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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(SOCIAL SCIENCES Business and economics) ;srt2:(2010-2011);lar1:(liu)"

Sökning: AMNE:(SOCIAL SCIENCES Business and economics) > (2010-2011) > Linköpings universitet

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  • Hedner, Thomas, 1949-, et al. (författare)
  • Open innovation in the biomedical sector - An alternative approach to organizational value extraction"
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: World Sustainable Development Outlook.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The concept of Open innovation is a phenomenon gaining momentum amung pharmaceutical companies, university research consortia and other for-profit and non-profit organizations in order to address increasingly complex, uncertain and changing R&D projects. In medicine, open innovation projects may provide incentives for creativity, adaptability and easier access to knowledge as well as to generate quicker and cheaper innovation cycles for defined products and services. Also, projects and products may be better adjusted to the markets and provide flexible cost structures in developed as well as developing countries. There are today growing efforts for nonprofit foundations to participate and establish co-operation in complex research and development efforts such as bringing new medical drugs or new technology to public use. Interestingly, such incentives might open up for new and creative open innovation models. In this paper, we discuss how the open innovation model differs from the classical closed innovation model in respect tOj type of project, organizing aspects and value creation and value extraction aspects. We also illustrate 3 different value extraction concepts relating to open innovation in the pharmaceutical sector, representing different strategies and degrees of openness; the Medicine for Malaria Venture (MMV); InnovationXchange; and InnoCentive. Further, we discuss how the term "openness" can be understood in levels; in terms of the extent of control a collective upholds for ownership as well as the access and utilization of platform content that is jointly aggregated, created and developed. Collective innovation can be described as; open for all (openness with little, or no, limitations); open IP groups (openness within R&D groups); open IP projects (openness within R&D collaboration projects); open IP communities (openness within certain communities); and open IP platforms (structural arenas for openness). Our case examples illustrate how open innovation networks may provide new possibilities to generate value from academic - industrial networks. However, the open innovation model builds on involvement from a variety of external sources, such as independent researchers and experts, R&D institutes, universities and contract research organizations, customers, partner companies or even competitors. In the transition from a closed to an open innovation model, the pharmaceutical industry needs to develop flexible boundaries to allow a creative exchange of knowledge and experience from the outside to the inside of their organisation.
  • Nordin, Fredrik, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Solutions offerings
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Service Management. - 1757-5818. ; 21:4, s. 441-459
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose – To offer a critical analysis of the literature of solutions offerings; to provide a new conceptual framework, incorporating dimensions that can distinguish between different kinds of solutions, and connect their different characteristics.Design/Methodology/Approach – A critical review of the relevant literature, both 28 contributions identified in a search of three major databases and a range of other published work for the broader perspective, illustrated by real-world examples.Findings – There is no unanimous and rigorous definition of solutions, but rather a number of often broad and generic descriptions that could be applied to a wide array of different offerings, if not generically.Research Limitations/Implications – The sample of subject-specific contributions to the literature may not have been sufficient, and a wider selection of keywords to identify them might have captured a richer variety of concepts and opinions.Originality/Value – This structured and critical review contributes to the literature on services and solutions, by developing a conceptual framework as a basis for future studies and current management strategy.
  • Bienkowska, Dzamila, et al. (författare)
  • Brain circulation and flexible adjustment:
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler. Series B. Human Geography. - 0435-3684. ; 93:1, s. 21-39
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article explores the role of labour mobility as a potential cluster advantage. We review the theoretical arguments as for how and why labour mobility could enhance the dynamism and performance of clusters of similar and related firms. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data from two information and communication technology (ICT) clusters is used to answer two research questions: (1) What is the role of mobility enhancing (or restricting) institutions in clusters? and (2) In what ways does labour mobility contribute to knowledge transfer within clusters? The two ICT clusters studied in the article generally seem to have higher levels of mobility, compared to the labour market at large. Although it is regarded as beneficial in theory, most cluster firms try to restrict mobility of workers since they fear the risk and costs of losing staff. Labour mobility is also rarely viewed as a viable way to increase the knowledge bases or contact networks of firms. However, when firms need to recruit the clustered labour markets seem to benefit them by facilitating the use of informal recruitment processes. By way of conclusion it is suggested that cluster firms might be under-investing in mobility and that innovative institutional solutions could help realize clusters mobility potential.
  • Ekman, Inger, et al. (författare)
  • Person-centered care - Ready for prime time.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European journal of cardiovascular nursing : journal of the Working Group on Cardiovascular Nursing of the European Society of Cardiology. - 1873-1953. ; 10:4, s. 248-251
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Long-term diseases are today the leading cause of mortality worldwide and are estimated to be the leading cause of disability by 2020. Person-centered care (PCC) has been shown to advance concordance between care provider and patient on treatment plans, improve health outcomes and increase patient satisfaction. Yet, despite these and other documented benefits, there are a variety of significant challenges to putting PCC into clinical practice. Although care providers today broadly acknowledge PCC to be an important part of care, in our experience we must establish routines that initiate, integrate, and safeguard PCC in daily clinical practice to ensure that PCC is systematically and consistently practiced, i.e. not just when we feel we have time for it. In this paper, we propose a few simple routines to facilitate and safeguard the transition to PCC. We believe that if conscientiously and systematically applied, they will help to make PCC the focus and mainstay of care in long-term illness.
  • Hillman, Karl, et al. (författare)
  • Fostering sustainable technologies : A framework for analysing the governance of innovation systems
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Science and Public Policy. - 0302-3427. ; 38:5, s. 403-415
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The development and diffusion of technological innovations need governing in order to contribute to societal goals related to sustainability. Yet, there are few systematic studies mapping out what types of governance are deployed and how they influence the development and diffusion of sustainable technological innovations. This paper develops a framework for analysing the role of governance in innovation systems aimed towards sustainability. The framework is based on the literatures on governance, technological innovation systems and socio-technical transitions. We foresee empirical studies based on the framework that may serve as a needed input into governance processes. © Beech Tree Publishing 2011.
  • Heshmati, Almas, et al. (författare)
  • Effective Corporate Tax Rates and the Size Distribution of Firms
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade. - 1566-1679. ; 10:3, s. 297-317
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We analyze the effects of effective corporate tax rates on the size distribution of firms. In modelling this relationship we account for conditional variables as well as unobservable time and industry effects. A number of hypotheses are tested concerning heterogeneity in the impact of effective corporate tax rates on the size distributions of firms with regard to firm size class, industry and time. The results are based on data covering the whole Swedish economy for the period 1973–2002. The descriptive results suggest that effective corporate tax rates differ by firm size, industry and over time. Application of t-tests demonstrate inequality in mean and variance of effective corporate tax rates between major size classes but not within major size classes: smaller firms report a higher effective corporate tax rate than larger firms. The t-tests also demonstrate inequality in mean and variance of effective corporate tax rates between industrial sectors: service sector reports a higher effective corporate tax rate than production sector. The regressions show effective corporate tax rates to have: a negative effect on the size distribution of large firms, negative effect on transportation, financing and service sector and a positive effect on manufacturing, electricity and on production sector. We conclude that effective corporate tax rates affect the size distribution of firms as well as the composition of industries.
  • Hansson, Lisa, et al. (författare)
  • Bypassing public procurement regulation : a study of rationality inlocal decision making
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Regulation and Governance. - Blackwell. - 1748-5983. ; 5:3, s. 368-385
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using private contractors through procurement is common in most public sector areas. Despite the benefits of procurement, officials are sometimes tempted to circumvent procurement regulations. The aim of the article is to examine strategies used by local governmental decision makers to bypass procurement regulations, analyzing the rationality underlying their actions. Interviews, court documents, municipal documents, and articles describing the actions of Swedish municipal officials concerning special transport service (STS) procurements were collected and analyzed. In a case in which rural municipalities lost regular taxi services after STS procurement, we demonstrate how decisions were driven by pressure from the public and local interest groups, making municipal officials deviate from procurement regulations in striving to secure the existence of regular taxi services. One outcome was that local businesses were given preferential treatment, violating regulations and reducing economic efficiency.
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