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  • Berendsen, A. A. M., et al. (författare)
  • Association of Adherence to a Healthy Diet with Cognitive Decline in European and American Older Adults: A Meta-Analysis within the CHANCES Consortium
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. - 1420-8008 .- 1421-9824. ; 43:3-4, s. 215-227
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To examine the association between a healthy diet, assessed by the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and cognitive decline in older adults. Methods: Data from 21,837 participants aged >= 55 years from 3 cohorts (Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly, a Concerted Action [SENECA], Rotterdam Study [RS], Nurses' Health Study [NHS]) were analyzed. HDI scores were based on intakes of saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, mono-and disaccharides, protein, cholesterol, fruits and vegetables, and fiber. The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status in NHS and Mini-Mental State Examination in RS and SENECA were used to assess cognitive function from multiple repeated measures. Using multivariable-adjusted, mixed linear regression, mean differences in annual rates of cognitive decline by HDI quintiles were estimated. Results: Multivariable-adjusted differences in rates in the highest versus the lowest HDI quintile were 0.01 (95% CI -0.01, 0.02) in NHS, 0.00 (95% CI -0.02, 0.01) in RS, and 0.00 (95% CI -0.05, 0.05) in SENECA with a pooled estimate of 0.00 (95% CI -0.01, 0.01), I-2 = 0%. Conclusions: A higher HDI score was not related to reduced rates of cognitive decline in European and American older adults. (C) 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel
  • Karlsson, Staffan, et al. (författare)
  • Older people receiving public long-term care in relation to consumption of medical health care and informal care
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: The Open Geriatric Medicine Journal. - Bussum : Bentham Open. - 1874-8279. ; 1, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the study was to investigate medical health care and informal care consumption among older people receiving public long-term care, and factors associated with medical health care consumption. 1958 persons aged 65 years and over were included. Data were collected from two registers, including demography, functional ability and received long-term, informal and medical health care. 35% of those at home were admitted to hospital and 76% had contact with outpatient care by physician compared to 26% and 87% respectively of those in special accommodation. Living in special accommodation was associated with more contacts with primary health care and fewer contacts with specialist care other than psychiatric care. Informal care was associated with more contacts with primary health care, specialist care, admissions to and days in hospital. More elderly people being cared for at home may mean more hospital and outpatient care consumption.
  • E:son Jennersjö, Pär, 1956- (författare)
  • Risk factors in type 2 diabetes with emphasis on blood pressure, physical activity and serum vitamin D
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • BackgroundType 2 diabetes is a common chronic disease with a two-fold increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and has an increasing prevalence worldwide. This thesis is based on a study conducted in primary health care in Östergötland and Jönköping, Sweden. The aim of the thesis was to evaluate new risk markers to identify patients with high risk of developing cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men and women with type 2 diabetes.MethodsData from the cohort study CArdiovascular Risk in type 2 DIabetes – a Prospective study in Primary care (CARDIPP) was used. In paper III data were also used from CARDIPP-Revisited where all participants in the CARDIPP study were invited four years after the baseline investigation for a re-investigation. In paper IV data were used from CAREFUL which is a control group of 185 subjects without diabetes. The investigation included a standard medical history including data on diabetes duration and on-going medication. Anthropometric data were recorded and both office and ambulatory blood pressure were measured. The patients filled out a detailed questionnaire and physical activity was measured by using waist-mounted pedometers. Pedometer-determined physical activity was classified in four groups: Group 1: <5000 steps/day (‘sedentary’); Group 2: 5000-7499 steps/day (‘low active’); Group 3: 7500-9999 steps/day (‘somewhat active’); Group 4: and ≥10 000 steps/day (‘active’). Blood samples were drawn for routine analyses and also frozen for later analyses. The investigations at the departments of physiology included echocardiography, measurements of the carotid intima-media thickness, applanation tonometry and measurements of  sagittal abdominal diameter.ResultsPaper 1:Patients with a non-dipping systolic blood pressure pattern showed higher left ventricular mass index and pulse wave velocity (PWV) compared with patients with ≥10% decline in nocturnal systolic blood pressure. Patients with <10% decline in nocturnal systolic blood pressure had higher BMI and sagittal abdominal diameter, lower GFR and higher albumin:creatinine ratio and also higher levels of NT-proBNP than patients with a dipping pattern of the nocturnal blood pressure.Paper 2:The number of steps/day were inversely significantly associated with BMI, waist circumference and sagittal abdominal diameter, levels of CRP, levels of interleukin-6 and PWV.Paper 3:At the 4-year follow-up the change in PWV (ΔPWV) from baseline was calculated. The group with the lowest steps/day had a significantly higher increase in ΔPWV compared with the group with the highest steps/day. The associations between baseline steps/day and ΔPWV remained after further adjustment in a multivariate linear regression statistically significant (p=0.005). 23% of the variation in the study could be explained by our model. Every 1000 extra steps at baseline reduced the change in ΔPWV by 0.103 m/s between baseline and follow-up.Paper 4:Low vitamin D levels were associated with significantly increased risk for premature mortality in men with type 2 diabetes. High levels of parathyroid hormone were associated with significantly increased risk for premature mortality in women with type 2 diabetes. These relationships were still statistically significant also when two other well-established risk markers for mortality, PWV and carotid intima-media thickness, were added to the analyses.ConclusionsAmbulatory blood pressure recording can by addressing the issue of diurnal blood pressure variation, explore early cardiovascular organ damage and microvascular complications that goes beyond effects of standardised office blood pressure measurements. Pedometer-determined physical activity may serve as a surrogate marker for inflammation and subclinical organ damage in patients with type 2 diabetes. There is novel support for the durable vascular protective role of a high level of daily physical activity, which is independent of BMI and systolic blood pressure. The use of pedometers is feasible in clinical practice and provides objective information not only about physical activity but also the future risk for subclinical organ damage in middle-aged people with type 2 diabetes. Our results indicate that low vitamin D levels in men or high parathyroid hormone levels in women give independent prognostic information of an increased risk for total mortality.
  • Jennersjö, Pär, et al. (författare)
  • Pedometer-determined physical activity level and change in arterial stiffness in Type 2 diabetes over 4 years
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Diabetic Medicine. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0742-3071 .- 1464-5491. ; 33:7, s. 992-997
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim To explore prospectively the correlation between the level of pedometer-determined physical activity at the start of the study and the change in pulse wave velocity from baseline to 4 years later in people with Type 2 diabetes.Methods We analysed data from 135 men and 53 women with Type 2 diabetes, aged 54–66 years. Physical activity was measured with waist-mounted pedometers on 3 consecutive days and the numbers of steps/day at baseline were classified into four groups: <5000 steps/day, 5000–7499 steps/day, 7500–9999 steps/day and ≥10 000 steps/day. Pulse wave velocity was measured using applanation tonometry over the carotid and femoral arteries at baseline and after 4 years.Results The mean (±sd; range) number of steps/day was 8022 (±3765; 956–20 921). The participants with the lowest level of physical activity had a more pronounced increase in the change in pulse wave velocity compared with the participants with the highest. When change in pulse wave velocity was analysed as a continuous variable and adjusted for sex, age, diabetes duration, HbA1c, BMI, systolic blood pressure, pulse wave velocity at baseline, β-blocker use, statin use, unemployment, smoking and diabetes medication, the number of steps/day at baseline was significantly associated with a less steep increase in change in pulse wave velocity (P=0.005). Every 1000 extra steps at baseline corresponded to a lower increase in change in pulse wave velocity of 0.103 m/s.Conclusions We found that a high level of pedometer-determined physical activity was associated with a slower progression of arterial stiffness over 4 years in middle-aged people with Type 2 diabetes.
  • Marengoni, Alessandra, et al. (författare)
  • Patterns of Multimorbidity in a Population-Based Cohort of Older People : Sociodemographic, Lifestyle, Clinical, and Functional Differences
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. - 1079-5006 .- 1758-535X. ; 75:4, s. 798-805
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The aim of this study is to identify clusters of older persons based on their multimorbidity patterns and to analyze differences among clusters according to sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical, and functional characteristics. Methods: We analyzed data from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen on 2,931 participants aged 60 years and older who had at least two chronic diseases. Participants were clustered by the fuzzy c-means cluster algorithm. A disease was considered to be associated with a given cluster when the observed/expected ratio was >= 2 or the exclusivity was >= 25%. Results: Around half of the participants could be classified into five clinically meaningful clusters: respiratory and musculoskeletal diseases (RESP-MSK) 15.7%, eye diseases and cancer (EYE-CANCER) 10.7%, cognitive and sensory impairment (CNS-IMP) 10.6%, heart diseases (HEART) 9.3%, and psychiatric and respiratory diseases (PSY-RESP) 5.4%. Individuals in the CNS-IMP cluster were the oldest, with the worst function and more likely to live in a nursing home; those in the HEART cluster had the highest number of co-occurring diseases and drugs, and they exhibited the highest mean values of serum creatinine and C-reactive protein. The PSY-RESP cluster was associated with higher levels of alcoholism and neuroticism. The other half of the cohort was grouped in an unspecific cluster, which was characterized by gathering the youngest individuals, with the lowest number of co-occurring diseases, and the best functional and cognitive status. Conclusions: The identified multimorbidity patterns provide insight for setting targets for secondary and tertiary preventative interventions and for designing care pathways for multimorbid older people.
  • Hägglund, Patricia, et al. (författare)
  • Swallowing dysfunction as risk factor for undernutrition in older people admitted to Swedish short-term care : a cross-sectional study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. - : Springer. - 1594-0667 .- 1720-8319. ; 31:1, s. 85-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Swallowing dysfunction and risk of undernutrition increase the risk of pneumonia, morbidity, and mortality. Short-term care is an unexplored care context, where many older people stay yearly.AIM: This cross-sectional study aimed to describe and analyze the relationship between swallowing dysfunction and risk of undernutrition among older people in short-term care, including potential gender-related differences.METHODS: In total, 391 people (209 women), aged ≥ 65 years (median age 84 years) and admitted to short-term care in five Swedish counties participated. They went through a timed water swallow test to assess swallowing dysfunction, including abnormal swallowing capacity and signs of aspiration (i.e., cough and voice change). Risk for undernutrition was assessed using the Minimal Eating Observation and Nutrition Form-version II.RESULTS: Swallowing dysfunction was observed in 248 of 385 (63%) participants, including abnormal swallowing capacity in 213 of 385 (55%) and aspiration signs in 127 of 377 (34%). Abnormal swallowing capacity was more frequent among women (p = 0.030), whereas men with normal swallowing capacity exhibited signs of aspiration more frequently (cough p = 0.038, voice change p = 0.004). Risk of undernutrition was found in 91 of 390 (23%) participants, more frequently among women (p = 0.007). A logistic regression model revealed an increased risk of undernutrition among older people with abnormal swallowing capacity (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.04-2.92, p = 0.034).CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of swallowing dysfunction and risk of undernutrition highlight the need for a systematic screening program and feasible treatment to improve swallowing function for adequate and safe food intake among older people in short-term care.CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov on July 4, 2016, under NCT02825927.
  • Bouillon, Kim, et al. (författare)
  • Measures of frailty in population-based studies: An overview
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Geriatrics. - 1471-2318 .- 1471-2318. ; 13:64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Although research productivity in the field of frailty has risen exponentially in recent years, there remains a lack of consensus regarding the measurement of this syndrome. This overview offers three services: first, we provide a comprehensive catalogue of current frailty measures; second, we evaluate their reliability and validity; third, we report on their popularity of use.Methods: In order to identify relevant publications, we searched MEDLINE (from its inception in 1948 to May 2011); scrutinized the reference sections of the retrieved articles; and consulted our own files. An indicator of the frequency of use of each frailty instrument was based on the number of times it had been utilized by investigators other than the originators.Results: Of the initially retrieved 2,166 papers, 27 original articles described separate frailty scales. The number (range: 1 to 38) and type of items (range of domains: physical functioning, disability, disease, sensory impairment, cognition, nutrition, mood, and social support) included in the frailty instruments varied widely. Reliability and validity had been examined in only 26% (7/27) of the instruments. The predictive validity of these scales for mortality varied: for instance, hazard ratios/odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for mortality risk for frail relative to non-frail people ranged from 1.21 (0.78; 1.87) to 6.03 (3.00; 12.08) for the Phenotype of Frailty and 1.57 (1.41; 1.74) to 10.53 (7.06; 15.70) for the Frailty Index. Among the 150 papers which we found to have used at least one of the 27 frailty instruments, 69% (n = 104) reported on the Phenotype of Frailty, 12% (n = 18) on the Frailty Index, and 19% (n = 28) on one of the remaining 25 instruments.Conclusions: Although there are numerous frailty scales currently in use, reliability and validity have rarely been examined. The most evaluated and frequently used measure is the Phenotype of Frailty.
  • Chen, Tuo-Yu, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence and Correlates of Falls Among Centenarians : Results from the Five-Country Oldest Old Project (5-COOP)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. - 1079-5006 .- 1758-535X. ; 75:5, s. 974-979
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Many studies have been conducted to investigate risk factors of falls in older people, but little is known about falls among centenarians. We analyzed the cross-sectional data from the Five-Country Oldest Old Project (5-COOP) to investigate the prevalence and correlates of falls among centenarians. Methods: Data collection was carried out in 2011-2014 in Japan, France, Switzerland, Sweden, and Denmark. The sample consisted of 1,165 centenarians who were at least 100 years old in 2011. The outcome variable was falls in the past 6 months. Demographics, chronic conditions, pain, visual impairment, global cognitive function, dizziness and syncope, number of medications, functional limitation (ie, dressing, bathing, toileting, transferring, incontinence, and feeding), mobility difficulty, poor strength, and assistive device usage were included in the analysis. Results: The prevalence of falls within the last 6 months was 33.7%, ranging from 21.6% (Japan) to 40.9% (France). Being male, experiencing dizziness, syncope, incontinence, and using assistive devices indoors were associated with an increased risk of falls among centenarians. Significant cross-country differences in the relationships between some risk factors (ie, gender, difficulty with bathing, toileting, transferring, and feeding, and using assistive devices for walking indoors and outdoors) and falls were observed. Subsample analysis using data from each country also showed that factors related to falls were different. Conclusions: The prevalence of falls among centenarians is high and fall-related factors may be different than those for their younger counterparts. Given that centenarians is an emerging population, more studies investigating risk factors are needed to better understand falls among centenarians.
  • Cong, Lin, et al. (författare)
  • Use of Cardiovascular Drugs for Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Among Rural-Dwelling Older Chinese Adults
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Pharmacology. - 1663-9812 .- 1663-9812. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cardiovascular risk factors and related disorders are common among older adults, and use of various classes of cardiovascular (CV) drugs could reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, data are sparse with regard to the use of CV drugs among rural-dwelling older adults in China. Therefore, this population-based study aimed to describe use of CV drugs among older adults living in the rural communities in China, while taking into account the use of CV drugs for primary and secondary prevention of CVDs. This study included 5,246 participants (age >= 65 years; 57.17% women; 40.68% illiteracy) in the baseline examination of the MIND-China study. In March-September 2018, data on health-related factors, CVDs (ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and stroke), and CV drug use were collected via face-to-face survey, clinical examination, and laboratory tests. We classified CV drugs according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system for western medications and specific cardiovascular effects for the products of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). We conducted descriptive analysis. The overall prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors ranged from 14.30% in diabetes and 23.81% in dyslipidemia to 66.70% in hypertension, and CVDs affected 35.07% of all participants (36.28% in women vs. 33.47% in men, p = 0.035). In the total sample, calcium channel blockers (C08) were most commonly used (10.39%), followed by TCM products (7.64%), hypoglycemic agents (A10, 4.73%), renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-acting agents (C09, 4.61%), and lipid-lowering agents (C10, 4.17%). The proportions of CV drugs for primary prevention (i.e., use of CV drugs among people without CVD) were 3.14% for antithrombotic agents (mainly aspirin), 1.38% for lipid-lowering agents, and 3.11% for RAS-acting agents; the corresponding figures for secondary prevention (i.e., use of CV drugs among people with CVD) were 13.97%, 9.35%, and 7.39%. In conclusion, despite highly prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and CVDs, a fairly low proportion of the rural-dwelling older adults take CV medications for primary and secondary prevention. Notably, TCM products are among the most commonly used CV drugs. These results call for additional efforts to promote implementation of the evidence-based recommendations for prevention of CVDs in the primary care settings.
  • Eriksson, Irene, et al. (författare)
  • Older women's experiences of suffering from urinary tract infections
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0962-1067 .- 1365-2702. - 9789174591644 ; 23:9-10, s. 1385-1394
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims and objectives: To describe and explore older women's experiences of having had repeated urinary tract infections (UTIs). Background: UTIs are one of the most common bacterial infections among older women. Approximately one-third of very old women suffer from at least one UTI each year. Despite the high incidence of UTI, little is known about the impact of UTI on health and daily life in older women. Design: A qualitative descriptive design. Methods: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted with 20 Swedish women aged 67-96 years who suffered from repeated UTIs the preceding year. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Two main themes were identified: being in a state of manageable suffering and depending on alleviation. Being in a state of manageable suffering was described in terms of experiencing physical and psychological health problems, struggling to deal with the illness and being restricted in daily life. Depending on alleviation was illustrated in terms of having access to relief but also receiving inadequate care. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that UTIs are a serious health problem among older women that not only affects both physical and mental health but also has serious social consequences. The women in this study described the physical and psychological health problems, struggling to deal with the illness, being restricted in daily life, depending on access to relief and receiving inadequate care. Relevance to clinical practice: It is important to improve the knowledge about how UTI affects the health of older women. This knowledge may help nurses develop strategies to support these women. One important part in the supportive strategies is that nurses can educate these women in self-care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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