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Sökning: FÖRF:(Eva Mörk)

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  • Mörk, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Parental unemployment and child health
  • 2014
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • We analyze to what extent health outcomes of Swedish children are worse among children whose parents become unemployed. To this end we combine Swedish hospitalization data for 1992-2007 for children 3-18 years of age with register data on parental unemployment. We find that children with unemployed parents are 17 percent more likely to be hospitalized than other children, but that most of the difference is driven by selection. A child fixed-effects approach suggests a small effect of parental unemployment on child health.
  • Mörk, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Parental Unemployment and Child Health
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: CESifo Economic Studies. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1610-241X .- 1612-7501. ; 60:2, s. 366-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We analyze to what extent health outcomes of Swedish children are worse among children whose parents become unemployed. To this end we combine Swedish hospitalization data for 1992-2007 for children 3-18 years of age with register data on parental unemployment. We find that children with unemployed parents are 17% more likely to be hospitalized than other children, but that most of the difference is driven by selection. A child fixed-effects approach suggests a small effect of parental unemployment on child health. (JEL-codes: I12, J13).
  • Dahlberg, Matz, et al. (författare)
  • Jobbtorg Stockholm - resultat från en enkätundersökning
  • 2013
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • I denna studie undersöker vi med hjälp av enkätdata hur deltagarna vid Jobb­torgen i Stockholms stad ser på sin situation som arbetslösa och vilken hjälp och stöd de anser att de får av coacher och socialsekreterare. Vi fokuserar på gruppen utrikes födda, då bortfallet bland svenskfödda är stort. Vi under­söker även hur coacher och socialsekreterare ser på Jobbtorgen samt varandras arbete med arbetslösa försörjningsstödstagare.En analys av svaren visar att deltagarna anser sig ha en svag ställning på arbetsmarknaden. De allra flesta uppger att de söker aktivt efter jobb, men att de inte har haft något jobb på länge (eller kanske aldrig). De tror att deras chanser att få ett arbete inom kort är små. Majoriteten av de svarande del­tagarna tycker att aktiviteten de deltar i är dålig och skulle hellre delta i någon annan aktivitet. Även om många tror att Jobbtorget kan hjälpa dem att få ett jobb, skulle de hellre söka jobb via Arbetsförmedlingen eller på egen hand. De deltagare som träffar sin coach relativt ofta och uppger att samarbetet med denne fungerar bra är mer positiva till den aktivitet de deltar i och tror i större utsträckning att Jobbtorget kan hjälpa dem att hitta ett arbete.
  • Hanspers, Kajsa (författare)
  • Essays on Welfare Dependency and the Privatization of Welfare Services
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Essay 1: This paper investigates whether mandatory activation programs for welfare recipients have effects on welfare participation, employment and disposable income. In contrast to earlier studies, we are able to capture both entry and exit effects. The empirical analysis makes use of a Swedish welfare reform in which the city districts in Stockholm gradually implemented mandatory activation programs for individuals on welfare. On average, we find that mandatory activation of welfare recipients increases employment as well as disposable income. However, these sizes of the estimated effects must be considered relatively small. There are some indications of larger effects for single-headed households.Essay 2: This study tests whether individuals who grow up with parents on welfare benefits are themselves more (or less) likely to be welfare recipients as young adults, compared to individuals who grow up in non-welfare households. We use the sibling difference method to identify causal effects separately from the effects of correlated factors. While a descriptive analysis reveals a fairly high positive intergenerational correlation, especially in the late teens and conditional on a large set of household level factors, the sibling analysis provides no support for a causal effect of parents’ welfare benefit receipt on children’s future welfare use.Essay 3: Spending on health care makes up a large proportion of the GDP in Sweden as in most developed countries. The introduction of private alternatives and more competition in the market have been advanced as a way to increase efficiency and patient choice, but the previous literature contain conflicting evidence regarding the quality impact of market reforms in health care. This paper examines the impact on health care quality of reforms aimed at introducing more competition in the market for primary health care. The analysis is performed using cross-county variation in private supply and the financial incentives provided by the health care organization in Sweden 1998 to 2010. The analysis separates between measures of quality which are easily observed by patients and measures intended to capture medical quality, which are more difficult for patients to assess. The results indicate that the reforms intended to increase competition do not seem to improve the overall quality of primary health care. Increased competition in the market is associated with more visits to the primary health care, but otherwise, the results give no support for effects on availability or patient satisfaction. The results on clinical quality do not indicate any consistent evidence of any impact of competition either.Essay 4: This paper investigates differences in worker absence between privately and publicly employed workers in Swedish primary schools and preschools. Using hive-offs, i.e., ownership changes from a public to a private owner, I analyze the effects of private versus public employment on sickness absence, parental leave, and temporary leave for care of children. The empirical analysis suggests a substantial negative effect on sickness absence in preschools, but not in primary schools. For parental leave and temporary parental leave for care of children, no significant effects are found in either industry. The fact that parental leave, which is voluntary to a greater extent than sickness absence, seems to be unaffected by ownership opposes the argument of stronger incentives for effort in the private sector. However, the finding of a negative effect on sickness absence suggests that private employment may be associated with better work conditions, at least for workers in the preschool sector.
  • Mörk, Eva, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Childcare costs and the demand for children-evidence from a nationwide reform
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Population Economics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0933-1433 .- 1432-1475. ; 26:1, s. 33-65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Exploiting the exogenous variation in user fees caused by a Swedish childcare reform, we are able to identify the causal effect of childcare costs on fertility in a context in which childcare enrollment is almost universal, user fees are low, and labor force participation of mothers is very high. Anticipation of a reduction in childcare costs increased the number of first and higher-order births, but only seemed to affect the timing of second births. For families with many children we also find a marginally significant negative income effect on fertility.
  • Odendahl, Christian, 1980- (författare)
  • Parties, Majorities, Incumbencies : Four essays in political economics
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • This thesis consists of four self-contained essays on political economics. The first paper studies the impact of having one party in government versus a coalition of parties, where the exogenous variation in the type of government stems from close election outcomes. It uses a new algorithm to detect these close elections in multi-party systems to answer this question. Based on data from more than 2,000 municipalities in the German state of Bavaria, it finds that single-party governments spend more, not less as is often concluded in the theoretical and empirical literature. The second paper uses the same method of detecting close elections to extract exogenous variation, but looks at the political power of parties and its effect on tax policies. It finds significant effects of party power that are mostly in line with expectations. The third paper looks at the transition of voters between parties in three consecutive elections for the state parliament in Bavaria, and infers parties’ ideological positions from these transition flows. After estimating the transition matrices with a method based on maximum entropy, it uses these matrices to compute a distance matrix and uses multi-dimensional scaling to place parties in a policy space. The resulting positions of parties are plausible, consistent across both transition periods, and comparable to those estimated with other methods. The final paper studies the heterogeneity in the advantage of incumbent district candidates in German federal and state parliament elections. In particular, it looks at the party in government, and how that affects the incumbency advantage of district candidates. It finds that an incumbency effect only exists (for both major parties) if the center-left SPD is in government, a heterogeneity that is robust across different specifications and jurisdictions.
  • Persson, Anna (författare)
  • Activation Programs, Benefit Take-Up, and Labor Market Attachment
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Essay 1 (with Ulrika Vikman): Previous literature shows that activation requirements for welfare participants reduce welfare participation, but the dynamics behind these results have not been fully examined. In this paper we use a rich set of register data covering the entire working age population in a Swedish municipality to study how the introduction of mandatory activation programs aimed at unemployed welfare participants affect the probability of entering and exiting welfare. Our results indicate that the reduction in the number of welfare participants is mainly due to an increase in welfare exits. The effect is larger for unmarried individuals without children and for young individuals. Among the young we also find a reduction in welfare entries. It thus seems that individuals with fewer family responsibilities are more responsive to the reform.Essay 2: We study the impact of a set of labour market programs directed to unemployed welfare participants on criminal behaviour. To isolate the causal effect we exploit the sequential implementation of activation programs in municipalities and districts in Stockholm county. We find that criminal activity increased as a result of the programs. The size and significance levels of the estimates should be interpreted with caution, but we can conclude that the reform did at least not have a mitigating effect on crime. We find no evidence that the effect is larger for financially motivated crime.Essay 3: Given the trend towards more active policies on reducing the take-up of welfare benefits, the consequences of leaving welfare constitutes an important issue. This paper studies disposable income and poverty among welfare leavers in Sweden during 19 years (1990-2008). Using a rich set of register data we can accurately measure disposable income and labor market outcomes. We find that there are large significant differences in post welfare financial situation among those working full time and those who work only a little or not at all. Leavers neither working nor receiving benefits from social insurance are likely to be financially dependent on family members, and are more likely than others to be in poverty. We conclude that leaving welfare is not always associated with becoming financially better off, post welfare well being depend heavily on labor market outcomes.Essay 4 (with Matz Dahlberg and Linna Martén): In 1999, the Swedish government announced one of the largest reforms of the national defense in modern times, which led to closures and significant downsizing of several military bases, as well as large reductions of the workforce. Previous studies have found that workers that have been displaced from their previous employers experience significant earnings declines, even in the long run. In this paper we study the labor market effects of the involuntary job losses following the drastic changes of the Swedish security policy. Using population wide register data we estimate how labor income and unemployment benefit take-up changed among those employed at the affected military bases, relative to workers at unaffected military units. We find a decrease in labor earnings, primarily among civil servants. We find no effect on neither unemployment nor employment, indicating that the drop in earnings is likely to be driven by lower re-employment wages.
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