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Sökning: WFRF:(Bertilsson Maria)

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1.
  • Alassaad, Anna, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • A tool for prediction of risk of rehospitalisation and mortality in the hospitalised elderly : secondary analysis of clinical trial data
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ. - 2044-6055. ; 5:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To construct and internally validate a risk score, the '80+ score', for revisits to hospital and mortality for older patients, incorporating aspects of pharmacotherapy. Our secondary aim was to compare the discriminatory ability of the score with that of three validated tools for measuring inappropriate prescribing: Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions (STOPP), Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (START) and Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI). Setting: Two acute internal medicine wards at Uppsala University hospital. Patient data were used from a randomised controlled trial investigating the effects of a comprehensive clinical pharmacist intervention. Participants: Data from 368 patients, aged 80 years and older, admitted to one of the study wards. Primary outcome measure: Time to rehospitalisation or death during the year after discharge from hospital. Candidate variables were selected among a large number of clinical and drug-specific variables. After a selection process, a score for risk estimation was constructed. The 80+ score was internally validated, and the discriminatory ability of the score and of STOPP, START and MAI was assessed using C-statistics. Results: Seven variables were selected. Impaired renal function, pulmonary disease, malignant disease, living in a nursing home, being prescribed an opioid or being prescribed a drug for peptic ulcer or gastroesophageal reflux disease were associated with an increased risk, while being prescribed an antidepressant drug (tricyclic antidepressants not included) was linked to a lower risk of the outcome. These variables made up the components of the 80+ score. The C-statistics were 0.71 (80+), 0.57 (STOPP), 0.54 (START) and 0.63 (MAI). Conclusions: We developed and internally validated a score for prediction of risk of rehospitalisation and mortality in hospitalised older people. The score discriminated risk better than available tools for inappropriate prescribing. Pending external validation, this score can aid in clinical identification of high-risk patients and targeting of interventions.
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2.
  • Alassaad, Anna, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • A tool for prediction of risk of rehospitalization and mortality in hospitalized elderly
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Older patients with multiple co-morbidities and multi-drug use are at high risk of revisits to hospital and mortality, which poses an increasing health economic burden.Objective: To construct and internally validate a risk score, the “80+ score”, for revisits to hospital and mortality for older patients, incorporating aspects of pharmacotherapy. Our secondary aim was to compare the discriminatory ability of the score with that of three validated tools for measuring inappropriate prescribing: Screening Tool of Older Person’s Prescriptions (STOPP), Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (START) and Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI).Design: Secondary use of data from a randomized controlled trial investigating effects of a comprehensive pharmacist intervention, conducted in 2005-2006.Setting: Two acute internal medicine wards at Uppsala University hospital.Participants: Data from 368 patients, 80 years and older, admitted to one of the study wards.Main outcomes and measures: Time to rehospitalization or death during the year after discharge from hospital. Candidate variables were selected among a large number of clinical and drug-specific variables. After a selection process, a score for risk-estimation was constructed.  The score was internally validated, and the discriminatory ability of the new score and of STOPP, START and MAI was assessed using C-statistics. Results: Seven variables were selected for the 80+ score. Impaired renal function, pulmonary disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD or asthma]), malignant disease (past or present), living in nursing home, being prescribed an opioid or being prescribed a drug for peptic ulcer or gastroesophageal reflux disease was associated with an increased risk, while being prescribed an antidepressant drug (tricyclic antidepressants not included) was linked to a lower risk of the outcome. These variables made up the components of the 80+ score. The C-statistics were 0.71 (80+ score), 0.57 (STOPP), 0.54 (START) and 0.63 (MAI). Conclusion and Relevance: We developed and internally validated a score for prediction of risk of rehospitalization and mortality in hospitalized older people. The score discriminated risk considerably better than available tools for inappropriate prescribing. Pending external validation, this score can aid in clinical identification of high-risk patients and targeting of interventions. 
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3.
  • Alassaad, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Prescription and transcription errors in multidose-dispensed medications on discharge from hospital : an observationaland interventional study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice. - : Wiley. - 1356-1294 .- 1365-2753. ; 19:1, s. 185-191
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Medication errors frequently occur when patients are transferred between health care settings. The main objective of this study was to investigate the frequency, type and severity of prescribing and transcribing errors for drugs dispensed in multidose plastic packs when patients are discharged from the hospital. The secondary objective was to correct identified errors and suggest measures to promote safe prescribing.Methods The drugs on the patients' multidose drug dispensing (MDD) order sheets and the medication administration records were reconciled prior to the MDD orders being sent to the pharmacy for dispensing. Discrepancies were recorded and the prescribing physician was notified and given the opportunity to change the order. Discrepancies categorized as unintentional and related to the discharge process were subject to further analysis.Results Seventy-two (25%) of the 290 reviewed MDD orders had at least one discharge error. In total, 120 discharge errors were identified, of which 49 (41%) were assessed as being of moderate and three (3%) of major severity. Orders with a higher number of medications and orders from the orthopaedic wards had a significantly higher error rate.Conclusion The main purpose of the MDD system is to increase patient safety by reducing medication errors. However, this study shows that prescribing and transcribing errors frequently occur when patients are hospitalized. Because the population enrolled in the MDD system is an elderly, physically vulnerable group with a high number of prescribed drugs, preventive measures to ensure safe prescribing of MDD drugs are warranted.
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4.
  • Alassaad, Anna, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of pharmacist intervention on emergency department visits in patients 80 years and older : subgroup analyses by number of prescribed drugs and appropriate prescribing
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 9:11, s. e111797-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Clinical pharmacist interventions have been shown to have positive effect on occurrence of drug-related issues as well as on clinical outcomes. However, evidence about which patients benefiting most from the interventions is limited. We aimed to explore whether pharmacist intervention is equally effective in preventing emergency department (ED) visits in patients with few or many prescribed drugs and in those with different levels of inappropriate prescribing. Methods: Patient and outcome data from a randomized controlled trial exploring the clinical effects of a ward-based pharmacist intervention in patients, 80 years and older, were used. The patients were divided into subgroups according to the number of prescribed drugs (< 5 or >= 5 drugs) and the level of inappropriate prescribing [using the Screening Tool Of Older People's potentially inappropriate Prescriptions (STOPP) and the Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (START) with a score of >= 2 (STOPP) and >= 1 (START) as cutoff points]. The effect of the intervention on the number of times the different subgroups visited the ED was analyzed. Results: The pharmacist intervention was more effective with respect to the number of subsequent ED visits in patients taking < 5 drugs on admission than in those taking >= 5 drugs. The rate ratio (RR) for a subsequent ED visit was 0.22 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09-0.52] for,5 drugs and 0.70 (95% CI 0.47-1.04) for >= 5 drugs (p = 0.02 for the interaction). The effect of intervention did not differ between patients with high or low STOPP or START scores. Conclusion: In this exploratory study, the pharmacist intervention appeared to be more effective in preventing visits to the ED for patients who were taking fewer drugs before the intervention. Our analysis of STOPP and START scores indicated that the level of inappropriate prescribing on admission had no effect on the outcomes of intervention with respect to ED visits.
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5.
  • Alneberg, Johannes, et al. (författare)
  • Genomes from uncultivated prokaryotes : a comparison of metagenome-assembled and single-amplified genomes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Microbiome. - : BioMed Central. - 2049-2618. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Prokaryotes dominate the biosphere and regulate biogeochemical processes essential to all life. Yet, our knowledge about their biology is for the most part limited to the minority that has been successfully cultured. Molecular techniques now allow for obtaining genome sequences of uncultivated prokaryotic taxa, facilitating in-depth analyses that may ultimately improve our understanding of these key organisms. Results: We compared results from two culture-independent strategies for recovering bacterial genomes: single-amplified genomes and metagenome-assembled genomes. Single-amplified genomes were obtained from samples collected at an offshore station in the Baltic Sea Proper and compared to previously obtained metagenome-assembled genomes from a time series at the same station. Among 16 single-amplified genomes analyzed, seven were found to match metagenome-assembled genomes, affiliated with a diverse set of taxa. Notably, genome pairs between the two approaches were nearly identical (average 99.51% sequence identity; range 98.77-99.84%) across overlapping regions (30-80% of each genome). Within matching pairs, the single-amplified genomes were consistently smaller and less complete, whereas the genetic functional profiles were maintained. For the metagenome-assembled genomes, only on average 3.6% of the bases were estimated to be missing from the genomes due to wrongly binned contigs. Conclusions: The strong agreement between the single-amplified and metagenome-assembled genomes emphasizes that both methods generate accurate genome information from uncultivated bacteria. Importantly, this implies that the research questions and the available resources are allowed to determine the selection of genomics approach for microbiome studies.
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6.
  • Alneberg, Johannes, et al. (författare)
  • Genomes from uncultivated prokaryotes: a comparison of metagenome-assembled and single-amplified genomes
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Background: Prokaryotes dominate the biosphere and regulate biogeochemical processes essential to all life. Yet, our knowledge about their biology is for the most part limited to the minority that has been successfully cultured. Molecular techniques now allow for obtaining genome sequences of uncultivated prokaryotic taxa, facilitating in-depth analyses that may ultimately improve our understanding of these key organisms.Results: We compared results from two culture-independent strategies for recovering bacterial genomes: single-amplified genomes and metagenome-assembled genomes. Single-amplified genomes were obtained from samples collected at an offshore station in the Baltic Sea Proper and compared to previously obtained metagenome-assembled genomes from a time series at the same station. Among 16 single-amplified genomes analyzed, seven were found to match metagenome-assembled genomes, affiliated with a diverse set of taxa. Notably, genome pairs between the two approaches were nearly identical (>98.7% identity) across overlapping regions (30-80% of each genome). Within matching pairs, the single-amplified genomes were consistently smaller and less complete, whereas the genetic functional profiles were maintained. For the metagenome-assembled genomes, only on average 3.6% of the bases were estimated to be missing from the genomes due to wrongly binned contigs; the metagenome assembly was found to cause incompleteness to a higher degree than the binning procedure.Conclusions: The strong agreement between the single-amplified and metagenome-assembled genomes emphasizes that both methods generate accurate genome information from uncultivated bacteria. Importantly, this implies that the research questions and the available resources are allowed to determine the selection of genomics approach for microbiome studies.
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7.
  • Andersen, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • C-X-C Ligand 16 Is an Independent Predictor of Cardiovascular Death and Morbidity in Acute Coronary Syndromes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. - 1079-5642 .- 1524-4636. ; 39:11, s. 2402-2410
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective:The chemokine CXCL16 (C-X-C motif ligand 16) is a scavenger receptor for OxLDL (oxidized low-density lipoproteins) and involved in inflammation at sites of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the association of CXCL16 with clinical outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome.Approach and Results:Serial measurements of CXCL16 were performed in a subgroup of 5142 patients randomized in the PLATO trial (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcome). Associations between CXCL16 and a composite of cardiovascular death, spontaneous myocardial infarction or stroke, and the individual components were assessed by multivariable Cox regression analyses. The hazard ratio per 50% increase in admission levels of CXCL16 analyzed as continuous variable was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.44-1.88), P<0.0001. This association remained statistically significant after adjustment for randomized treatment, clinical variables, CRP (C-reactive protein), leukocytes, cystatin C, NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide), troponin T, GDF-15 (growth differentiation factor 15), and other biomarkers; hazard ratio 1.23 (1.05-1.45), P=0.0126. The admission level of CXCL16 was independently associated with cardiovascular death (1.50 [1.17-1.92], P=0.0014) but not with ischemic events alone, in fully adjusted analyses. No statistically independent association was found between CXCL16 measured at 1 month, or change in CXCL16 from admission to 1 month, and clinical outcomes.Conclusions:In patients with acute coronary syndrome, admission level of CXCL16 is independently related to adverse clinical outcomes, mainly driven by an association to cardiovascular death. Thus, CXCL16 measurement may enhance risk stratification in patients with this condition.
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8.
  • Andersson, Annica, et al. (författare)
  • Paths to a sustainable food sector guided by LCA – exemplified by pork production
  • 2014
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • To describe a more sustainable food sector, a supply chain approach is needed. Changing supply chains inevitably means that a range of attributes of the product and its system will change. This project will take on this challenge and deliver detailed descriptions of supply chains of six commodities from a Swedish region in 2012; Milk, cheese, beef, pork, chicken and bread. The set-up of the project was that experts on production along the supply chain design environmentally improved systems. The next step was to challenge the improvements considering their possible consequences on products and systems from different perspectives: food safety, sensory qualities, animal welfare, and consumer appreciation and (only for primary production) costs. The final supply chains were quantified by life cycle assessment (LCA), and they were again assessed from the perspectives mentioned above. Results will be generated during August 2014 and comprise both single-product LCA and region-wide impacts of the future scenarios.
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9.
  • Bertilsson, Ann-Sofie, et al. (författare)
  • A client-centred ADL intervention: three-month follow-up of a randomized controlled trial
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy. - : Informa UK Limited. - 1103-8128 .- 1651-2014. ; 21, s. 377-391
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim was to study a client-centred activities of daily living (ADL) intervention (CADL) compared with the usualADL intervention (UADL) in people with stroke regarding: independence in ADL, perceived participation, life satisfaction,use of home-help service, and satisfaction with training and, in their significant others, regarding: caregiver burden, lifesatisfaction, and informal care. Methods: In this multicentre study, 16 rehabilitation units were randomly assigned to deliverCADL or UADL. The occupational therapists who provided the CADL were specifically trained. Eligible for inclusion werepeople with stroke treated in a stroke unit £3 months after stroke, dependent in ‡two ADL, not diagnosed with dementia, andable to understand instructions. Data were collected at inclusion and three months thereafter. To detect a significant differencebetween the groups in the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) domain “participation”, 280 participants were required. Intention-totreatanalysis was applied. Results: At three months, there was no difference in the outcomes between the CADL group(n = 129) and the UADL group (n = 151), or their significant others (n = 87/n = 93) except in the SIS domain “emotion” infavour of CADL (p = 0.04). Conclusion: The CADL does not appear to bring about short-term differences in outcomes andlonger follow-ups are required.
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10.
  • Bertilsson, Carolina, 1990, et al. (författare)
  • Caries prevalence and other dental pathological conditions in Vikings from Varnhem, Sweden.
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: PloS one. - 1932-6203. ; 18:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a late Swedish Viking Age population dating from around 10th-12th century AD, the prevalence, distribution and location of dental caries were studied. Tooth wear, other dental pathology and anatomical variations were identified and recorded clinically and radiographically. A total of 3293 teeth were analyzed from 171 individuals with complete and partial dentitions, of which 133 were permanent and 38 deciduous/mixed dentition. The dentitions were studied clinically, using a dental probe under a strong light source, and radiographs were taken for 18 of the individuals to verify and complement the clinical caries registration. Almost half the population, 83 of 171 individuals (49%), had at least one carious lesion. All individuals with deciduous or mixed dentitions were caries-free. The number of teeth affected by caries among adults was 424 (13%) and the surface most susceptible to caries was the root surface. The tooth most commonly affected by caries was the first mandibular molar. Other findings included apical infections, which were detected clinically in 4% of the teeth, and one case of filed front teeth. The findings gave a unique understanding of life and death in this early Christian Viking community and indicated that it was common to suffer from dental caries, tooth loss, infections of dental origin and tooth pain. These Vikings also manipulated their teeth through filing, tooth picking and other occupational behaviors.
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