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  • Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O, et al. (författare)
  • Feasibility of Malaria Diagnosis and Management in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda: A Community-Based Observational Study.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1537-6591. ; 63:suppl 5, s. S245-S255
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Malaria-endemic countries are encouraged to increase, expedite, and standardize care based on parasite diagnosis and treat confirmed malaria using oral artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) or rectal artesunate plus referral when patients are unable to take oral medication. In 172 villages in 3 African countries, trained community health workers (CHWs) assessed and diagnosed children aged between 6 months and 6 years using rapid histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based diagnostic tests (RDTs). Patients coming for care who could take oral medication were treated with ACTs, and those who could not were treated with rectal artesunate and referred to hospital. The full combined intervention package lasted 12 months. Changes in access and speed of care and clinical course were determined through 1746 random household interviews before and 3199 during the intervention. A total of 15 932 children were assessed: 6394 in Burkina Faso, 2148 in Nigeria, and 7390 in Uganda. Most children assessed (97.3% [15 495/15 932]) were febrile and most febrile cases (82.1% [12 725/15 495]) tested were RDT positive. Almost half of afebrile episodes (47.6% [204/429]) were RDT positive. Children eligible for rectal artesunate contributed 1.1% of episodes. The odds of using CHWs as the first point of care doubled (odds ratio [OR], 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-2.4; P < .0001). RDT use changed from 3.2% to 72.9% (OR, 80.8; 95% CI, 51.2-127.3; P < .0001). The mean duration of uncomplicated episodes reduced from 3.69 ± 2.06 days to 3.47 ± 1.61 days, Degrees of freedom (df) = 2960, Student's t (t) = 3.2 (P = .0014), and mean duration of severe episodes reduced from 4.24 ± 2.26 days to 3.7 ± 1.57 days, df = 749, t = 3.8, P = .0001. There was a reduction in children with danger signs from 24.7% before to 18.1% during the intervention (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, .59-.78; P < .0001). Provision of diagnosis and treatment via trained CHWs increases access to diagnosis and treatment, shortens clinical episode duration, and reduces the number of severe cases. This approach, recommended by the World Health Organization, improves malaria case management. ISRCTN13858170.
  • Aleman, Soo, et al. (författare)
  • A Risk for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Persists Long-term After Sustained Virologic Response in Patients With Hepatitis C-Associated Liver Cirrhosis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1537-6591 .- 1058-4838. ; 57:2, s. 230-236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. The long-term effect of sustained virologic response (SVR) to antiviral therapy on the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver complications, liver-related death, and overall death in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with liver cirrhosis is not fully known. Methods. These risks were evaluated during long-term follow-up in 351 patients with HCV-related cirrhosis. One hundred ten patients with SVR, 193 with non-SVR, and 48 who were untreated were included in a multicenter cohort that was initiated in 2001 and prospectively followed up for a mean of 5.3 (SD, 2.8) years. Complementary follow-up data from national registries were used to minimize the loss of patients during follow-up. Results. Six patients with SVR developed HCC at 0.04, 0.64, 2.4, 7.4, 7.4, and 7.6 years, respectively, after achieving SVR. The incidences of HCC, any liver complication, liver-related death, and overall death per 100 person-years were significantly lower in SVR time with 1.0, 0.9, 0.7, and 1.9, compared to 2.3, 3.2, 3.0, and 4.1 in non-SVR and 4.0, 4.9, 4.5, and 5.1 in untreated time. The long-term consequences did not decline significantly after >3 years versus during the first 3 years of follow-up. Conclusions. The risk for HCC, liver decompensation, and death in patients with liver cirrhosis related to HCV was markedly reduced after SVR, but a long-term risk of developing HCC remains for up to 8 years. Cirrhotic patients with HCV who achieve SVR should therefore maintain long-term surveillance for HCC. Future studies aimed to better identify those with remaining long-term risk for HCC are needed.
  • Allander, T, et al. (författare)
  • Human bocavirus and acute wheezing in children
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1537-6591. ; 44:7, s. 904-910
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Alsiö, Åsa, 1965, et al. (författare)
  • Nonresponder patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 2/3 infection: a question of low systemic interferon concentrations?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1537-6591 .- 1058-4838. ; 50:4, s. e22-e25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Twelve of 303 per-protocol patients were nonresponders in a 12-week versus 24-week treatment study of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2/3 infection. The nonresponders had significantly lower interferon concentrations, as well as significantly greater mean age, body mass index, and viral load. Suboptimal drug concentrations may thus contribute to lack of response to therapy in patients with infection due to HCV genotype 2/3.
  • Alsved, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • SARS-CoV-2 in exhaled aerosol particles from covid-19 cases and its association to household transmission
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1537-6591. ; 75:1, s. 50-56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Covid-19 transmission via exhaled aerosol particles has been considered an important route for the spread of infection, especially during super-spreading events involving loud talking or singing. However, no study has previously linked measurements of viral aerosol emissions to transmission rates.METHODS: During Feb-Mar 2021, covid-19 cases that were close to symptom onset were visited with a mobile laboratory for collection of exhaled aerosol particles during breathing, talking and singing, respectively, and of nasopharyngeal and saliva samples. Aerosol samples were collected using a BioSpot-VIVAS and a NIOSH bc-251 two-stage cyclone, and all samples were analyzed by RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection. We compared transmission rates between households with aerosol-positive and aerosol-negative index cases.RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in at least one aerosol sample from 19 of 38 (50%) included cases. The odds ratio of finding positive aerosol samples decreased with each day from symptom onset (OR 0.55, 95CI 0.30-1.0, p=0.049). The highest number of positive aerosol samples were from singing, 16 (42%), followed by talking, 11 (30%), and the least from breathing, 3 (8%). Index cases were identified for 13 households with 31 exposed contacts. Higher transmission rates were observed in households with aerosol-positive index cases, 10/16 infected (63%), compared to households with aerosol-negative index cases, 4/15 infected (27%) (Chi-square test, p=0.045).CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 cases were more likely to exhale SARS-CoV-2-containing aerosol particles close to symptom onset and during singing or talking as compared to breathing. This study supports that individuals with SARS-CoV-2 in exhaled aerosols are more likely to transmit covid-19.
  • Alsved, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Sources of Airborne Norovirus in Hospital Outbreaks
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1537-6591 .- 1058-4838. ; 70:10, s. 2023-2028
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are the major cause of viral gastroenteritis. Disease transmission is difficult to prevent and outbreaks in healthcare facilities commonly occur. Contact with infected persons and contaminated environments are believed to be the main routes of transmission. However, noroviruses have recently been found in aerosols and airborne transmission has been suggested. The aim of our study was to investigate associations between symptoms of gastroenteritis and presence of airborne norovirus, and to investigate the size of norovirus carrying particles.METHODS: Air sampling was repeatedly performed close to 26 patients with norovirus infections. Samples were analysed for norovirus RNA by RT-qPCR. The times since the patients' last episodes of vomiting and diarrhoea were recorded. Size separating aerosol particle collection was also performed in ward corridors.RESULTS: Norovirus RNA was found in 21 (24%) of 86 air samples from 10 different patients. Only air samples during outbreaks, or before a succeeding outbreak, tested positive for norovirus RNA. Airborne norovirus RNA was also strongly associated with a shorter time period since the last vomiting episode (odds ratio 8.1, p=0.04 within 3 hours since the last vomiting episode). The concentration of airborne norovirus ranged from 5-215 copies/m3, and detectable amounts of norovirus RNA were found in particles <0.95 µm and >4.51 µm.CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that recent vomiting is the major source of airborne norovirus and imply a connection between airborne norovirus and outbreaks. The presence of norovirus RNA in submicrometre particles indicates that airborne transmission can be an important transmission route.
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