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  • Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A., et al. (författare)
  • Minimal Contribution of Fasting Hyperglycemia to the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Subjects With Normal 2-h Plasma Glucose
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - American Diabetes Association. - 1935-5548. ; 33:3, s. 557-561
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE - To assess the relative contribution of increased fasting and postload plasma glucose concentrations to the incidence of type 2 diabetes in subjects with a normal 2-h plasma glucose concentration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 3,450 subjects with 2-h plasma glucose concentration < 140 mg/dl at baseline were followed up in the San Antonio Heart Study (SAHS) and the Botnia Study for 7-8 years. The incidence of type 2 diabetes at follow-up was related to the fasting, 1-h, and 2-h plasma glucose concentrations. RESULTS - in subjects with 2-h plasma glucose < 140 mg/dl, the incidence of type 2 diabetes increased with increasing fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 1-h and 2-h plasma glucose concentrations. In a multivariate logistic analysis, after adjustment for all diabetes risk factors, the FPG concentration was a Strong predictor Of type 2 diabetes in both the SAHS and the Botnia Study (P < 0.0001). However, when the 1-h plasma glucose, but not 2-h plasma glucose, concentration was added to the model, FPG concentration was no longer a significant predictor of type 2 diabetes in both Studies (NS). When subjects were matched for the level of 1-h plasma glucose concentration, the incidence Of type 2 diabetes markedly increased with the increase in 1-h plasma glucose, but the increase in FPG was not associated with a significant increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS - An increase in postload glycemia in the normal range is associated with an increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. After controlling for 1-h plasma glucose concentration, the increase in FPG concentration is not associated with an increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes.
  • Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A., et al. (författare)
  • The shape of plasma glucose concentration curve during OGTT predicts future risk of type 2 diabetes
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes/Metabolism Research Reviews. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1520-7552. ; 26:4, s. 280-286
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The aim of the study is to assess the relationship between the shape of plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT and future risk for T2DM. Methods 2445 non-diabetic subjects from the Botnia study received an OGTT at baseline and after 7-8 years of follow-up. Results NGT and IFG subjects who returned their plasma glucose concentration following an ingested glucose load below FPG within 60 min had increased insulin sensitivity, greater insulin secretion and lower risk for future T2DM compared to NGT and IFG subjects whose post-load plasma glucose concentration required 120 min or longer to return their plasma glucose level to FPG level. IGT subjects who had a lower plasma glucose concentration at 1-h compared to 2-h during oGrr had greater insulin sensitivity, better beta cell function and lower risk for future T2DM. Conclusions These data suggest that the shape of glucose curve can be utilized to assess future risk for T2DM. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A., et al. (författare)
  • Two-Step Approach for the Prediction of Future Type 2 Diabetes Risk
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - American Diabetes Association. - 1935-5548. ; 34:9, s. 2108-2112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE-To develop a model for the prediction of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk on the basis of a multivariate logistic model and 1-h plasma glucose concentration (1-h PG). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-The model was developed in a cohort of 1,562 non-diabetic subjects from the San Antonio Heart Study (SAHS) and validated in 2,395 nondiabetic subjects in the Botnia Study. A risk score on the basis of anthropometric parameters, plasma glucose and lipid profile, and blood pressure was computed for each subject. Subjects with a risk score above a certain cut point were considered to represent high-risk individuals, and their 1-h PG concentration during the oral glucose tolerance test was used to further refine their future T2DM risk. RESULTS-We used the San Antonio Diabetes Prediction Model (SADPM) to generate the initial risk score. A risk-score value of 0.065 was found to be an optimal cut point for initial screening and selection of high-risk individuals. A 1-h PG concentration >140 mg/dL in high-risk individuals (whose risk score was >0.065) was the optimal cut point for identification of subjects at increased risk. The two cut points had 77.8, 77.4, and 44.8% (for the SAHS) and 75.8, 71.6, and 11.9% (for the Botnia Study) sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value, respectively, in the SAHS and Botnia Study. CONCLUSIONS-A two-step model, based on the combination of the SADPM and 1-h PG, is a useful tool for the identification of high-risk Mexican-American and Caucasian individuals. Diabetes Care 34:2108-2112, 2011
  • Ahlqvist, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - American Association for Clinical Chemistry. - 0009-9147. ; 57, s. 241-254
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disorder that is affected by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Extensive efforts have been made to identify the disease-affecting genes to better understand the disease pathogenesis, find new targets for clinical therapy, and allow prediction of disease. CONTENT: Our knowledge about the genes involved in disease pathogenesis has increased substantially in recent years, thanks to genome-wide association studies and international collaborations joining efforts to collect the huge numbers of individuals needed to study complex diseases on a population level. We have summarized what we have learned so far about the genes that affect T2D risk and their functions. Although more than 40 loci associated with T2D or glycemic traits have been reported and reproduced, only a minor part of the genetic component of the disease have been explained, and the causative variants and affected genes are unknown for many of the loci. SUMMARY: Great advances have recently occurred in our understanding of the genetics of T2D, but much remains to be learned about the disease etiology. The genetics of T2D has so far been driven by technology, and we now hope that next-generation sequencing will provide important information on rare variants with stronger effects. Even when variants are known, however, great effort will be required to discover how they affect disease risk.
  • Ahluwalia, Tarun, et al. (författare)
  • Common variants in CNDP1 and CNDP2, and risk of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - Springer Verlag. - 1432-0428. ; 54, s. 2295-2302
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Several genome-wide linkage studies have shown an association between diabetic nephropathy and a locus on chromosome 18q harbouring two carnosinase genes, CNDP1 and CNDP2. Carnosinase degrades carnosine (β-alanyl-L-: histidine), which has been ascribed a renal protective effect as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species. We investigated the putative associations of genetic variants in CNDP1 and CNDP2 with diabetic nephropathy (defined either as micro- or macroalbuminuria) and estimated GFR in type 2 diabetic patients from Sweden. METHODS: We genotyped nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one trinucleotide repeat polymorphism (D18S880, five to seven leucine repeats) in CNDP1 and CNDP2 in a case-control set-up including 4,888 unrelated type 2 diabetic patients (with and without nephropathy) from Sweden (Scania Diabetes Registry). RESULTS: Two SNPs, rs2346061 in CNDP1 and rs7577 in CNDP2, were associated with an increased risk of diabetic nephropathy (rs2346061 p = 5.07 × 10(-4); rs7577 p = 0.021). The latter was also associated with estimated GFR (β = -0.037, p = 0.014), particularly in women. A haplotype including these SNPs (C-C-G) was associated with a threefold increased risk of diabetic nephropathy (OR 2.98, 95% CI 2.43-3.67, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These data suggest that common variants in CNDP1 and CNDP2 play a role in susceptibility to kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.
  • Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S, et al. (författare)
  • Uromodulin gene variant is associated with type 2 diabetic nephropathy.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hypertension. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1473-5598. ; 29, s. 1731-1734
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: About 35% of individuals with type 2 diabetes develop persistent albuminuria, lose renal function, and are at increased risk for microvascular complications like diabetic nephropathy. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified the uromodulin locus (UMOD), encoding the most common protein in human urine to be associated with hypertension and also with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the present study we examined the association of the common variant of the uromodulin (UMOD) gene with type 2 diabetic nephropathy and kidney function. METHODS: UMOD variant rs13333226 was genotyped in a case-control material including 4888 unrelated type 2 diabetic individuals (n = 880 with and n = 4008 without nephropathy) from Sweden (Scania Diabetes Registry) using the ABI Real time TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. RESULTS: The G allele of rs13333226 was associated with a decreased risk of nephropathy [odds ratio (OR) 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69-0.91, P = 0.001] after correction for confounding factors like age, sex, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, kidney function, smoking and duration of diabetes. The same allele was also associated with a better kidney function [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), β = 0.117, P < 0.0001] and lower systolic blood pressure (β = -0.048, P = 0.013) in the overall study cohort. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: The present study highlights that the common variant of the UMOD gene is protective against diabetic nephropathy susceptibility and also affects kidney function and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the association with diabetic nephropathy was independent of blood pressure and kidney function.
  • Allen, Hana Lango, et al. (författare)
  • Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 1476-4687. ; 467:7317, s. 832-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most common human traits and diseases have a polygenic pattern of inheritance: DNA sequence variants at many genetic loci influence the phenotype. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified more than 600 variants associated with human traits(1), but these typically explain small fractions of phenotypic variation, raising questions about the use of further studies. Here, using 183,727 individuals, we show that hundreds of genetic variants, in at least 180 loci, influence adult height, a highly heritable and classic polygenic trait(2,3). The large number of loci reveals patterns with important implications for genetic studies of common human diseases and traits. First, the 180 loci are not random, but instead are enriched for genes that are connected in biological pathways (P = 0.016) and that underlie skeletal growth defects (P&lt;0.001). Second, the likely causal gene is often located near the most strongly associated variant: in 13 of 21 loci containing a known skeletal growth gene, that gene was closest to the associated variant. Third, at least 19 loci have multiple independently associated variants, suggesting that allelic heterogeneity is a frequent feature of polygenic traits, that comprehensive explorations of already-discovered loci should discover additional variants and that an appreciable fraction of associated loci may have been identified. Fourth, associated variants are enriched for likely functional effects on genes, being over-represented among variants that alter amino-acid structure of proteins and expression levels of nearby genes. Our data explain approximately 10% of the phenotypic variation in height, and we estimate that unidentified common variants of similar effect sizes would increase this figure to approximately 16% of phenotypic variation (approximately 20% of heritable variation). Although additional approaches are needed to dissect the genetic architecture of polygenic human traits fully, our findings indicate that GWA studies can identify large numbers of loci that implicate biologically relevant genes and pathways.
  • Almgren, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Heritability and familiality of type 2 diabetes and related quantitative traits in the Botnia Study.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - Springer Verlag. - 1432-0428. ; 54, s. 2811-2819
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To study the heritability and familiality of type 2 diabetes and related quantitative traits in families from the Botnia Study in Finland. METHODS: Heritability estimates for type 2 diabetes adjusted for sex, age and BMI are provided for different age groups of type 2 diabetes and for 34 clinical and metabolic traits in 5,810 individuals from 942 families using a variance component model (SOLAR). In addition, family means of these traits and their distribution across families are calculated. RESULTS: The strongest heritability for type 2 diabetes was seen in patients with age at onset 35-60 years (h (2) = 0.69). However, including patients with onset up to 75 years dropped the h (2) estimates to 0.31. Among quantitative traits, the highest h (2) estimates in all individuals and in non-diabetic individuals were seen for lean body mass (h (2) = 0.53-0.65), HDL-cholesterol (0.52-0.61) and suppression of NEFA during OGTT (0.63-0.76) followed by measures of insulin secretion (insulinogenic index [IG(30)] = 0.41-0.50) and insulin action (insulin sensitivity index [ISI] = 0.37-0.40). In contrast, physical activity showed rather low heritability (0.16-0.18), whereas smoking showed strong heritability (0.57-0.59). Family means of these traits differed two- to fivefold between families belonging to the lowest and highest quartile of the trait (p < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: To detect stronger genetic effects in type 2 diabetes, it seems reasonable to restrict inclusion of patients to those with age at onset 35-60 years. Sequencing of families with extreme quantitative traits could be an important next step in the dissection of the genetics of type 2 diabetes.
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