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  • Abe, C., et al. (författare)
  • Mania-related effects on structural brain changes in bipolar disorder - a narrative review of the evidence
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184. ; 28:57, s. 2674-2682
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies show that bipolar disorder is associated with structural brain abnormalities, predominantly observed in prefrontal and temporal cortex, cingulate gyrus, and subcortical regions. However, longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate whether these abnormalities presage disease onset or are consequences of disease processes, and to identify potential contributing factors. Here, we narratively review and summarize longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging studies that relate imaging outcomes to manic episodes. First, we conclude that longitudinal brain imaging studies suggest an association of bipolar disorder with aberrant brain changes, including both deviant decreases and increases in morphometric measures. Second, we conclude that manic episodes have been related to accelerated cortical volume and thickness decreases, with the most consistent findings occurring in prefrontal brain areas. Importantly, evidence also suggests that in contrast to healthy controls, who in general show age-related cortical decline, brain metrics remain stable or increase during euthymic periods in bipolar disorder patients, potentially reflecting structural recovering mechanisms. The findings stress the importance of preventing manic episodes. We further propose a model of prefrontal cortical trajectories in relation to the occurrence of manic episodes. Finally, we discuss potential mechanisms at play, remaining limitations, and future directions.
  • Alic, I., et al. (författare)
  • Patient-specific Alzheimer-like pathology in trisomy 21 cerebral organoids reveals BACE2 as a gene dose-sensitive AD suppressor in human brain
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26:10, s. 5766-5788
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A population of more than six million people worldwide at high risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are those with Down Syndrome (DS, caused by trisomy 21 (T21)), 70% of whom develop dementia during lifetime, caused by an extra copy of beta-amyloid-(A beta)-precursor-protein gene. We report AD-like pathology in cerebral organoids grown in vitro from non-invasively sampled strands of hair from 71% of DS donors. The pathology consisted of extracellular diffuse and fibrillar A beta deposits, hyperphosphorylated/pathologically conformed Tau, and premature neuronal loss. Presence/absence of AD-like pathology was donor-specific (reproducible between individual organoids/iPSC lines/experiments). Pathology could be triggered in pathology-negative T21 organoids by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated elimination of the third copy of chromosome 21 gene BACE2, but prevented by combined chemical beta and gamma-secretase inhibition. We found that T21 organoids secrete increased proportions of A beta-preventing (A beta 1-19) and A beta-degradation products (A beta 1-20 and A beta 1-34). We show these profiles mirror in cerebrospinal fluid of people with DS. We demonstrate that this protective mechanism is mediated by BACE2-trisomy and cross-inhibited by clinically trialled BACE1 inhibitors. Combined, our data prove the physiological role of BACE2 as a dose-sensitive AD-suppressor gene, potentially explaining the dementia delay in similar to 30% of people with DS. We also show that DS cerebral organoids could be explored as pre-morbid AD-risk population detector and a system for hypothesis-free drug screens as well as identification of natural suppressor genes for neurodegenerative diseases.
  • Amare, Azmeraw T, et al. (författare)
  • Association of polygenic score and the involvement of cholinergic and glutamatergic pathways with lithium treatment response in patients with bipolar disorder.
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - 1476-5578. ; 28, s. 5251-5261
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lithium is regarded as the first-line treatment for bipolar disorder (BD), a severe and disabling mental healthdisorder that affects about 1% of the population worldwide. Nevertheless, lithium is not consistently effective, with only 30% of patients showing a favorable response to treatment. To provide personalized treatment options for bipolar patients, it is essential to identify prediction biomarkers such as polygenic scores. In this study, we developed a polygenic score for lithium treatment response (Li+PGS) in patients with BD. To gain further insights into lithium's possible molecular mechanism of action, we performed a genome-wide gene-based analysis. Using polygenic score modeling, via methods incorporating Bayesian regression and continuous shrinkage priors, Li+PGS was developed in the International Consortium of Lithium Genetics cohort (ConLi+Gen: N=2367) and replicated in the combined PsyCourse (N=89) and BipoLife (N=102) studies. The associations of Li+PGS and lithium treatment response - defined in a continuous ALDA scale and a categorical outcome (good response vs. poor response) were tested using regression models, each adjusted for the covariates: age, sex, and the first four genetic principal components. Statistical significance was determined at P<0.05. Li+PGS was positively associated with lithium treatment response in the ConLi+Gen cohort, in both the categorical (P=9.8×10-12, R2=1.9%) and continuous (P=6.4×10-9, R2=2.6%) outcomes. Compared to bipolar patients in the 1st decile of the risk distribution, individuals in the 10th decile had 3.47-fold (95%CI: 2.22-5.47) higher odds of responding favorably to lithium. The results were replicated in the independent cohorts for the categorical treatment outcome (P=3.9×10-4, R2=0.9%), but not for the continuous outcome (P=0.13). Gene-based analyses revealed 36 candidate genes that are enriched in biological pathways controlled by glutamate and acetylcholine. Li+PGS may be useful in the development of pharmacogenomic testing strategies by enabling a classification of bipolar patients according to their response to treatment.
  • Amare, A. T., et al. (författare)
  • Association of polygenic score for major depression with response to lithium in patients with bipolar disorder
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 26, s. 2457-2470
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lithium is a first-line medication for bipolar disorder (BD), but only one in three patients respond optimally to the drug. Since evidence shows a strong clinical and genetic overlap between depression and bipolar disorder, we investigated whether a polygenic susceptibility to major depression is associated with response to lithium treatment in patients with BD. Weighted polygenic scores (PGSs) were computed for major depression (MD) at different GWAS p value thresholds using genetic data obtained from 2586 bipolar patients who received lithium treatment and took part in the Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLi(+)Gen) study. Summary statistics from genome-wide association studies in MD (135,458 cases and 344,901 controls) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) were used for PGS weighting. Response to lithium treatment was defined by continuous scores and categorical outcome (responders versus non-responders) using measurements on the Alda scale. Associations between PGSs of MD and lithium treatment response were assessed using a linear and binary logistic regression modeling for the continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. The analysis was performed for the entire cohort, and for European and Asian sub-samples. The PGSs for MD were significantly associated with lithium treatment response in multi-ethnic, European or Asian populations, at various p value thresholds. Bipolar patients with a low polygenic load for MD were more likely to respond well to lithium, compared to those patients with high polygenic load [lowest vs highest PGS quartiles, multi-ethnic sample: OR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.18-2.01) and European sample: OR = 1.75 (95% CI: 1.30-2.36)]. While our analysis in the Asian sample found equivalent effect size in the same direction: OR = 1.71 (95% CI: 0.61-4.90), this was not statistically significant. Using PGS decile comparison, we found a similar trend of association between a high genetic loading for MD and lower response to lithium. Our findings underscore the genetic contribution to lithium response in BD and support the emerging concept of a lithium-responsive biotype in BD.
  • , amudyata, et al. (författare)
  • SARS-CoV-2 promotes microglial synapse elimination in human brain organoids
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-5578 .- 1359-4184. ; 27:10, s. 3939-3950
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neuropsychiatric manifestations are common in both the acute and post-acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the mechanisms of these effects are unknown. In a newly established brain organoid model with innately developing microglia, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infection initiate neuronal cell death and cause a loss of post-synaptic termini. Despite limited neurotropism and a decelerating viral replication, we observe a threefold increase in microglial engulfment of postsynaptic termini after SARS-CoV-2 exposure. We define the microglial responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection by single cell transcriptomic profiling and observe an upregulation of interferon-responsive genes as well as genes promoting migration and synapse engulfment. To a large extent, SARS-CoV-2 exposed microglia adopt a transcriptomic profile overlapping with neurodegenerative disorders that display an early synapse loss as well as an increased incident risk after a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our results reveal that brain organoids infected with SARS-CoV-2 display disruption in circuit integrity via microglia-mediated synapse elimination and identifies a potential novel mechanism contributing to cognitive impairments in patients recovering from COVID-19.
  • Andersson, Evelyn, et al. (författare)
  • Genetics of response to cognitive behavior therapy in adults with major depression : a preliminary report
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 24:4, s. 484-490
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Major depressive disorder is heritable and a leading cause of disability. Cognitive behavior therapy is an effective treatment for major depression. By quantifying genetic risk scores based on common genetic variants, the aim of this report was to explore the utility of psychiatric and cognitive trait genetic risk scores, for predicting the response of 894 adults with major depressive disorder to cognitive behavior therapy. The participants were recruited in a psychiatric setting, and the primary outcome score was measured using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale-Self Rated. Single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping arrays were used to calculate the genomic risk scores based on large genetic studies of six phenotypes: major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, intelligence, and educational attainment. Linear mixed-effect models were used to test the relationships between the six genetic risk scores and cognitive behavior therapy outcome. Our analyses yielded one significant interaction effect (B = 0.09, p < 0.001): the autism spectrum disorder genetic risk score correlated with Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale-Self Rated changes during treatment, and the higher the autism spectrum disorder genetic load, the less the depressive symptoms decreased over time. The genetic risk scores for the other psychiatric and cognitive traits were not related to depressive symptom severity or change over time. Our preliminary results indicated, as expected, that the genomics of the response of patients with major depression to cognitive behavior therapy were complex and that future efforts should aim to maximize sample size and limit subject heterogeneity in order to gain a better understanding of the use of genetic risk factors to predict treatment outcome.
  • Andersson, M, et al. (författare)
  • Serotonin transporter availability in adults with autism-a positron emission tomography study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular psychiatry. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1476-5578 .- 1359-4184. ; 26:5, s. 1647-1658
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Impairments in social interaction and communication, in combination with restricted, repetitive behaviors and interests, define the neurodevelopmental diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The biological underpinnings of ASD are not well known, but the hypothesis of serotonin (5-HT) involvement in the neurodevelopment of ASD is one of the longest standing. Reuptake through the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) is the main pathway decreasing extracellular 5-HT in the brain and a marker for the 5-HT system, but in vivo investigations of the 5-HTT and the 5-HT system in ASD are scarce and so far inconclusive. To quantify possible alterations in the 5-HT system in ASD, we used positron emission tomography and the radioligand [11C]MADAM to measure 5-HTT availability in the brain of 15 adults with ASD and 15 controls. Moreover, we examined correlations between regional 5-HTT availability and behavioral phenotype assessments regarding ASD core symptoms. In the ASD group, we found significantly lower 5-HTT availability in total gray matter, brainstem, and 9 of 18 examined subregions of gray matter. In addition, several correlations between regional 5-HTT availability and social cognitive test performance were found. The results confirm the hypothesis that 5-HTT availability is lower in the brain of adult individuals with ASD, and are consistent with the theory of 5-HT involvement in ASD neurodevelopment. The findings endorse the central role of 5-HT in the physiology of ASD, and confirm the need for a continued investigation of the 5-HT system in order to disentangle the biology of ASD.
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