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1.
  • Agebjörn, Anders, 1984- (författare)
  • Learning of definiteness in Belarusian students of Swedish as a foreign language
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Through a series of studies, this thesis investigates the learning of definiteness in Russian-speaking students of Swedish. A communicative oral-production task elicited modified and non-modified noun phrases in indefinite and definite contexts. Study I describes the development of the morphosyntactic structure through which Swedish encodes definiteness, the association between this structure and its meaning, and the relationship between those two tasks over time. Using an English version of the elicitation task and a test of metalinguistic knowledge, Study II examines the relationship between the learners’ explicit knowledge of article semantics and their actual use of English articles. Adding a test of language-learning aptitude, Study III then explores both the influence of second-language English and that of aptitude on the development of Swedish. Finally, Study IV discusses the role of complexity and input frequency. The main findings include that, at the onset of Swedish study, the learners had minimal knowledge of the morphosyntactic structure but were generally sensitive to the meaning of definiteness. However, knowledge of form developed over time while knowledge of meaning did not, and the two learning tasks did not appear to be directly related to each other. In addition, the learners were seldom aware that choosing between indefinite and definite articles requires the speaker to take the hearer’s perspective, but this lack of metalinguistic understanding did not seem to affect their use of articles. Further, previous knowledge of English appeared to facilitate the development of a Swedish morpheme that is structurally similar to its English counterpart, while aptitude was associated with the development of a morpheme whose English counterpart is structurally different. Finally, the learners used high-frequency morphemes more consistently than low-frequency ones, and morphemes were more likely to be supplied in frequent constructions than in infrequent ones. These findings are discussed in relation to a modular, cognitive framework for language learning and use. 
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2.
  • Aghazadeh, Ahmad (författare)
  • Peri-implantitis : risk factors and outcome of reconstructive therapy
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is focused on (I) the outcome of reconstructive treatment of peri-implant defects and (II) risk factors for the development of peri-implantitis.BackgroundAn increasing number of individuals have dental implant-supported reconstructions. The long-time survival rate of dental implants is good, but complications do occur. Accumulation of bacteria on oral implants and the development of a pathogenic biofilm at the mucosal margin will result in inflammatory responses diagnosed as peri-implant mucositis(PiM). Furthermore, PiM may progress to peri-implantitis (Pi) involving the implant-supporting bone and potentially result in a severe inflammatory process resulting in alveolar bone destruction and consequently implantloss. Currently, Pi is a common clinical complication following implant therapy.The prevalence of peri-implantitis has been reported to be around 20 %. Susceptibility to infections and a history of periodontitis are considered as important risk indicators for peri-implantitis. It seems logical that a past history of periodontitis is linked to an increased risk of peri-implantitis. It is possible that other patient-associated factors such as a smoking habit, and presence of general diseases may also be linked to a higher risk for developing peri-implantitis.Treatment of peri-implantitis is difficult. Non-surgical treatment modalities may not be sufficient to resolve the inflammatory process to obtain healthy conditions.Surgical treatment of peri-implantitis has commonly been employed in clinical practice to obtain access to the implant surface thereby increasing the possibility to effectively decontaminate the implant surfaces.The effectiveness and long-term outcomes of reconstructive surgical treatments of peri-implantitis has been debated. The scientific evidence suggests that regular supportive care is an essential component in order to maintain and secure long-term results following treatment of peri-implantitis.Aims1. To assess the short-term efficacy of reconstructive surgical treatmentof peri-implantitis  (Study I).2. To analyse risk factors related to the occurrence of peri-implantitis(Study II).3. To assess the importance of defect configuration on the healing response after reconstructive surgical therapy of peri-implantitis (Study III).4. To assess the long-term efficacy of reconstructive surgical treatmentof peri-implantitis (Study IV).MethodsFour studies were designed to fulfil the aims:- A single-blinded prospective randomised controlled longitudinal human clinical trial evaluating the clinical and radiographic results of reconstructive surgical treatment of peri-implantitis defects usingeither AB or BDX.- A retrospective analysis of individuals with either peri-implantitis, or presenting with either peri-implant health, or peri-implant mucositis assessing the likelihood that peri-implantitis was associated with a history of systemic disease, a history of periodontitis, and smoking.- A prospective study evaluating if the alveolar bone defect configuration at dental implants diagnosed with peri-implantitisis related to clinical parameters at the time of surgical intervention and if the short- and long-term outcome of surgical intervention of peri-implantitis is dependent on defect configuration at the time of treatment.- A prospective 5-year follow-up of patients treated either with AB or BDX.Results- The success for both surgical reconstructive procedures was limited. Nevertheless, bovine xenograft provided evidence of more radiographic bone fill than AB. Improvements in PD, BOP, and SUP were observed for both treatment modalities-In relation to a diagnosis of peri-implantitis, a high likelihood of comorbidity was expressed in the presence of a history of periodontitis and a medical history of cardiovascular disease- The buccal-lingual width of the alveolar bone crest was explanatory to defect configuration- 4-wall defects and deeper defects demonstrated more radiographic evidence of defect fill- Reconstructive surgical treatment of peri-implant defects may result in successful clinical outcomes, that can be maintained over at least five years- The use of BDX is more predictable than use of harvested bone from the patient (AB)ConclusionsThe study results suggest that a bovine xenograft provides better radiographic evidence of defect fill than the use of autogenous bone harvested from cortical autologous bone grafts.Treatment with bone grafts to obtain radiographic evidence of defect fill is more predictable at 3- and 4-wall defects than at peri-implantitis bone defects with fewer bone walls.In relation to a diagnosis of peri-implantitis, a high likelihood of comorbidity was found for a history of periodontitis and a history of cardiovascular disease.
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3.
  • Ali, Abdullah, 1985- (författare)
  • Topical  formulations, design and drug delivery : "A dive into water"
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Water is a vital component regulating the properties of topical formulations and their interaction with biological barriers, such as skin and mucosa. Changing the watercontent within the frame of the pharmaceutical triangle will have a huge impact on which type of formulation, such as a cream, ointment, gel, or lotion, is formed, as well as the physical properties of the formulation. The composition of a formulation, and the subsequent reformulation after application, will govern the features of the residual film. This will in turn affect the barrier properties of the underlying tissue and consequently the penetration of various substances across skin or mucosa.The primary aim of this thesis has been to provide further understanding on differences between traditional surfactant-based formulations and particle-stabilized, Pickering, formulations and how specific excipients, like alcohols, emollients, and thickeners can affect their physical and/or sensorial properties. The secondary aim has been to gain more knowledge on the role of water in topical formulations and how it affects the properties of the underlaying tissue on application.By combining a portfolio of physicochemical techniques combined with sensory science, we have been able to identify differences between Pickering and surfactantstabilized formulations. Starch-based Pickering emulsions were perceived as less greasy and sticky than traditional creams, even at high oil content. Moreover, we were able develop a novel type of alcohol-based Pickering emulsion with combined moisturizing and antiseptic properties. We have also been able to link sensory attributes, evaluated by human volunteers, with physicochemical characterizations. Furthermore, the in vitro ForceBoard™ method was developed further and we evaluated its potential to be used as an ex vivo method using excised skin. In addition, we have shown that that the water gradient over a biological barrier has a general relevance with respect to drug absorption and should be considered not only in dermaldrug delivery but also for buccal and nasal drug delivery.
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4.
  • Andersson, Lisa (författare)
  • Problematisk opioidanvändning : om opioidrelaterade dödsfall och LARO i södra Sverige
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Problematic opioid use constitutes an extensive global problem. Correspondingly, opioid-related mortality is high and has increased in several Western countries, including Sweden, during the 2000s. In Sweden, the most effective treatment method, opioid substitution treatment (OST), was for a long time limited with respect to the number of patients. The treatment was also characterized by strict rules and conducted in a high-threshold manner, which has meant that it has not been fully appealing to people with problematic opioid use. Therefore, in Skåne County in southern Sweden, patient choice of treatment provider was introduced for OST in 2014 with the intention to increase the number of treatment places and strengthen patient empowerment. The overall aims of this thesis are (1) to investigate opioid-related deaths in Skåne with a focus on contact with care-providing authorities and in relation to increased access to OST, and (2) to examine patients’ and clinic managers’ attitudes towards the introduction of the patient choice reform for OST and their views of the reform's objectives of increased accessibility to OST and strengthening patients' empowerment and influence over their treatment.The four papers in this thesis are based on two research projects with various empiric material. Paper I and II are based on data on opioid overdose deaths from a period of two years before and two years following the introduction of the patient choice reform. Forensic data regarding the presence of various substances and which opioid caused the death, as well as demographic data and information on contact with care-providing authorities (health care, social services, and the Prison and Probation Service), were collected. Paper I examines clinical background and contact with care-providing authorities of opioid-related fatalities, as well as differences with regard to which opioid caused the death. Paper II examines the possible impact of the intervention on the development of opioid-related deaths in the region. National mortality data were also used in this study to investigate the development in Skåne compared to the rest of Sweden. The second research project focused on stakeholders’ views on the implementation of the patient choice reform. Paper III includes interviews with 33 OST patients, and paper IV consists of interviews with the managers of all OST clinics in Skåne. The results from paper I show that of the 180 deceased in opioid overdose included in the study, almost 90 per cent had been in contact with one of the examined care-providing authorities during the year prior to death. Few differences appeared with regard to which opioid contributed to the death. Paper II indicates that there has been no significant change in opioid-related deaths in Skåne after the patient choice reform and increased access to OST. An analysis on national mortality data however showed a significant yearly decrease in drug-related deaths in Skåne compared to other Swedish counties in the years following the reform (2015–2017). No change was noted in deaths related to methadone or buprenorphine in Skåne. The proportion of deaths among patients in OST increased after the introduction of the reform. The third paper indicates that patients in OST in Skåne have gained increased empowerment and influence over their treatment since the patient choice reform was introduced. Patients especially appreciated the knowledge that they could make an exit and change clinics if they so wished, even if they so far had chosen not to. In paper IV, the clinic managers were largely positive to the trend towards increased influence for patients over their treatment situation. They were more critical of the fact that there was no major differentiation between treatment providers, and that the competition that arose after the patient choice reform mainly was related to prescribing benzodiazepines.Conclusions drawn from the papers in this thesis include that patient choice of treatment provider can be viewed as a means of empowerment for patients in OST, which was regarded as positive by both patients and treatment providers. The limitations of such a system for providing OST that emerged were lack of diversity between clinics and that the competition between treatment providers largely comprised of differing views on the prescription of benzodiazepines. Further, improved access to low-threshold OST in Skåne was not associated with an increased overdose death-rate. The result that people who died from opioid overdose to a very large extent are known to society’s care-providing authorities suggests that there are considerable opportunities to reach people with problematic opioid use for therapeutic and harm reducing measures such as low-threshold OST and take-home naloxone.
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5.
  • Bergman, Magnus, 1985- (författare)
  • Att höra det förflutna till : Adlig minneskultur och kollektiv identitet efter ståndssamhällets upplösning, 1869-1976
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Den här avhandlingen utgår från följande problemställning. Hur kunde adeln, en grupp i sådan hög grad påverkad av det äldre samhällets värld avprivilegier, börd och ståndsuppdelning, fortsätta att existera även under ochefter 1800- och 1900-talets moderna genombrott? Detta nya, framväxandesamhälles vägledande principer utgjordes ju snarare av sådant som jämlikhet, personlig förtjänst och tanken om medborgarskap, i mångt och mycket motsatsen till de ideal som tidigare varit förhärskande. I avhandlingenanläggs ett kulturhistoriskt perspektiv för att studera detta historiska problem, med utgångspunkten att det förflutna var av avgörande betydelse för att denadliga identiteten kunde upprätthållas efter ståndssamhällets upplösning. Dess syfte är att undersöka hur den svenska adelns kollektiva identitetupprätthölls och förändrades under perioden från det första adelsmötet, år 1869, till Riddarhusets 350-årsjubileeum, år 1976, genom att analysera denadliga minneskulturen. Källmaterialet som analyseras är huvudsakligenhämtat från adelns kollektiva verksamhet, i form av protokoll från periodensadelsmöten och medlemstidningen Arte et Marte. Avhandlingens teoretiska utgångspunkter är hämtade från memory studies-fältet. Avhandlingen består av tre delar, som studerar varsin aspektav den adliga minneskulturen: den performativa, den kommunikativa,respektive minneskulturens fixpunkter. Genom att analysera en rad olikafenomen relaterade till adeln, under mer än 100 år: statyer, historieböcker, jubileumsfester, privilegier, namnskyddslagar, herrgården och utdöendet avadliga ätter, undersöks gruppens minneskultur och den föränderliga adliga kollektiva identiteten
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6.
  • Boyd, Hannah, 1994- (författare)
  • On the structure and mechanical properties of in vitro salivary pellicles
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Salivary pellicles display exceptional hydration and lubrication performance. At present, there are still gaps in the understanding of how this is achieved. The aim of this thesis was therefore to increase our knowledge on the mechanisms underlying these properties and deepen the understanding of how they are related to the composition and structure of pellicles, with a focus on those formed under in vitro conditions. This has applications ranging from the development of artificial saliva and lubricating coatings for biomedical applications to methodological approaches for initial testing of oral healthcare products. For this, we also focused on developing suitable methodological approaches for these studies, centering on atomic force microscopy, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, ellipsometry and neutron reflectometry techniques, to investigate in vitro and model salivary pellicles.First, we confirmed a two-layer structure for in vitro salivary pellicles and showed that the outer layer is mainly composed by the oral mucin MUC5B, but that it also contains other salivary components that enhance swelling and hydration. In the presence of bulk saliva, the outer layer also contains a reversibly and loosely bound fraction. This fraction increases the adhesiveness of the pellicle but unexpectedly has no significant effect on its lubrication performance. We also investigated the effect of mechanical confinement on model salivary pellicles by means of Neutron Reflectometry, revealing that at a pressure of 1 bar they are already completely compressed and dehydrated. Finally, with the aim to advance towards better oral healthcare products, we investigated the effect of nonionic and amphoteric surfactants on salivary pellicles, showing that they have a gentler effect on pellicle structure than the commonly employed anionic surfactants.
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7.
  • Bugeja, Joseph (författare)
  • On Privacy and Security in Smart Connected Homes
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The growth and presence of heterogeneous sensor-equipped Internet-connected devices inside the home can increase efficiency and quality of life for the residents. Simultaneously, these devices continuously collect, process, and transmit data about the residents and their daily lifestyle activities to unknown parties outside the home. Such data can be sensitive and personal, leading to increasingly intimate insights into private lives. This data allows for the implementation of services, personalization support, and benefits offered by smart home technologies. Alas, there has been a surge of cyberattacks on connected home devices that essentially compromise privacy and security of the residents.Providing privacy and security is a critical issue in smart connected homes. Many residents are concerned about unauthorized access into their homes and about the privacy of their data. However, it is typically challenging to implement privacy and security in a smart connected home because of its heterogeneity of devices, the dynamic nature of the home network, and the fact that it is always connected to the Internet, amongst other things. As the numbers and types of smart home devices are increasing rapidly, so are the risks with these devices. Concurrently, it is also becoming increasingly challenging to gain a deeper understand- ing of the smart home. Such understanding is necessary to build a more privacy-preserving and secure smart connected home. Likewise, it is needed as a precursor to perform a comprehensive privacy and security analysis of the smart home.In this dissertation, we render a comprehensive description and account of the smart connected home that can be used for conducting risk analysis. In doing so, we organize the underlying smart home devices ac- cording to their functionality, identify their data-collecting capabilities, and survey the data types being collected by them. Such is done using the technical specification of commercial devices, including their privacy policies. This description is then leveraged for identifying threats and for analyzing risks present in smart connected homes. Such is done by analyzing both scholarly literature and examples from the industry, and leveraging formal modeling. Additionally, we identify malicious threat agents and mitigations that are relevant to smart connected homes. This is performed without limiting the research and results to a particular configuration and type of smart home.This research led to three main findings. First, the majority of the surveyed commercial devices are collecting instances of sensitive and personal data but are prone to critical vulnerabilities. Second, there is a shortage of scientific models that capture the complexity and heterogeneity of real-world smart home deployments, especially those intended for privacy risk analysis. Finally, despite the increasing regulations and attention to privacy and security, there is a lack of proactive and integrative approaches intended to safeguard privacy and security of the residents. We contributed to addressing these three findings by developing a framework and models that enable early identification of threats, better planning for risk management scenarios, and mitigation of potential impacts caused by attacks before they reach the homes and compromise the lives of the residents.Overall, the scientific contributions presented in this dissertation help deepen the understanding and reasoning about privacy and security concerns affecting smart connected homes, and contributes to advancing the research in the area of risk analysis as applied to such systems.
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8.
  • Doerr, Katherine (författare)
  • Is College Science Teaching Women's Work? : Gender Inequity in the Physical Sciences
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • After decades of virtual exclusion from participation in STEM, women have majored in, earned graduate degrees in, and forged careers in male-dominated fields such as the physical sciences in increasing numbers. At each step of the way, however, women’s participation diminishes, and this is especially apparent in the workforce. Moreover, these women are likely to be doing different work than men; that is, STEM workplaces are vertically segregated by gender, and women’s work, while important, is often lower-paid and lower-prestige than men’s work. The purpose of this research was to characterize one example of vertical segregation, teaching-intensive faculty positions in a university physical science department, and to explore how and why gender matters for the women, and men, who are on the teaching faculty. Using ethnographic methodology to trace, through their social interactions, how individuals’ experiences are shaped by institutional viii norms and ideologies, the analysis was shaped by theories of gender as a social system that works to perpetuate inequality. The teaching track is an alternative job track that allows participants to have work-life balance, which is commonly explained to be more suitable than the research track for women in science who want to have children. Concerningly, there are significant negative consequences for pursuing this track, at least for the women. Fundamental aspects of fulfilling and equitable work, such as fair pay, respect, and advancement pathways, are elusive. When women do resist or challenge their marginalization, they are met with unfair treatment and even harassment. The experience of men on teaching faculty is a sharp contrast; as men, they belong in science and this brings a default of respect as well as elevation to higher pay. Thus, the teaching faculty has an internal gender hierarchy. As such, this inquiry offers the conclusion that college science teaching is women’s work not because it offers a safe and fair space to have a career and a family, but because the neoliberal academy requires low-cost and flexible labor to carry out its teaching mission, and women are easily exploited to provide this labor. 
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9.
  • Engström, Alexander (författare)
  • Everyday life, crime, and fear of crime among adolescents and young adults
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Drawing on lifestyle-routine activity theory, this dissertation explores associations between everyday life, crime, and fear of crime among adolescents and young adults. It also examines the operationalisation of the concepts of lifestyle and routine activities, and explores the use of experience methods, via a smartphone application named STUNDA, to collect data about everyday life. Of the four studies conducted, Study I shows that different specific lifestyle measures are of varying relevance for victims, offenders, and victim-offenders, which indicates that no single universal lifestyle feature is of relevance for all outcomes studied. The findings from Study II reveal that spending time with friends in the city-centre is associated with lower levels of fear of crime across months, days, and moments. However, other associations between everyday life variables and fear of crime are inconsistent across these reference periods. Study III, a systematic review of the literature, shows that measures of lifestyle and routine activities differ in the frequency with which they are used in studies on interpersonal victimisation and offending. Illegal activities are often used as lifestyle/routine activity measures in studies on victimisation while unstructured and peer-oriented activities dominate in studies on offending. However, the measures used in the included studies are diverse, which indicates that researchers use a wide range of activities that are intended to measure lifestyle/routine activities. The final paper, Study IV, explores fear of crime in relation to moments of everyday life and finds that specific features of settings, such as being in semi-public and public spaces and on public transport, increase the odds for experiencing fear of crime.The overall conclusions of the studies point to methodological and theoretical directions for future research. First, research in the field of lifestyle-routine activity theory needs to consider specific and potentially different activities when examining victimisation, offending, and the overlap between these two outcomes. Further, fear of crime research must consider different reference periods, such as months, days and moments, since fear may not only be defined as a more stable trait-like phenomenon but also as a momentary and transitory experience in everyday life. The types of measures used to represent everyday life also require consideration, particularly in terms of the inclusion of lifestyle/routine activity measures that are actually related to criminogenic exposure. For theory more specifically, the implications of the findings point to an overall confirmation of the view that exposure to various environmental circumstances is associated with crime and fear of crime. However, across all of the studies conducted, the findings point to potential weaknesses of the theory. In particular, the lack of an elaborated perspective on individual traits and characteristics limits the explanatory scope of lifestyle-routine activity theory. For instance, people with similar lifestyles still vary in terms of their victimisation, offending, and fear of crime, which necessitates the inclusion of additional individual-level factors that could explain these variations. Future research must thus either modify lifestyle-routine activity theory or open up for other theoretical perspectives that provide a more holistic approach to understanding the role of both environ-mental and individual factors when studying everyday life, crime, and fear of crime.
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10.
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