<p>Funding Agencies|National Cancer Institute [UM1 CA164920]; Lithuania (BFBOCC-LT): Research Council of Lithuania grant [LIG-07/2012]; Hereditary Cancer Association (Paveldimo vezio asociacija); LSC grant [10.0010.08]; ESF [2009/0220/1DP/22.214.171.124.0/09/APIA/VIAA/016]; Liepajas municipal council; Cancer Association of South Africa (CANSA); Morris and Horowitz Familes Endowed Professorship; NEYE Foundation; Spanish Association against Cancer [AECC08, RTICC 06/0020/1060, FISPI08/1120]; Mutua Madrilena Foundation (FMMA); COH-CCGCRN: City of Hope Clinical Cancer Genetics Community Network from the National Cancer Institute and the Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Hereditary Cancer Research Registry from the National Cancer Institute and the Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health [RC4CA153828]; Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori; Cancer Research-United Kingdom grant [C12292/A11174, C1287/ A10118]; NHMRC Program Grant; DKFZ; European Union (European Social Fund-ESF); Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF)-Research Funding Program of the General Secretariat for Research and Technology: ARISTEIA; European Social Fund; Cancer Research United Kingdom Grants [C1287/A10118, C1287/A11990]; National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) grant; NIHR grant; Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust; Cancer Research United Kingdom Grant [C5047/A8385]; University of Kansas Cancer Center [P30 CA168524]; Kansas Bioscience Authority Eminent Scholar Program; Chancellors Distinguished Chair in Biomedical Sciences Professorship; AKG [5U01CA113916, R01CA140323]; German Cancer Aid ; Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne (CMMC); Ligue National Contre le Cancer; Association "Le cancer du sein, parlonsen!" Award; Canadian Institutes of Health Research; Fund for Scientific Research Flanders (FWO); National Cancer Institute grant [CA 27469]; GOG Statistical and Data Center [CA 37517]; GOGs Cancer Prevention and Control Committee [CA 101165]; Intramural Research Program, NCI; ISCIII (Spain) [RD12/00369/0006, 12/00539]; European Regional Development FEDER funds; Helsinki University Central Hospital Research Fund; Academy of Finland ; Finnish Cancer Society; Sigrid Juselius Foundation; Dutch Cancer Society grant [NKI1998-1854, NKI2004-3088, NKI2007-3756]; Netherlands Organization of Scientific Research [NWO 91109024]; Pink Ribbon grant ; BBMRI grant [NWO 184.021.007/CP46]; Hungarian Research Grant [KTIA-OTKA CK-80745]; Norwegian EEA Financial Mechanism [HU0115/NA/2008-3/OP-9]; Spanish Ministry of Health ISCIII FIS [PI10/01422, PI12/01528, PI13/00285]; RTICC [RD12/0036/0008]; Ramon Areces (XV) Foundation; Eugenio Rodriguez Pascual Foundation; Roses Contra el Cancer Foundation; Spanish Association Against Cancer (AECC); AGAUR Generalitat de Catalunya [2009-SGR290, 2009-SGR293]; Polish Foundation of Science; Icelandic Association "Walking for Breast Cancer Research"; Nordic Cancer Union; Landspitali University Hospital Research Fund; Canadian Institutes of Health Research for the "CIHR Team in Familial Risks of Breast Cancer" program; Canadian Breast Cancer Research Alliance-grant ; Ministry of Economic Development, Innovation and Export Trade-grant [PSR-SIIRI-701]; Ministero dellIstruzione, dellUniversita e della Ricerca and Ministero della Salute; Liga Portuguesa Contra o Cancro; National Breast Cancer Foundation; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC); Queensland Cancer Fund; Cancer Council of New South Wales; Cancer Council of Victoria; Cancer Foundation of Western Australia; Cancer Councils of Tasmania; National Institutes of Health grant [CA128978]; NCI Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) in Breast Cancer [CA116201]; United States Department of Defence Ovarian Cancer Idea award [W81XWH-10-1-0341]; Breast Cancer Research Foundation; Jewish General Hospital Weekend; Quebec Ministry of Economic Development, Innovation and Export Trade; Cancer Councils of South Australia; European Regional Development Fund; State Budget of the Czech Republic (RECAMO) [CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0101]; MH CZ-DRO (MMCI) ; Niehaus Family Genetics Research Fund; STARR Cancer Consortium Grant; NAROD [1R01 CA149429-01]; NCI Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health [NO2-CP-11019-50, N02-CP-65504]; Westat, Inc, Rockville, Maryland; Clalit Health Services in Israel; Israel Cancer Association; Breast Cancer Research Foundation (BCRF), New York; Russian Federation for Basic Research [11-04-00227, 12-04-00928, 12-04-01490]; Federal Agency for Science and Innovations, Russia [02.740.11.0780]; Canadian Institutes of Health Research for the "CIHR Team in Familial Risks of Breast Cancer" program and grant from the National Cancer Institute [UM1 CA164920]; Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR); United States Government or the BCFR; Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center; Isreal cancer association; Israeli Inherited breast cancer consortium; Swedish Cancer Society; Ralph and Marion Falk Medical Research Trust; Entertainment Industry Fund National Womens Cancer Research Alliance; National Institutes of Health (NIH) [R01-CA102776, R01-CA083855]; Rooney Family Foundation; Susan G. Komen Foundation for the cure, Basser Research Center; American Cancer Society Early Detection Professorship [SIOP-06-258-01-COUN]; SAF2010-20493; [PBZ_KBN_122/P05/2004]</p>
While interplay between BRCA1 and AURKA-RHAMM-TPX2-TUBG1 regulates mammary epithelial polarization, common genetic variation in HMMR (gene product RHAMM) may be associated with risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Following on these observations, we further assessed the link between the AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 functional module and risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Forty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers and subsequently analyzed using a retrospective likelihood approach. The association of HMMR rs299290 with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers was confirmed: per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04 - 1.15, p = 1.9 x 10(-4) (false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted p = 0.043). Variation in CSTF1, located next to AURKA, was also found to be associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers: rs2426618 per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03 - 1.16, p = 0.005 (FDR-adjusted p = 0.045). Assessment of pairwise interactions provided suggestions (FDR-adjusted p(interaction) values greater than 0.05) for deviations from the multiplicative model for rs299290 and CSTF1 rs6064391, and rs299290 and TUBG1 rs11649877 in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following these suggestions, the expression of HMMR and AURKA or TUBG1 in sporadic breast tumors was found to potentially interact, influencing patients survival. Together, the results of this study support the hypothesis of a causative link between altered function of AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 and breast carcinogenesis in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.