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1621.
  • Arnljots, Rebeka, 1989, et al. (författare)
  • Bacteriuria and vitamin D deficiency: a cross sectional study of 385 nursing home residents
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMC Geriatrics. ; 19:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Up to half of elderly people at nursing homes have asymptomatic bacteriuria, and concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) are generally low. Vitamin D is a modulator of the immune system and involved in protection of the epithelium in the urinary tract as well. The objective was to determine a possible association between bacteriuria and vitamin D deficiency among elderly people at nursing homes. Methods: Cross-sectional study: Voided urine specimens and blood samples for cultivation and analysis of 25OHD were collected from elderly people at nursing homes in Sweden. Exclusion criteria were: urinary catheter, ongoing antibiotic treatment, incontinence or dementia too severe to provide a voided urine specimen or leave a blood sample, unwillingness to participate or terminal illness. Urine cultures and serum 25OHD concentrations were outcome measures and the association of bacteriuria with vitamin D deficiency was determined by logistic regression. Results: Twenty-two nursing homes participated and 385 of 901elderly people provided voided urine specimens and blood samples. The mean age was 87 (SD 6.7), 69% women, 19% received vitamin D supplement, 13% had diabetes mellitus, and 54% were diagnosed with dementia. There was significant growth of potentially pathogenic bacteria in 32% (123/385) of voided urine specimens. Escherichia coli were present in 83% of positive urine cultures. The mean concentration of 25OHD in serum was 35 nmol/L (SD 21). Thirty-seven per cent (143/385) had 25OHD < 25 nmol/L, and 3.1% (12/385) 25OHD < 12.5 nmol/L. No association between bacteriuria and 25OHD < 25 nmol/L, OR 1.4 (0.86-2.3; p = 0.18) adjusted for age, gender, diabetes mellitus and dementia was found. However, if using 25OHD < 12.5 nmol/L as a cut-off for vitamin D deficiency the adjusted odds-ratio was 4.4 (1.1-17; p = 0.031). Conclusions: Bacteriuria and vitamin D deficiency was common. No association between bacteriuria and 25OHD < 25 nmol/L was found. If using 25OHD < 12.5 nmol/L as cut-off for vitamin D deficiency there was an association. However, this has to be interpreted with caution as causality cannot be evaluated as well as only few residents had 25OHD < 12.5 nmol/L.
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1622.
  • Auyeung, T. W., et al. (författare)
  • Sleep Duration and Disturbances Were Associated With Testosterone Level, Muscle Mass, and Muscle Strength-A Cross-Sectional Study in 1274 Older Men
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. - 1525-8610. ; 16:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Testosterone level follows a circadian rhythm. However, whether sleep duration and disturbances can affect testosterone level, muscle mass, and strength remains unknown. Objective: To examine the relationship of sleep duration and disturbances to testosterone level, muscle mass, muscle strength, and walking speed. Participants and methods: We recruited 1274 community-dwelling men older than 65 years of age. Their early morning testosterone level was assayed by mass spectrometry. A sleep questionnaire was administered to enquire about their reported sleep duration, prolonged sleep latency (>0.5 hour), and subjective insomnia complaint. Muscle mass was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Testosterone level, muscle mass, handgrip strength, and walking speed were tested against sleep duration and disturbances. Results: Testosterone increased with increasing sleep duration up to 9.9 hours, after which it decreased, giving rise to an inverted U-shaped relationship (P for quadratic trend < .05). A similar inverted U-shaped relationship occurred between sleep duration and muscle mass and function. Earlier go-to-bed time, despite being associated with a higher testosterone level (P < .05), was associated with weaker grip strength (P < .05). Earlier wake-up time was associated with higher muscle mass (P < .05) but neither grip strength nor walking speed. Neither prolonged sleep latency nor insomnia was associated with testosterone levels. However, prolonged sleep latency was associated with lower muscle mass (P < .05), weaker grip strength (P < .05), and slower walking speed (P < .001). Insomnia, on the other hand was associated with weaker grip strength (P < .05) and slower walking speed (P < .001) but not muscle mass. Conclusions: Sleep duration and disturbances can affect testosterone level, muscle mass, and its function. Whether optimization of sleep can ameliorate age-associated decline in sex hormone and muscle performance warrants further studies. (C) 2015 AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine.
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1623.
  • Barywani, Salim B., 1968, et al. (författare)
  • Acute coronary syndrome in octogenarians: association between percutaneous coronary intervention and long-term mortality
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Clinical Interventions in Aging. - 1178-1998. ; 10, s. 1547-1553
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: Evidence of improved survival after use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is limited. We assessed the association between PCI and long-term mortality in octogenarians with ACS. Methods and results: We followed 353 consecutive patients aged >= 80 years hospitalized with ACS during 2006-2007. Among them, 182 were treated with PCI, whereas 171 were not. PCI-treated patients were younger and more often male, and had less stroke and dependency in activities of daily living, but there were no significant differences in occurrence of diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, and uncured malignancies between the two groups. The association between PCI and all-cause mortality was assessed in the overall cohort and a 1: 1 matched cohort based on propensity score (PS). In overall cohort, 5-year all-cause mortality was 46.2% and 89.5% in the PCI and non-PCI groups, respectively. Cox regression analysis in overall cohort by adjustment for ten baseline variables showed statistically significant association between PCI and reduced long-term mortality (P < 0.001, hazard ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2-0.5). In propensity-matched cohort, 5-year all-cause mortality was 54.9% and 83.1% in the PCI and non-PCI groups, respectively. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log rank test showed significantly improved mean survival rates (P=0.001): 48 months (95% CI 41-54) for PCI-treated patients versus 35 months (95% CI 29-42) for non-PCI-treated patients. Furthermore, by performing Cox regression analysis, PCI was still associated with reduced long-term mortality (P=0.029, hazard ratio 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9) after adjustment for PS and confounders: age, male sex, cognitive deterioration, uncured malignancies, left ventricular ejection fraction <45%, estimated glomerular filtration rate < 35 mL/min, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, mitral regurgitation, and medication at discharge with clopidogrel and statins. Conclusion: In octogenarians with ACS, PCI was associated with improved survival from all-cause death over 5 years of follow-up.
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1624.
  • Cawthon, P. M., et al. (författare)
  • Putative Cut-Points in Sarcopenia Components and Incident Adverse Health Outcomes: AnSDOCAnalysis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. - : WILEY. - 0002-8614 .- 1532-5415. ; 68:7, s. 1429-1437
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES Analyses performed by the Sarcopenia Definitions and Outcomes Consortium (SDOC) identified cut-points in several metrics of grip strength for consideration in a definition of sarcopenia. We describe the associations between the SDOC-identified metrics of low grip strength (absolute or standardized to body size/composition); low dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) lean mass as previously defined in the literature (appendicular lean mass [ALM]/ht(2)); and slowness (walking speed <.8 m/s) with subsequent adverse outcomes (falls, hip fractures, mobility limitation, and mortality). DESIGN Individual-level, sex-stratified pooled analysis. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HRs) for incident falls, mobility limitation, hip fractures, and mortality. Follow-up time ranged from 1 year for falls to 8.8 +/- 2.3 years for mortality. SETTING Eight prospective observational cohort studies. PARTICIPANTS A total of 13,421 community-dwelling men and 4,828 community-dwelling women. MEASUREMENTS Grip strength by hand dynamometry, gait speed, and lean mass by DXA. RESULTS Low grip strength (absolute or standardized to body size/composition) was associated with incident outcomes, usually independently of slowness, in both men and women. ORs and HRs generally ranged from 1.2 to 3.0 for those below vs above the cut-point. DXA lean mass was not consistently associated with these outcomes. When considered together, those who had both muscle weakness by absolute grip strength (<35.5 kg in men and <20 kg in women) and slowness were consistently more likely to have a fall, hip fracture, mobility limitation, or die than those without either slowness or muscle weakness. CONCLUSION Older men and women with both muscle weakness and slowness have a higher likelihood of adverse health outcomes. These results support the inclusion of grip strength and walking speed as components in a summary definition of sarcopenia.
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1625.
  • Frederiksen, K. S., et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity in the elderly is associated with improved executive function and processing speed: the LADIS Study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. - 0885-6230 .- 1099-1166. ; 30:7, s. 744-750
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectivesPhysical activity reduces the risk of cognitive decline but may affect cognitive domains differently. We examined whether physical activity modifies processing speed, executive function and memory in a population of non-dementia elderly subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC). MethodsData from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) study, a multicenter, European prospective cohort study aimed at examining the role of ARWMC in transition to disability, was used. Subjects in the LADIS study were clinically assessed yearly for 3years including MRI at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Physical activity was assessed at baseline, and cognitive compound scores at baseline and 3-year assessment were used. ResultsTwo-hundred-eighty-two subjects (age, y (mean (SD)): 73.1 (5.1); gender (f/m): 164/118); MMSE (mean (SD)): 28.3 (+/- 1.7)) who had not progressed to MCI or dementia, were included. Multiple variable linear regression analysis with baseline MMSE, education, gender, age, stroke, diabetes and ARWMC rating as covariates revealed that physical activity was associated with better scores at baseline and 3-year follow-up for executive function (baseline: : 0.39, 95% CI: 0.13-0.90, p=0.008; follow-up: : 0.24, 95% CI: 0.10-0.38, p=0.001) and processing speed (baseline: : 0.48, 95% CI: 0.14-0.89, p=0.005; follow-up: : 0.15, 95% CI: 0.02-0.29, p=0.02) but not memory. When including baseline cognitive score as a covariate in the analysis of 3-year follow-up scores, executive function remained significant (: 0.11, 95% CI: 0-0.22, p=0.04). ConclusionOur findings confirm previous findings of a positive effect of physical activity on cognitive functions in elderly subjects, and further extends these by showing that the association is also present in patients with ARWMC. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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1626.
  • Lange, Elvira, et al. (författare)
  • Long-time follow up of physical activity level among older adults with rheumatoid arthritis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity. - 1813-7253. ; 17:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Physical activity and exercise are acknowledged as important parts in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, long-term maintenance of exercise is known to be difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate change in physical activity and physical fitness after four years in older adults with RA who had previously participated in exercise with person-centred guidance compared to controls. Method A follow-up study was performed where older adults (> 65 years) who had participated in a randomized controlled trial where they were allocated to either exercise with person-centred guidance or home-based, light-intensity exercise (controls) were invited to one visit and assessed with performance-based test, blood-sampling and self-reported questionnaires. Forty-seven out of 70 older adults accepted participation, 24 from the exercise group and 23 from the control group. Comparisons of the result with baseline values were performed and explanatory factors for increase of physical activity were examined with logistic regression. Results The result show that there was no significant difference in weekly hours of physical activity when groups where compared. However, participants in the exercise group rated significantly increased weekly hours of physical activity after four years (p = 0.004) when compared to baseline. Higher levels of fatigue, BMI and physical activity, at baseline were negatively associated with increased physical activity after four years. There was no significant difference in change of physical fitness between the groups. Within group analysis showed that the control group reported increased pain (p = 0.035), fatigue (p = 0.023) increased number of tender joints (p = 0.028) higher disease activity (p = 0.007) and worsening of global health (p = 0.004) when compared to baseline while the exercise group remained at the same level as at baseline. Conclusion These results indicate that introducing moderate- to high intensity exercise with person-centred guidance might favor increased physical activity after four years in older adults with RA. Previous partaking in moderate- to high intensity exercise might also be protective against increased disease activity, pain and fatigue over time.
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1627.
  • Moore, E. E., et al. (författare)
  • Mild Cognitive Impairment Staging Yields Genetic Susceptibility, Biomarker, and Neuroimaging Differences
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. - 1663-4365. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction While Alzheimer's disease (AD) is divided into severity stages, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains a solitary construct despite clinical and prognostic heterogeneity. This study aimed to characterize differences in genetic, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), neuroimaging, and neuropsychological markers across clinician-derived MCI stages. Methods Vanderbilt Memory & Aging Project participants with MCI were categorized into 3 severity subtypes at screening based on neuropsychological assessment, functional assessment, and Clinical Dementia Rating interview, including mild (n= 18, 75 +/- 8 years), moderate (n= 89 72 +/- 7 years), and severe subtypes (n= 18, 78 +/- 8 years). At enrollment, participants underwent neuropsychological testing, 3T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and optional fasting lumbar puncture to obtain CSF. Neuropsychological testing and MRI were repeated at 18-months, 3-years, and 5-years with a mean follow-up time of 3.3 years. Ordinary least square regressions examined cross-sectional associations between MCI severity and apolipoprotein E (APOE)-epsilon 4 status, CSF biomarkers of amyloid beta (A beta), phosphorylated tau, total tau, and synaptic dysfunction (neurogranin), baseline neuroimaging biomarkers, and baseline neuropsychological performance. Longitudinal associations between baseline MCI severity and neuroimaging and neuropsychological trajectory were assessed using linear mixed effects models with random intercepts and slopes and a follow-up time interaction. Analyses adjusted for baseline age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and intracranial volume for MRI models. Results Stages differed at baseline onAPOE-epsilon 4 status (early < middle = late;p-values < 0.03) and CSF A beta (early > middle = late), phosphorylated and total tau (early = middle < late;p-values < 0.05), and neurogranin concentrations (early = middle < late;p-values < 0.05). MCI stage related to greater longitudinal cognitive decline, hippocampal atrophy, and inferior lateral ventricle dilation (early < late;p-values < 0.03). Discussion Clinician staging of MCI severity yielded longitudinal cognitive trajectory and structural neuroimaging differences in regions susceptible to AD neuropathology and neurodegeneration. As expected, participants with more severe MCI symptoms at study entry had greater cognitive decline and gray matter atrophy over time. Differences are likely attributable to baseline differences in amyloidosis, tau, and synaptic dysfunction. MCI staging may provide insight into underlying pathology, prognosis, and therapeutic targets.
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1628.
  • Ossenkoppele, R., et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and cerebral atrophy in distinct clinical variants of probable Alzheimer's disease
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - 0197-4580. ; 36:8, s. 2340-2347
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Different clinical variants of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) share underlying plaques and tangles but show distinct atrophy patterns. We included 52 posterior cortical atrophy, 29 logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia, 53 early-onset and 42 late-onset AD patients, selected for abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eamyloid-beta(42), with CSF and magnetic resonance imaging data available. Bootstrapping revealed no differences in the prevalence of abnormal CSF total-tau and phosphorylated-tau between probable AD variants (range total-tau: 84.9%-92.3%, phosphorylated-tau: 79.2%-93.1%, p > 0.05). Voxelwise linear regressions showed various relationships between lower CSF-A beta(42) and syndrome-specific atrophy, involving precuneus, posterior cingulate, and medial temporal lobe in early-onset AD, occipital cortex and middle temporal gyrus in posterior cortical atrophy; anterior cingulate, insular cortex and precentral gyrus (left > right) in logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia; and medial temporal lobe, thalamus, and temporal pole in late-onset AD (all at p < 0.001 uncorrected). In contrast, CSF-tau was not related to gray matter atrophy in any group. Our findings suggest that lower CSF eamyloid-beta(42) - and not increased total-tau and phosphorylated-tau - relates to reduced gray matter volumes, mostly in regions that are typically atrophied in distinct clinical variants of probable AD. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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1629.
  • Reicherzer, Leah, et al. (författare)
  • Group or individual lifestyle-integrated functional exercise (LiFE)? A qualitative analysis of acceptability
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: BMC Geriatrics. - 1471-2318. ; 21:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundThe Lifestyle-integrated Functional Exercise (LiFE) program is an effective but resource-intensive fall prevention program delivered one-to-one in participants' homes. A recently developed group-based LiFE (gLiFE) could enhance large-scale implementability and decrease resource intensity. The aim of this qualitative focus group study is to compare participants' experiences regarding acceptability of gLiFE vs LiFE.MethodsPrograms were delivered in seven group sessions (gLiFE) or seven individual home visits (LiFE) within a multi-center, randomized non-inferiority trial. Four structured focus group discussions (90-100min duration; one per format and study site) on content, structure, and subjective effects of gLiFE and LiFE were conducted. Qualitative content analysis using the method of inductive category formation by Mayring was applied for data analysis. Coding was managed using NVivo.ResultsIn both formats, participants (N =30, 22 women, n(gLiFE) =15, n(LiFE) =15, mean age 78.86.6years) were positive about content, structure, and support received by trainers. Participants reflected on advantages of both formats: the social aspects of learning the program in a peer group (gLiFE), and benefits of learning the program at home (LiFE). In gLiFE, some difficulties with the implementation of activities were reported. In both formats, the majority of participants reported positive outcomes and successful implementation of new movement habits.ConclusionThis is the first study to examine participants' views on and experiences with gLiFE and LiFE, revealing strengths and limitations of both formats that can be used for program refinement. Both formats were highly acceptable to participants, suggesting that gLiFE may have similar potential to be adopted by adults aged 70years and older compared to LiFE.Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03462654. Registered on March 12, 2018.
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1630.
  • Steinhilber, B., et al. (författare)
  • Stiffness, Pain, and Hip Muscle Strength Are Factors Associated With Self-reported Physical Disability in Hip Osteoarthritis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy. - 1539-8412. ; 37:3, s. 99-105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Physical disability (PD) is common among patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. Exercise therapy is proposed to be a potential intervention to reduce PD. However, the optimal targets of an exercise program are not known. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to identify factors that explain the level of self-reported PD in patients with hip OA. Knowledge of these factors will help develop specific and effective exercise programs. Methods: Data from 149 patients with hip OA (85 men and 64 women) were analyzed. Self-reported PD was quantified using the physical function subscale of the Western Ontario and McMaster index. A stepwise regression analysis was conducted to identify significant factors associated with self-reported PD. Results: Stiffness, pain, and hip muscle strength were found to be significant factors related to the level of self-reported PD in hip OA. These factors explained 59% (r(2) adjusted = 0.59) of the variance. Body mass index, gender, age, and passive internal hip rotation and flexion range of motion explained only minor parts of the dependent variable self-reported PD. Discussion and Conclusion: Stiffness, pain, and hip muscle strength are associated with self-reported PD in hip OA. It is imperative that exercise treatments for hip OA include strategies to modify these factors. Further research should evaluate their role in preventing hip OA.
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