. ; 40:4, s. 888-898
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks, there has been considerable concern about whether Muslims living in Western countries are targets of prejudice. A considerable amount of survey-based evidence suggests that Muslims are victims of discrimination. This paper tested this hypothesis. Two lost-letter experiments were conducted to test whether the difference in returned letters would be attributable to whether the addressee was Muslim or Swedish. The results show that Muslims receive far fewer letters than do Swedes. However, this discrimination only appears when the lost letters contain money; in which case, the finder gains by not posting the letter.
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