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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Geriatrics) "

Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Geriatrics)

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  • Håkansson, Krister, et al. (författare)
  • BDNF Responses in Healthy Older Persons to 35 Minutes of Physical Exercise, Cognitive Training, and Mindfulness : Associations with Working Memory Function
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - : IOS Press. - 1387-2877 .- 1875-8908. ; 55:2, s. 645-657
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a central role in brain plasticity by mediating changes in cortical thickness and synaptic density in response to physical activity and environmental enrichment. Previous studies suggest that physical exercise can augment BDNF levels, both in serum and the brain, but no other study has examined how different types of activities compare with physical exercise in their ability to affect BDNF levels. By using a balanced cross over experimental design, we exposed nineteen healthy older adults to 35-minute sessions of physical exercise, cognitive training, and mindfulness practice, and compared the resulting changes in mature BDNF levels between the three activities. We show that a single bout of physical exercise has significantly larger impact on serum BDNF levels than either cognitive training or mindfulness practice in the same persons. This is the first study on immediate BDNF effects of physical activity in older healthy humans and also the first study to demonstrate an association between serum BDNF responsivity to acute physical exercise and working memory function. We conclude that the BDNF increase we found after physical exercise more probably has a peripheral than a central origin, but that the association between post-intervention BDNF levels and cognitive function could have implications for BDNF responsivity in serum as a potential marker of cognitive health.
  • Samuelsson, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of pharmacological treatment for urinary incontinence in the elderly and frail elderly: A systematic review
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Geriatrics & Gerontology International. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1444-1586 .- 1447-0594. ; 15:5, s. 521-534
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: The prevalence and severity of urinary incontinence (UI) increase with age and comorbidity. The benefits of pharmacotherapy for UI in the elderly are questionable. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the efficacy of pharmacological treatment for UI in the elderly and frail elderly. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library and Cinahl databases through October 2013 to identify prospective controlled trials that evaluated pharmacological treatment for UI in persons aged >= 65 years. Elderly persons living in nursing homes were regarded as frail elderly. Outcomes were urinary leakage, quality of life and adverse events. Results: We screened 1038 abstracts and assessed 309 full-text articles. We identified 13 trials of high or moderate quality; 11 evaluated anticholinergic drugs and two evaluated duloxetine. Oxybutynin, the only drug studied in the frail elderly population, had no effect on urinary leakage or quality of life in elderly with urgency UI (UUI). Seven trials evaluated the effects of darifenacin, fesoterodine, solifenacin, tolterodine or trospium. Urinary leakage decreased (standard mean difference: -0.24, 95% confidence interval -0.32-0.15), corresponding to a reduction of half a leakage per 24 h. Common side-effects of treatment were dry mouth and constipation. Data were insufficient for evaluation of the effect on quality of life or cognition. The evidence was insufficient to evaluate the effects of duloxetine. No eligible studies on mirabegron and estrogen were found. Conclusions: Anticholinergics have a small, but significant, effect on urinary leakage in older adults with UUI. Treatment with drugs for UUI in the frail elderly is not evidence based.
  • Sidenvall, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • Elderly patients' meal patterns : A retrospective study
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print). - 0952-3871 .- 1365-277X. ; 9:4, s. 263-272
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to examine possible causes of malnutrition in geriatric patients on admission to hospital by evaluation and comparison of their meal pattern between periods of working, retirement and hospitalization, respectively. Forty-five consecutive patients aged 60 years or older participated. By use of modified dietary history interviews, a retrospective assessment of food intake was carried out. A qualitative system for meal classification was then applied. In the retirement period there was a strong reduction in daily eating frequency when compared to working and hospital periods. Thus, the daily intake and also distribution of energy and nutrients seem to be reduced during retirement, which might lead to nutritional deficiency.
  • Zupanic, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Acute stroke care in dementia : A cohort study from the Swedish Dementia and Stroke Registries
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - Amsterdam : IOS Press. - 1387-2877 .- 1875-8908. ; 66:1, s. 185-194
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • METHODS: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data 2010-2014 from the Swedish national dementia registry (SveDem) and the Swedish national stroke registry (Riksstroke). Patients with dementia who suffered an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) (n = 1,356) were compared with matched non-dementia AIS patients (n = 6,755). Outcomes included length of stay in a stroke unit, total length of hospitalization, and utilization of diagnostic tests and assessments.RESULTS: The median age at stroke onset was 83 years. While patients with dementia were equally likely to be directly admitted to a stroke unit as their non-dementia counterparts, their stroke unit and total hospitalization length were shorter (10.5 versus 11.2 days and 11.6 versus 13.5, respectively, p < 0.001). Dementia patients were less likely to receive carotid ultrasound (OR 0.36, 95% CI [0.30-0.42]) or undergo assessments by the interdisciplinary team members (physiotherapists, speech therapists, occupational therapists; p < 0.05 for all adjusted models). However, a similar proportion of patients received CT imaging (97.4% versus 98.6%, p = 0.001) and a swallowing assessment (90.7% versus 91.8%, p = 0.218).CONCLUSIONS: Patients with dementia who suffer an ischemic stroke have equal access to direct stroke unit care compared to non-dementia patients; however, on average, their stay in a stroke unit and total hospitalization are shorter. Dementia patients are also less likely to receive specific diagnostic tests and assessments by the interdisciplinary stroke team. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that patients with dementia receive less testing and treatment for stroke.OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate hospital management of acute ischemic stroke in patients with and without dementia.
  • Sjölund, Britt-Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence of ADL Disability in Older Persons, Physical Activities as a Protective Factor and the Need for Informal and Formal Care : Results from the SNAC-N Project
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 10:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine 1) the incidence of disability in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), in persons 78 years and older 2) explore whether being physical active earlier is a significant predictor of being disability free at follow-up and 3) describe the amount of informal and formal care in relation to ADL-disability.METHODS: Data were used from a longitudinal community-based study in Nordanstig (SNAC-N), a part of the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care (SNAC). To study objectives 1) and 2) all ADL-independent participants at baseline (N = 307) were included; for objective 3) all participants 78 years and older were included (N = 316). Data were collected at baseline and at 3- and 6-year follow-ups. ADL-disability was defined as a need for assistance in one or more activities. Informal and formal care were measured using the Resource utilization in Dementia (RUD)-instrument.RESULTS: The incidence rates for men were similar in the age groups 78-81and 84 years and older, 42.3 vs. 42.5/1000 person-years. For women the incidence rate for ADL-disability increased significantly from the age group 78-81 to the age group 84 years and older, 20.8 vs.118.3/1000 person-years. In the age group 78-81 years, being physically active earlier (aOR 6.2) and during the past 12 month (aOR 2.9) were both significant preventive factors for ADL-disability. Both informal and formal care increased with ADL-disability and the amount of informal care was greater than formal care. The incidence rate for ADL-disability increases with age for women and being physically active is a protective factor for ADL-disability.CONCLUSION: The incidence rate for ADL-disability increases with age for women, and being physical active is a protective factor for ADL-disability.
  • Hu, Yaoyue, et al. (författare)
  • Do multigenerational living arrangements influence depressive symptoms in mid-late life? Cross-national findings from China and England
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - 0165-0327 .- 1573-2517. ; 277, s. 584-591
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: While living alone predicts depression in diverse ageing populations, the impact of multi-generational living is unclear. This study compared mid-late life depressive symptoms by living arrangements between societies with distinct kinship ties.Methods: Repeated data on depressive symptoms and living arrangements over 4 years from 16,229 Chinese (age >= 45) and 10,403 English adults (age >= 50) were analyzed using multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression. Elevated depressive symptoms were identified using the Center for Epidemiological Depression Scale criteria in each study.Results: Higher odds ratios (ORs) of elevated depressive symptoms were found in both Chinese and English adults aged<60 living with no partner but with children/grandchildren, compared to those living with a partner only. These ORs were greater for men (Chinese men: 3.09, 95% confidence interval: 2.00-4.78; English men: 3.44, 1.36-8.72) than for women (Chinese women: 1.77, 1.23-2.56; English women: 2.88, 1.41-3.67), after controlling for socioeconomic position, health behaviors, and health status. This male disadvantage was also observed for English, but not for Chinese, adults aged<60 living alone. For adults aged 60+, the increased odds among those living with no partner but with children/grandchildren and those living alone were smaller in both countries.Limitations: Bias may exist because depressed participants are more likely to experience divorce or separation prior to baseline.Conclusions: The relationship between living arrangements and depressive symptoms appears robust and consistent across social contexts, although the mechanisms differ. The protective role of partners in both China and England supports targeting those who do not live with partners to reduce depression.
  • Kalpouzos, Gregoria, et al. (författare)
  • Local brain atrophy accounts for functional activity differences in normal aging
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - : Elsevier. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 33:3, s. 623.e1-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Functional brain imaging studies of normal aging typically show age-related under-and overactivations during episodic memory tasks. Older individuals also undergo nonuniform gray matter volume (GMv) loss. Thus, age differences in functional brain activity could at least in part result from local atrophy. We conducted a series of voxel-based blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD)-GMv analyses to highlight whether age-related under-and overrecruitment was accounted for by GMv changes. Occipital GMv loss accounted for underrecruitment at encoding. Efficiency reduction of sensory-perceptual mechanisms underpinned by these areas may partly be due to local atrophy. At retrieval, local GMv loss accounted for age-related overactivation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, but not of left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Local atrophy also accounted for age-related overactivation in left lateral parietal cortex. Activity in these frontoparietal regions correlated with performance in the older group. Atrophy in the overrecruited regions was modest in comparison with other regions as shown by a between-group voxel-based morphometry comparison. Collectively, these findings link age-related structural differences to age-related functional under-as well as overrecruitment.
  • Wikgren, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Shorter telomere length is linked to brain atrophy and white matter hyperintensities
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Age and Ageing. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0002-0729 .- 1468-2834. ; 43:2, s. 212-217
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: leukocyte telomere length (TL) is considered a marker of biological aging. Several studies have investigated the link between leukocyte TL and aging-associated functional attributes of the brain, but no prior study has investigated whether TL can be linked to brain atrophy and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs); two prominent structural manifestations of brain aging. Methods: we investigated whether leukocyte TL was related to brain atrophy and WMHs in a sample of 102 non-demented individuals aged 64-75 years. Results: shorter TL was related to greater degree of subcortical atrophy (beta = -0.217, P = 0.034), but not to cortical atrophy. Furthermore, TL was 371 bp shorter (P = 0.041) in participants exhibiting subcortical WMHs, and 552 bp shorter (P = 0.009) in older participants exhibiting periventricular WMHs. Conclusion: this study provides the first evidence of leukocyte TL being associated with cerebral subcortical atrophy and WMHs, lending further support to the concept of TL as a marker of biological aging, and in particular that of the aging brain.
  • Hägglund, Karin M., et al. (författare)
  • Assistant nurses working in care of older people : associations with sustainable work ability
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. - 0283-9318 .- 1471-6712. ; 25:2, s. 325-332
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Indicators of health have shown improvements in the Swedish working population during the past decades, but with the exception of low-skilled women. Earlier research has shown that assistant nurses belong to an occupational group, which has the lowest share of individuals with long-term health in the total Swedish workforce. Sick leave research has mostly focused on determining risk factors for the development of diseases and dysfunctions. In the process of acquiring knowledge about mechanisms for sick leave, it has become obvious that there is also a need to focus on what contributes to work ability. The aim in this study was to explore what promotes sustainable work ability in female assistant nurses working in care of older people. Associations between factors related to work, health, lifestyle and sustainable work ability were investigated in a cross-sectional nested case-control study in a cohort of 366 female assistant nurses. Data were collected in self-reports in a questionnaire. Odds ratios were calculated, and a multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with sustainable work ability as the dependent variable. Sustainable work ability was associated with good self-rated health, a BMI < 30, ability to sleep well, recuperation, low stress level, support from family and friends, being over 25 years of age at birth of the first child, and control over one's own life in the >= 50 age group. In the logistic regression analysis, the significant associations were good self-rated health, being over 25 years of age at the birth of the first child and recuperation. In conclusion, the study showed that self-rated health and factors in private life are important for assistant nurse's sustainable work ability over time. The results from this study could be applied in health promotion work for employees in the care sector to strengthen and enhance sustainable work ability.
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