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Sökning: WFRF:(Schwab Stone M.)

  • Resultat 1-8 av 8
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  • Löfving–Gupta, S., et al. (författare)
  • Community violence exposure and severe posttraumatic stress in suburban American youth : risk and protective factors
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. - 0933-7954 .- 1433-9285. ; 50:4, s. 539-547
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The psychological effects of community violence exposure among inner-city youth are severe, yet little is known about its prevalence and moderators among suburban middle-class youth. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of community violence exposure among suburban American youth, to examine associated posttraumatic stress and to evaluate factors related to severe vs. less severe posttraumatic stress, such as co-existing internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as the effects of teacher support, parental warmth and support, perceived neighborhood safety and conventional involvement in this context. Method: Data were collected from 780 suburban, predominantly Caucasian middle-class high-school adolescents in the Northeastern US during the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) study. Results: A substantial number of suburban youth were exposed to community violence and 24 % of those victimized by community violence developed severe posttraumatic stress. Depressive symptoms were strongly associated with higher levels and perceived teacher support with lower levels of posttraumatic stress. Conclusion: Similar to urban youth, youth living in suburban areas in North American settings may be affected by community violence. A substantial proportion of these youth reports severe posttraumatic stress and high levels of comorbid depressive symptoms. Teacher support may have a protective effect against severe posttraumatic stress and thus needs to be further assessed as a potential factor that can be used to mitigate the detrimental effects of violence exposure.
  • Pearce, Michelle J, et al. (författare)
  • The protective effects of religiousness and parent involvement on the development of conduct problems among youth exposed to violence.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Child Development. - 0009-3920 .- 1467-8624. ; 74:6, s. 1682-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study examined the protective effects of religiousness and parent involvement for the development of conduct problems beyond the effects of risk factors. Measures of violence exposure, conduct problems, parent involvement, and religiousness, from the longitudinal Social and Health Assessment survey, were completed by 1,703 high-risk urban adolescents (12.5 +/- 1.7 years; 53% female). Witnessing of and victimization by community violence appeared to be significant risk factors for an increase in conduct problems over a 1-year period. Religiousness and parental involvement were each uniquely associated with a decrease in conduct problems. Moreover, several dimensions of religiousness moderated the relationship between violence exposure and conduct problems, buffering the negative effects of violence exposure. Implications of these findings for prevention efforts are discussed.
  • Ruchkin, Vladislav, et al. (författare)
  • Violence exposure and psychopathology in urban youth : the mediating role of posttraumatic stress.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. - 0091-0627 .- 1573-2835. ; 35:4, s. 578-93
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of violence exposure sequelae is essential to providing effective treatments for traumatized youth. This longitudinal study examined the mediating role of posttraumatic stress in the relationship between violence exposure and psychopathology, and compared the mediated models by gender. Urban adolescents (n=1,358) were surveyed using the Social and Health Assessment. The proposed relationships were examined using Structural Equation Modeling. Posttraumatic stress fully mediated the relationships between victimization and depression and anxiety in girls, and partially so in boys. In addition, posttraumatic stress partially mediated the relationships between violence exposure and commission of violence in boys. Current findings support the longitudinal effects of violence exposure on adolescent mental health. Posttraumatic stress represents a unique mechanism for the development of psychopathology in girls and is also related to negative outcomes in boys. These findings have direct implications for prevention and rehabilitation efforts among violence exposed youth.
  • Schwab-Stone, M, et al. (författare)
  • Cultural considerations in the treatment of children and adolescents. Operationalizing the importance of culture in treatment.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. - 1056-4993 .- 1558-0490. ; 10:4, s. 729-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Culture is complex and fluid, constantly changing with the tides of internal and external influence. It is vital for the transcultural therapist to understand the roles, context, and therapeutic consequences that follow from culture. The constructs mentioned previously are interdependent and often inseparable from one another. The interwoven web of political, social, and cultural constructs must be considered to understand the context of mental illness. This being said, therapists should not be content with the broad brush of cultural definition. Subcultural and intracultural dynamics also may play a role in a patient's world view, and the therapist must remain open to these variations. Likewise, one should be careful of stereotype. Culture plays a vital role in shaping physical and psychological conceptions but in and of itself cannot define an individual.
  • Vermeiren, R, et al. (författare)
  • Antisocial behaviour and mental health. Findings from three communities.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. - 1018-8827 .- 1435-165X. ; 11:4, s. 168-75
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: To investigate the relationship between antisocial behaviour and psychopathology (depression, somatization, anxiety), expectations for the future, and sensation seeking in adolescents.METHOD: A cross-national self-report study assessing 955 students in Antwerp (Belgium), 1026 in Arkhangelsk (Russia) and 1391 in New Haven (US) was conducted. Adolescents were assigned antisocial group status according to the nature of their reported deviant behaviour. A non-antisocial group, a moderate antisocial group (non-aggressive behaviour) and a severe antisocial group (mainly aggressive behaviour) were identified.RESULTS: In both genders and in all three countries, depression, somatization, negative expectations for the future and sensation seeking gradually increased from the non-antisocial group to the moderate antisocial group, and finally to the severe antisocial group. Levels of anxiety were insignificant across most groups.CONCLUSION: Although cross-national differences exist, the variables of interest showed markedly similar trends between antisocial groups across countries. The current study adds to the debate over the relationship between anxiety and antisocial behaviour.
  • Vermeiren, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • Juvenile arrest : a cross-cultural comparison.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines. - 0021-9630 .- 1469-7610. ; 45:3, s. 567-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Cross-national studies describing the psychopathological characteristics of arrested adolescents are virtually non-existent. Such studies are important because they have implications for national policy on arrest, case-management, and future research.METHOD: To address this issue, self-report surveys administered to representative groups of 12- to 16-year-old adolescents in New Haven, USA (N = 1138) and Antwerp, Belgium (N = 627) were compared. A number of internalizing and deviant behavior variables were compared between controls (C), non-arrested antisocial (NA), and arrested antisocial (AR) participants.RESULTS: Similar cross-national arrest rates and levels of antisocial behavior were found. NA and AR youths in both countries reported more internalizing problems, except for anxiety, and more deviant characteristics. Contrary to expectations, the level of depression was not higher in AR compared to NA youth when differences in antisocial behavior between NA and AR were controlled. Also unexpected, arrest showed an independent association with a number of deviant behavior variables.CONCLUSIONS: Further research should investigate the underlying mechanisms of these associations, as this insight would be useful for developing future intervention and prevention programs, as well as for developing future national policies regarding juvenile antisocial behavior.
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  • Resultat 1-8 av 8

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