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  • Nelson, C. P., et al. (författare)
  • Genetically Determined Height and Coronary Artery Disease
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 372:17, s. 1608-1618
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND The nature and underlying mechanisms of an inverse association between adult height and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) are unclear.METHODS We used a genetic approach to investigate the association between height and CAD, using 180 height-associated genetic variants. We tested the association between a change in genetically determined height of 1 SD (6.5 cm) with the risk of CAD in 65,066 cases and 128,383 controls. Using individual-level genotype data from 18,249 persons, we also examined the risk of CAD associated with the presence of various numbers of height-associated alleles. To identify putative mechanisms, we analyzed whether genetically determined height was associated with known cardiovascular risk factors and performed a pathway analysis of the height-associated genes.RESULTS We observed a relative increase of 13.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.4 to 22.1; P<0.001) in the risk of CAD per 1-SD decrease in genetically determined height. There was a graded relationship between the presence of an increased number of height-raising variants and a reduced risk of CAD (odds ratio for height quar-tile 4 versus quartile 1, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.84; P<0.001). Of the 12 risk factors that we studied, we observed significant associations only with levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (accounting for approximately 30% of the association). We identified several overlapping pathways involving genes associated with both development and atherosclerosis.CONCLUSIONS There is a primary association between a genetically determined shorter height and an increased risk of CAD, a link that is partly explained by the association between shorter height and an adverse lipid profile. Shared biologic processes that determine achieved height and the development of atherosclerosis may explain some of the association.
  • Aberg, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Tissue Factor Noncoagulant Signaling : Mechanisms and Implications for Cell Migration and Apoptosis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis. - : Georg Thieme Verlag KG. - 0094-6176 .- 1098-9064. ; 41:7, s. 691-699
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tissue factor (TF) is a 47-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein and the main initiator of the blood coagulation cascade. Binding to its ligand factor VIIa (FVIIa) also initiates noncoagulant signaling with broad biological implications. In this review, we discuss how TF interacts with other cell-surface proteins, which affect biological functions such as cell migration and cell survival. A vast number of publications have demonstrated the importance of TF-induced activation of protease-activated receptors, but recently published research has indicated a more complicated picture. As it has been discovered that TF interacts with integrins and receptor tyrosine kinases, novel signaling mechanisms for the TF/FVIIa complex have been presented. The knowledge of these new aspects of TF signaling may, for instance, facilitate the development of new treatment strategies for cancer and acute coronary syndromes, two examples of diseases characterized by aberrant TF expression and signaling.
  • Alström, Ulrica, et al. (författare)
  • Platelet inhibition assessed with VerifyNow, flow cytometry and PlateletMapping in patients undergoing heart surgery
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis Research. - : Elsevier BV. - 0049-3848 .- 1879-2472. ; 124:5, s. 572-577
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: A substantial number of patients with coronary artery disease undergo cardiac surgery within five days of discontinuing anti-platelet treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel. The aims of this study were to describe the degree of platelet inhibition in patients with dual anti-platelet treatment scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and to investigate whether the measured platelet inhibition correlated to intra- and postoperative risk for bleeding and transfusion requirements. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty patients were included. Platelet inhibition was analysed with flow cytometry including phosphorylation status of the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP-assay) and two bed-side analyzers, VerifyNow-System and PlateletMapping, a modified thrombelastograph. All 60 patients were analysed with VerifyNow and PlateletMapping, and 48 were analysed with flow cytometry and VASP-assay. RESULTS: There was a correlation between the ADP-receptor inhibition as measured by VASP-assay and VerifyNowP2Y(12) (r = -0.29, p<0.05), and between VASP-assay and the expression of P-selectin (r = 0.29, p<0.05) as measured by flow cytometry when platelets were stimulated with 5 microM ADP. VerifyNowP2Y(12) was the only measurement of platelet inhibition correlated to total blood loss (Spearman r = 0.29, p=0.03) and red blood cell transfusion (Spearman r = 0.43, p<0.01) requirements, although this might be confounded by aprotinin treatment. CONCLUSION: We found a modest agreement between the methods for preoperative platelet inhibition, though not for PlateletMapping-MA(ADP). There was a correlation between preoperative platelet inhibition measured by VerifyNowP2Y(12) and surgical blood loss or transfusion requirements. However, for the individual patient, preoperative use of VerifyNowP2Y(12) as an instrument to decide bleeding and transfusion risk does not seem helpful.
  • Alström, Ulrica, et al. (författare)
  • The platelet inhibiting effect of a clopidogrel bolus dose in patients on long-term acetylsalicylic acid treatment
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis Research. - : Elsevier BV. - 0049-3848 .- 1879-2472. ; 120:3, s. 353-359
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Addition of clopidogrel to patients treated with ASA has been shown to decrease the incidence of in-stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary interventions. However, it has also been reported that up to 30% of patients do not achieve adequate platelet inhibition from standard dosages of ASA and clopidogrel. There is a demand for reliable methods to measure the individual platelet inhibiting effect of this combination therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The primary aim of the present investigation was to compare three methods for evaluation of the platelet inhibiting effect of a clopidogrel bolus dose in patients on long-term acetylsalicylic acid treatment. Thirty patients presenting for coronary angiography/PCI were included. Two patients were excluded due to technical problems. All patients were on 75-100 mg ASA/day for at least 8 days. Blood samples were analysed before and 16 h after a 300 mg clopidogrel bolus dose. The platelet inhibiting effect was measured with (1) Whole blood flow cytometry (17 patients); (2) a bed-side test, Platelet Mapping assay for the thrombelastograph (28 patients); and (3) PFA (Platelet function analyser) -100 (26 patients). RESULTS: With flow cytometry, the percentage of platelets expressing P-selectin (p=0.03) on their surface decreased significantly after the bolus dose of clopidogrel. There was also a reduction of platelets binding fibrinogen when stimulated with ADP. A significantly (p=0.002) increased platelet inhibition could also be demonstrated with Platelet Mapping. PFA-100 could not measure any significant platelet inhibiting effect of clopidogrel. CONCLUSION: A significant platelet inhibition could be demonstrated with flow cytometry and the Platelet Mapping assay, but not with PFA-100. However, levels of response for the individual patient with these three methods were inconsistent. Further studies are needed to evaluate how the results correlate to the clinical risk of thrombosis and bleeding.
  • Andersen, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • C-X-C Ligand 16 Is an Independent Predictor of Cardiovascular Death and Morbidity in Acute Coronary Syndromes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. - 1079-5642 .- 1524-4636. ; 39:11, s. 2402-2410
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective:The chemokine CXCL16 (C-X-C motif ligand 16) is a scavenger receptor for OxLDL (oxidized low-density lipoproteins) and involved in inflammation at sites of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the association of CXCL16 with clinical outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome.Approach and Results:Serial measurements of CXCL16 were performed in a subgroup of 5142 patients randomized in the PLATO trial (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcome). Associations between CXCL16 and a composite of cardiovascular death, spontaneous myocardial infarction or stroke, and the individual components were assessed by multivariable Cox regression analyses. The hazard ratio per 50% increase in admission levels of CXCL16 analyzed as continuous variable was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.44-1.88), P<0.0001. This association remained statistically significant after adjustment for randomized treatment, clinical variables, CRP (C-reactive protein), leukocytes, cystatin C, NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide), troponin T, GDF-15 (growth differentiation factor 15), and other biomarkers; hazard ratio 1.23 (1.05-1.45), P=0.0126. The admission level of CXCL16 was independently associated with cardiovascular death (1.50 [1.17-1.92], P=0.0014) but not with ischemic events alone, in fully adjusted analyses. No statistically independent association was found between CXCL16 measured at 1 month, or change in CXCL16 from admission to 1 month, and clinical outcomes.Conclusions:In patients with acute coronary syndrome, admission level of CXCL16 is independently related to adverse clinical outcomes, mainly driven by an association to cardiovascular death. Thus, CXCL16 measurement may enhance risk stratification in patients with this condition.
  • Attelind, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic determinants of apixaban plasma levels and their relationship to bleeding and thromboembolic events
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Genetics. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1664-8021. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Apixaban is a direct oral anticoagulant, a factor Xa inhibitor, used for the prevention of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Despite using recommended dosing a few patients might still experience bleeding or lack of efficacy that might be related to inappropriate drug exposure. We conducted a genome-wide association study using data from 1,325 participants in the pivotal phase three trial of apixaban with the aim to identify genetic factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of apixaban. A candidate gene analysis was also performed for pre-specified variants in ABCB1, ABCG2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and SULT1A1, with a subsequent analysis of all available polymorphisms within the candidate genes. Significant findings were further evaluated to assess a potential association with clinical outcome such as bleeding or thromboembolic events. No variant was consistently associated with an altered apixaban exposure on a genome-wide level. The candidate gene analyses showed a statistically significant association with a well-known variant in the drug transporter gene ABCG2 (c.421G > T, rs2231142). Patients carrying this variant had a higher exposure to apixaban [area under the curve (AUC), beta = 151 (95% CI 59-243), p = 0.001]. On average, heterozygotes displayed a 5% increase of AUC and homozygotes a 17% increase of AUC, compared with homozygotes for the wild-type allele. Bleeding or thromboembolic events were not significantly associated with ABCG2 rs2231142. This large genome-wide study demonstrates that genetic variation in the drug transporter gene ABCG2 is associated with the pharmacokinetics of apixaban. However, the influence of this finding on drug exposure was small, and further studies are needed to better understand whether it is of relevance for ischemic and bleeding events.
  • Aulin, Julia, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarkers and heart failure events in patients with atrial fibrillation in the ARISTOTLE trial evaluated by a multi-state model
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 251, s. 13-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundAtrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) often coexist. We investigated the prognostic impact of biomarkers on the development of HF and death in patients with AF and different left ventricular systolic function considering the influence of competing events.MethodsThe study included 11,818 patients with AF from the ARISTOTLE trial who at entry had information on history of HF, an estimate of left ventricular function and plasma samples for determination of biomarkers representing cardiorenal dysfunction (NT-proBNP, troponin T, cystatin C) and inflammation (GDF-15, IL-6, CRP). Patients were categorized into: (I) HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF, n = 2,048), (II) HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF, n = 2,520), and (III) No HF (n = 7,250). Biomarker associations with HF hospitalization and death were analyzed using a multi-state model accounting also for repeated events.ResultsBaseline levels of NT-proBNP, troponin T, cystatin C, GDF-15, IL-6, and CRP were highest in HFrEF and lowest in No HF. During median 1.9 years follow-up, 546 patients were hospitalized at least once for HF and 819 died. Higher levels of all investigated biomarkers were associated with both outcomes (all P < .0001), with highest event rates in HFrEF and lowest in No HF. The associations remained after adjustments and were more pronounced for first than for recurrent events.ConclusionsIn anticoagulated patients with AF, biomarkers indicating cardiorenal dysfunction and inflammation improve the identification of patients at risk of developing HF or worsening of already existing HF. These biomarkers might be useful for targeting novel HF therapies in patients with AF.
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