The measurement of the energy spectra and densities of alpha-particles and other fast ions are part of the ITER measurement requirements, highlighting the importance of energy-resolved energetic-particle measurements for the mission of ITER. However, it has been found in recent years that the velocity-space interrogation regions of the foreseen energetic-particle diagnostics do not allow these measurements directly. We will demonstrate this for gamma-ray spectroscopy (GRS), collective Thomson scattering (CTS), neutron emission spectroscopy and fast-ion D-alpha spectroscopy by invoking energy and momentum conservation in each case, highlighting analogies and differences between the different diagnostic velocity-space sensitivities. Nevertheless, energy spectra and densities can be inferred by velocity-space tomography which we demonstrate using measurements at JET and ASDEX Upgrade. The measured energy spectra agree well with corresponding simulations. At ITER, alpha-particle energy spectra and densities can be inferred for energies larger than 1.7 MeV by velocity-space tomography based on GRS and CTS. Further, assuming isotropy of the alpha-particles in velocity space, their energy spectra and densities can be inferred by 1D inversion of spectral single-detector measurements down to about 300 keV by CTS. The alpha-particle density can also be found by fitting a model to the CTS measurements assuming the alpha-particle distribution to be an isotropic slowing-down distribution.
NATURAL SCIENCES -- Physical Sciences (hsv//eng)
NATURVETENSKAP -- Fysik (hsv//swe)
NATURAL SCIENCES -- Physical Sciences -- Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics (hsv//eng)
NATURVETENSKAP -- Fysik -- Fusion, plasma och rymdfysik (hsv//swe)
Nuclear instruments and methods for hot plasma diagnostics