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  • Almlöf, Jonas Carlsson, et al. (författare)
  • Whole-genome sequencing identifies complex contributions to genetic risk by variants in genes causing monogenic systemic lupus erythematosus
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - : SPRINGER. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 138:2, s. 141-150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, OMIM 152700) is a systemic autoimmune disease with a complex etiology. The mode of inheritance of the genetic risk beyond familial SLE cases is currently unknown. Additionally, the contribution of heterozygous variants in genes known to cause monogenic SLE is not fully understood. Whole-genome sequencing of DNA samples from 71 Swedish patients with SLE and their healthy biological parents was performed to investigate the general genetic risk of SLE using known SLE GWAS risk loci identified using the ImmunoChip, variants in genes associated to monogenic SLE, and the mode of inheritance of SLE risk alleles in these families. A random forest model for predicting genetic risk for SLE showed that the SLE risk variants were mainly inherited from one of the parents. In the 71 patients, we detected a significant enrichment of ultra-rare (0.1%) missense and nonsense mutations in 22 genes known to cause monogenic forms of SLE. We identified one previously reported homozygous nonsense mutation in the C1QC (Complement C1q C Chain) gene, which explains the immunodeficiency and severe SLE phenotype of that patient. We also identified seven ultra-rare, coding heterozygous variants in five genes (C1S, DNASE1L3, DNASE1, IFIH1, and RNASEH2A) involved in monogenic SLE. Our findings indicate a complex contribution to the overall genetic risk of SLE by rare variants in genes associated with monogenic forms of SLE. The rare variants were inherited from the other parent than the one who passed on the more common risk variants leading to an increased genetic burden for SLE in the child. Higher frequency SLE risk variants are mostly passed from one of the parents to the offspring affected with SLE. In contrast, the other parent, in seven cases, contributed heterozygous rare variants in genes associated with monogenic forms of SLE, suggesting a larger impact of rare variants in SLE than hitherto reported.
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  • Almqvist, E, et al. (författare)
  • Geographical distribution of haplotypes in Swedish families with Huntington's disease.
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 94:2, s. 124-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study was planned to determine the number of origins of the mutation underlying Huntington's disease (HD) in Sweden. Haplotypes were constructed for 23 different HD families, using six different polymorphisms [(CCG)n, GT70, 674, BS1, E2 and 4.2], including two within the gene. In addition, extensive genealogical investigations were performed, and the geographical origin of the haplotypes was studied. Ten different haplotypes were observed suggesting multiple origins for the HD mutation in Sweden. Analysis of the two polymorphic markers within the HD gene (the CCG repeat and GT70) indicates that there are at least three origins for the HD mutation in Sweden. One of these haplotypes (7/A) accounts for 89% of the families, suggesting that the majority of the Swedish HD families are related through a single HD mutation of ancient origin. Furthermore, three of the families that were previously considered to be unrelated could be traced to a common ancestor in the 15th century, a finding that is consistent with this hypothesis.
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  • Arnell, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) : evidence for genetic heterogeneity by exclusion of linkage to chromosome 18q21-q22
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 100:3-4, s. 378-381
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is the second most common form of familial intrahepatic cholestasis. The genes for PFIC and for a milder form of the disease, benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC), were recently mapped to a 19-cM region on chromosome 18q21-q22. The results suggest that PFIC and BRIC are allelic diseases. We have studied 11 Swedish patients from eight families with clinical and biochemical features consistent with PFIC. The families were genotyped for markers D18S69, D18S64, D18S55 and D18S68, spanning the PFIC candidate region. Unexpectedly, the segregation of haplotypes excluded the entire region in three families, and no indications for shared haplotypes were found in the patients of the six remaining families. A four-point linkage analysis of all families excluded linkage from D18S69 to D18S55 (Zmax < -5). Thus, our data strongly suggest the presence of a second, yet unknown, locus for PFIC. The results indicate that great care should be taken when using 18q markers for prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling for the disease.
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  • Balciuniene, Jorune, et al. (författare)
  • Alpha-tectorin involvement in hearing disabilities : One gene-two phenotypes
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 105:3, s. 211-216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The human alpha-tectorin (TECTA) gene has recently been cloned and proposed to be involved in autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing impairment (NSHI) in two families linked to the DFNA12 locus. We have studied a Swedish pedigree with autosomal dominant NSHI with possible digenic inheritance of the disease, involving locus DFNA12 in chromosome 11 and locus DFNA2 in chromosome 1. Mutation analysis of the TECTA gene in this family has identified eight nucleotide substitutions indicating that TECTA is highly polymorphic. One of the changes results in a cysteine to serine (C 1057 S) mutation, in the zonadhesin domain of TECTA; this segregates with the disease haplotype on chromosome 11 and is not present in a control population. The mutation results in the replacement of a cysteine in one of the repeats of the zonadhesin/Von Willebrand domain of the protein and might cause a change in the crosslinking of the polypeptide. These findings add support to the involvement of TECTA in hearing disabilities. However, the three families carrying different TECTA mutations also show phenotypic differences: the hearing loss ranges from prelingual to progressive with late onset. The explanation for the different phenotypes and some clues regarding the functions of TECTA may lie in the localization of the mutations in the different modules of the protein. Another possibility is that the phenotype in the Swedish family is the result of two defective genes.
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