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  • Gladh, Gunilla, 1943-, et al. (författare)
  • Voiding pattern in healthy newborns
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Neurourology and Urodynamics. - 0733-2467 .- 1520-6777. ; 19:2, s. 177-184
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A 4-hour observation period has been used in infants to investigate suspected bladder dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to extend the usefulness of this protocol by establishing reference values for voiding frequency, intervals, volumes, and residual urine in healthy newborns. The study included 51 healthy newborns, 26 girls and 25 boys, aged 3 to 14 days. During a 4-hour period, all micturitions and residuals were recorded as well as feeding, sleeping, crying, and defecations. The observation was completed with the child undressed to observe the urinary stream during one void. Different provocation tests were tried to induce urinary leakage. All newborns voided with a stream, about once per hour, with a median volume of 23 mL. For each voiding parameter, there was a large inter- and intra-individual variability. Double voidings were common as well as sizable residual volumes. The diuresis was about six times higher than in healthy school children. The healthy newborns did not leak during provocation tests such as manual compression of the bladder.
  • Jiang, Chong-He (författare)
  • Modulation of the micturition reflex pathway by intravesical electrical stimulation : An experimental study in the rat
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Neurourology and Urodynamics. - 0733-2467 .- 1520-6777. ; 17:5, s. 543-554
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intravesical electrical stimulation (IVES) is used clinically to improve bladder evacuation in patients with inadequate micturition contractions. The procedure involves field stimulation of A bladder mechanoreceptor afferents resulting in a prolonged enhancement of the micturition reflex. The aim of the present experimental study in the rat was to identify the site for this neuromodulation, whether it was due to sensitization of bladder mechanoreceptors, to enhancement of transmission in the central micturition reflex pathway, or to improved effectiveness of the peripheral motor system of the bladder. The experiments were performed on female rats, anesthetized by -chloralose. Multi-unit afferent or efferent activity was recorded from bladder pelvic nerve branches during repeated cystometries before and after IVES. The specific antagonist CPPene was used to block central glutaminergic receptors of NMDA type. Micturition threshold volume decreased significantly after IVES. The afferent threshold volume, peak response, and pressure sensitivity were unchanged as were the peak efferent activity and bladder contractility. There was no efferent activity until just before the micturition contraction. The IVES-induced decrease in micturition threshold was blocked by prior administration of the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid) antagonist CPPene (3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-1-propenyl-1-phosphonic acid). The findings indicate that the IVES-induced modulation of the micturition reflex is due to an enhanced excitatory synaptic transmission in the central micturition reflex pathway. The observed modulation may account for the clinical beneficial effect of IVES treatment.
  • Andersson, Karl Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Are there relevant animal models to set research priorities in LUTD? ICI-RS 2019
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Neurourology and Urodynamics. - : Wiley. - 0733-2467 .- 1520-6777. ; 39:S3, s. 9-15
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To discuss animal models of lower urinary tract disorders (LUTD) and their translational impact. Methods: Report of discussions based on presented literature-search based reviews relevant for the purpose. Results: Animal models can be used to investigate fundamental biological mechanisms, but also as tools to elucidate aspects of the pathogenesis of disease and to provide early evidence of any safety risk. Several different models may be required to obtain information that can have a translational impact. The term “translational research” covers not only the process of directly transferring knowledge from basic sciences to human trials to produce new drugs, devices, and treatment options for patients (T1 type translation) but also the implementation of early clinical research findings (phases I-III) into practice to improve care for patients (T2 type). Direct transfer of animal data to T2 is rarely possible, and the process often does not continue after the first trials in humans (phase I). It should be emphasized that many preclinical observations do not have (and do not need to have) immediate translational impact. Conclusions: No single animal model can mimic the complexity of the human disease. Still, animal models can be useful for gaining information on LUT function in humans, for elucidating pathophysiological mechanisms, and for the definition of targets for future drugs to treat LUT disorders.
  • Andersson, Karl-Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and PDE inhibitors for treatment of LUTS
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Neurourology and Urodynamics. - : Wiley. - 0733-2467 .- 1520-6777. ; 26:6, s. 928-933
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lower urinary tract (LUT) smooth muscle can be relaxed by drugs that increase intracellular concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Both of these substances are degraded by phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which play a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle tone. The distribution and functional significance of PDE enzymes vary in different tissues of the LUT. Targeting specific PDE isoenzymes should thus allow organ selectivity. PDE 4 and 5 appear to predominate in the prostate, PDE 1 and 4 are thought to influence detrusor smooth muscle function, and PDE 5 may be functionally important in the urethra and vasculature. Studies on the use of PDE inhibitors to treat various LUT symptoms (LUTS), have yielded favorable results. Thus, positive effects of the PDE 5 inhibitors sildenafil and tadalafil on symptoms and quality of life in men with LUTS, erectile dysfunction, and BPH have also been demonstrated. These effects may be due to effects on cGMP signaling and/or modification of afferent input from bladder, urethral, and prostate tissue. This review gives an update on the distribution of PDEs in structures relevant for LUT function, and discusses how inhibition of these enzymes can contribute to beneficial effects on LUTS. Information for the review was obtained from searches of the PubMed database, and from the authors' files.
  • Aronsson, Patrik, 1983, et al. (författare)
  • A novel in situ urinary bladder model for studying afferent and efferent mechanisms in the micturition reflex in the rat.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Neurourology and urodynamics. - : Wiley. - 1520-6777 .- 0733-2467. ; 33:5, s. 550-557
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: The search for new animal models to investigate both efferent and afferent levels of the micturition reflex, to better understand urinary dysfunctions, is of great importance. Therefore in this study we developed and characterized, by comparisons with a conventional whole bladder model, a novel in situ model. METHODS: The urinary bladder was carefully prepared and separated, via a midline incision, into two halves all the way to the urethra in pentobarbitone and medetomidine anesthetized male rats. The separated bladder halves (with no direct connection) were immobilized with ligatures to the underlying tissue. The tension could thereafter be recorded at one side, while the other half was occasionally stretched in order to evoke an afferent signal. Also, injections of ATP and methacholine and electric nerve stimulation were employed. RESULTS: Ipsilateral stretch of 30 and 50 mN induced a force-dependent contractile response on the contralateral side. Moreover, electrical stimulation of efferent pelvic nerve fibers, and intravenous injections of methacholine and ATP, evoked dose-dependent contractions, resembling responses observed in the whole bladder model. Here, the threshold frequency at electrical stimulation of the efferent fibers was <2 Hz and the maximum response appeared at 10-20 Hz, while afferent stimulation had a threshold of 5-10 Hz with the maximum response at 40 Hz. CONCLUSIONS: In the current study we show that stimulation of afferents at one side of the bladder induces, via impulses from the central nervous system, contractions from the other side. This novel model enables quantitative comparisons of changes occurring within the micturition reflex arc in bladder disorders.
  • Ask, Per, et al. (författare)
  • 1985
  • Ingår i: Neurourology and Urodynamics. - : Wiley. - 0733-2467 .- 1520-6777. ; 4:3, s. 247-256
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A urinary flowmeter has been designed, using a quickly rotating disc and a balance principle. The flowmeter has a fast and accurate response to changing flows. The time delay of the flowmeter is less than about 0.25 s. The improved accuracy in recording urinary flow using the presented flowmeter should make it possible to extract more information from the detrusor pressure and urinary flow relations, relevant for assessing lower urinary tract function.
  • Ask, Per, et al. (författare)
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: Neurourology and Urodynamics. - : Wiley. - 0733-2467 .- 1520-6777. ; 9:1, s. 1-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is apparent that the use of accurate pressure measurement techniques is essential for the outcome of urodynamic investigations. The aim of this paper is to estimate the demands on urodynamic pressure measurements and to review the properties of various techniques used. For the infused catheter technique, the dynamic properties are very much dependent on the complicance of the infusion system. With optimal infusion, the bandwidth and the pressure rise rate seem to be sufficient for most applications. Intraluminal microtransducers have a high bandwidth, but a certain fiber optic transducer cannot accurately measure mechanical pressure in the collapsed urethra. The principal differences in measuring hydrostatic pressure between the infused catheter technique and microtransducers should be observed. Flexion artefacts are a problem when measuring urethral pressure profiles. Newly developed transducers may offer a solution to this problem.
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