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  • Karlsson, Tom S., 1979- (författare)
  • Manager and civil servant : exploring actors' taken-for-granted assumptions in public administration
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Manager and Civil Servant is an exploration of actors' taken-for-granted assumptions that govern perceptions concerning how public administration should be undertaken within contemporary welfare states. It is argued that more than 30 years of continuous reforms directed towards public administration have caused dilemmas to arise. These dilemmas have resulted in a shifting of balances regarding the underpinning pillars of public administration. These reforms have furthermore resulted in an emergence of challenging social systems, entailing new beliefs and practices. The question posited is "how do actors engaged in public administration make sense of the dilemma(s) they face". Theoretically, this dissertation entails institutional theory as well as Structuration Theory. These are combined in a framework, wherein agency and structure are used in order to characterise manifestations of taken-for-granted assumptions. The framework is furthermore elaborated through conceptual perspectives concerning Management as well as Civil Service in order to model a framework for public administration. Empirically, this dissertation entails a use of qualitative as well as quantitative methods. Open-ended interviews are combined with self-administered surveys, statistical analysis, and focus groups. Two important contributions are highlighted. Firstly, actors engaged in public administration reject the idea of polarisation concerning inherent public administrative activities and that the dilemma being accentuated within public administration. As such, instances of making sense are reduced due to an unconscious enactment of meanings and sanctions that reject the presence of dilemmas. Secondly, actors' ability to reject polarisation, and thus dilemma, can be explained through compartmentalising interdependent perspectives. On the one hand actors enact an internal perspective wherein instances of Management make sense. On the other hand actors enact an external perspective wherein instances of Civil Service make sense. The separation and compartmentalisation of these perspectives not only enable actors to reject dilemma, they are enabled to enact seemingly different roles at once. They become both Managers and Civil Servants.
  • Funck, Elin, 1979, et al. (författare)
  • Post-NPM, vad är det? : Trender och empiriska iakttagelser kring alternativa idéer för den offentliga sektorn
  • 2018
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I den här texten diskuterar vi det begrepp som kommit att dyka upp mer och mer i såväl litteratur som i debatt: post-NPM. Vi vet av litteraturen att det hand- lar om något distinkt annorlunda från NPM, men det är ofta mer otydligt vad detta ’annorlunda’ egentligen är. Vi genomför en litteraturöversikt där vi beskri- ver fyra starka trender inom ramen för post-NPM: (1) New Public Governan- ce, (2) Public Service Logic, (3) Public Value Management och (4) Digital-Era Governance. Syftet är att beskriva och analysera vad post-NPM är för något, hur det är annorlunda från NPM samt hur (eller om) det kommit att ta sig em- piriskt uttryck i en svensk kontext. Med förankring i såväl internationell litteratur som svensk empirisk kontext, drar vi slutsatserna att post-NPM erbjuder nya sätt att se på och förstå hur den offentliga välfärdsproduktionen ska erbjudas, vad som ska erbjudas och varför välfärdsproduktionen ska erbjudas på detta sätt. Även om post-NPM erbjuder många nya perspektiv, visar vi i den här texten på hur dessa kommit att vara starkt färgade av de dominerande NPM-uttrycken. Vi menar att där post-NPM kommit att erbjuda sådana nya perspektiv så har de i första hand handlat om en samhällsövergripande nivå, där diskussionen kommit att handla om organise- ring i första hand. När det istället handlar om styrning av verksamheter återfin- ner vi idéer som är tydligt sprungna ur NPM-reformer. En slutsats kring detta är att är att NPM och post-NPM fokuserar på delvis olika nivåer och därför med fördel kan förstås som kompletterande snarare än konkurrerande begrepp. I likhet med annan litteratur på området, menar vi att NPM och post-NPM skulle kunna kombineras för att skapa en tydligare struk- tur för organisering av välfärdstjänster, samtidigt som vi vidmakthåller behovet och förmågan till styrning och ansvarsutkrävande. En sådan kombination skul- le kunna medföra en mer inkluderande offentlig sektor, där offentliga resurser och kollektiva nyttigheter används smart och effektivt.
  • Funck, Elin, et al. (författare)
  • Twenty-five years of studying new public management in public administration: Accomplishments and limitations
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Financial Accountability and Management. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0267-4424 .- 1468-0408. ; 36:4, s. 347-375
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 1991, Christopher Hood made a substantial contribution to pub- lic administration research when he formulated the concept of new public management (NPM). His article can in many ways be understood as an enabler of research focused on public sector reforms. To this day, numerous articles and books have been published, discussing the concept itself and the empirical phenomenon. In celebration of the 25-year period since the concept of NPM was introduced, this article revisits the current knowledge through a systematic literature review of 299 articles published between 1991 and 2016. This approach enables a meta-analysis of research published in five topranked international public administration journals. We identify four important themes as emerging from our review: (a) a reform with a vague intention, (b) the limping concept, (c) the one-sided perspective, and (d) NPM as the new norm. An important effect of this is that Hood’s framework may have been curtailed, leading to a distorted knowledge base when it comes to future studies.
  • Karlsson, Tom, 1979, et al. (författare)
  • Higher Education Marketization: a Case of Language and Colliding Interests
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Public Organization Review. - 1566-7170.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article examines how market interests and state regulations come into play as policy makers engage in establishing language primacy within higher education (HE). More specifically, the focus concerns issues of internationalization within a multi-lingual context, manifested in language policies (LP). LPs are constructed in order to sort out which language to give primacy. Findings demonstrate how HE is balancing between invoking markets obfuscated through internationalization whilst simultaneously restricting market effects through state regulations. The promulgation of certain languages supports and weakens market and state interests. This article contributes to research and practice in HE, presenting future obstacles and challenges.
  • Karlsson, Tom, 1979, et al. (författare)
  • Marketization of Higher Education
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance. - Cham : Springer. - 9783319318165
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Higher education is usually conceptualized as being autonomous from market and state interventions. Academic scholars have been free to organize and realize educational content on their own terms. One reason for this lies in the academic freedom, which safeguards the pursuit of knowledge and a right to educate students on such knowledge. Increasingly, higher education has been subjected to global trends of internationalization. This implies the construction of a global agenda for facilitating student and staff mobility in order to increase student employability across borders and instigate a comparability of different degrees. An effect of internationalization is that competition has been introduced in higher education, leading to changing pedagogical practices and understandings of higher education is. Drawing from economic theory, it can be argued that internationalization transforms higher education from a public to a private good, making it susceptible to market powers. This process can be labeled marketization, meaning that higher education becomes a service as any other.
  • Karlsson, Susanna, 1976, et al. (författare)
  • Investigating dilemmas in language policy implementation.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: IRSPM Annual Conference. Budapest: 19-21 April. - Budapest : IRSPM.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper concerns the implementation of language policies within institutions for Swedish higher education. More specifically, the paper focuses on how the implementation process becomes manifested through language planning policy documents governing how and when which languages could or should be used. This paper explores how governmental policies have been transformed and implemented within institutions for higher education within Sweden. The purpose is to study language planning documents within institutions for higher education in order to disclose how dilemmas emerge through policy implementation. Higher education in Sweden can be divided into three contexts: research, education, and administration. Following Pierre and Painter (2010) these contexts can be conceptualized as welfare services and functions of legality. Of specific interest is the fact that although not all institutions for higher education are governmental agencies, all have to abide by the laws directing their legality functions. In this paper, two governmental policies are studied. First, all institutions for higher education should follow the Language Act (SFS 2009:600), dictating that Swedish is the principal language in Sweden. Also, the Act states that the language of all organizations performing public sector functions should be Swedish. Second, institutions for higher education should strive towards increased internationalization (Prop. 2004/05:162). In effect, this causes a dilemma between Swedish as the principal language and the focus on international actors. The empirical data consists of twenty-two language planning policy documents from Swedish institutions for higher education collected during 2015 and 2016. These are all available such documents to date. The research process was undertaken in two phases. During the first phase, all documents were subject to content analysis through close reading. It was found that the texts strongly coincided with research, education, and administration. The second phase involved a qualitative analysis concerning the preferences for choice of language within these three contexts. This paper draws on dilemma theory (cf. Hampden-Turner 1970, 2009) in order to analyze how institutions for higher education in Sweden face contradictory policy goals. Dilemmas are understood to be two desirable alternatives, that are individually perceived as logical. Together they present organizations with difficulties of achieving both. In this paper, dilemma is studied through the policies underpinning the construction of language planning documents. Following the analysis of the paper, three important topics are found to govern how and when which languages have primacy. First, the context of research contains rationalizations of Swedish as well as English as preferred language(s). Other language(s) are permitted, but are not exclusively identified. Second, the context of education contains rationalizations about the need for both Swedish and other languages depending on the situation. Third, the context of administration reveals how institutions for higher education are firmly grounded as performing governmental organizations. The main conclusion concerns the differing signals inherent in the underpinning governmental policies. The policy implementation of internationalization as well as the Language Act come to chafe against one another, causing dilemmas. It is discussed how such dilemmas result in problems for both internationalization and adherence to the Language Act.
  • Karlsson, Susanna, 1976, et al. (författare)
  • Language policy as ‘frozen’ ideology: exploring the administrative function in Swedish higher education
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Current Issues in Language Planning. - 1466-4208. ; 21:1, s. 67-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article examines Language Policy documents within higher education institutions in Sweden. Its main focus is on how national language policies and policies for internationalization of the higher education are reinterpreted as local language policy. The analysis of ideologies surrounding the prescribed language(s) in meetings of decision making bodies in fifteen local Language Policy documents reveals how a monolingual national language policy is negotiated to accommodate an internationalized multilingual workplace. When the multilingual context of the internationalized university intrudes on the nationally oriented context of public administration, which favors Swedish as a default language, there are two solutions to be found in the language policy documents. (1) a temporary or permanent shift towards an internationally oriented monolingual context by allowing the use of another language, favoring English, or (2) a temporary or permanent shift towards parallel language-informed practices. Restrictive measures are found to construct situations where participation is made possible for non-regular non-Swedish-speaking members, while permissive measures provide inclusion for regular non-Swedish-speaking members, too.
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