Clinical update: melatonin and sleep disorders.Arendt J, Van Someren EJ, Appleton R, Skene DJ, Akerstedt T.Centre for Chronobiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford. firstname.lastname@example.orgThe hormone melatonin is increasingly used for the treatment of certain sleep disorders, particularly those related to disturbed biological rhythms. This article summarises current knowledge of its mechanism of action and identifies situations where there is good evidence for its efficacy. The authors provide advice, based on their own experience and consistent published data, concerning the dose range of melatonin to be used and the critically important question of the timing of treatment. Anecdotal evidence for the use of melatonin needs to be replaced by data from well-controlled, preferably multi-centre, randomised clinical trials.