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Sökning: FÖRF:(Eva Mörk)

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  • Vikman, Ulrika (författare)
  • Benefits or Work? Social Programs and Labor Supply
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • This thesis consists of four self-contained essays.Essay I: This essay evaluates how access to paid parental leave affects labor market entrance for immigrating mothers with small children. Paid parental leave together with job protection may increase labor force participation among women but if it is too generous it may create incentives to stay out of the labor force. This incentive effect may be especially true for mothers immigrating to a country where having small children automatically makes the mothers eligible for the benefit.To evaluate the differences in the assimilation process for those who have access to the parental leave benefit and those who do not, Swedish administration data is used in a difference-in-differences specification to control for both time in the country and the age of the youngest child.The results show that labor market entrance is delayed for mothers and that they are less likely to be a part of the labor force for up to seven years after their residence permit if they had access to parental leave benefits when they came to Sweden.  This reduction in the labor force participation is to some extent driven by unemployment since the effect on employment is smaller. But there is still an effect on employment of  3 percentage points lower participation rates 2-6 years after immigration.Essay II: This essay examines if the probability of leaving unemployment changes for unemployed parents with young children when childcare is available. To investigate this, I use the heterogeneity among Swedish municipalities before the implementation of a 2001 Swedish childcare reform making it mandatory for municipalities to offer childcare to unemployed parents for at least 15 hours per week. The results indicate a positive effect on the probability of leaving unemployment for mothers when childcare is available, but no effect is found for fathers. For mothers, some heterogeneous effects are also found, with a greater effect on the probability of leaving unemployment for work when childcare is available for mothers with only compulsory schooling or university education and mothers with two children.Essay III (with Helge Bennmarker and Oskar Nordström Skans): In this essay we estimate the effects of conditioning benefits on program participation among older long-term unemployed workers. We exploit a Swedish reform which reduced UI duration from 90 to 60 weeks for a group of older unemployed workers in a setting where workers who exhausted their benefits received unchanged transfers if they agreed to participate in a work practice program. Our results show that job finding increased as a result of the shorter duration of passive benefits. The time profile of the job-finding effects suggests that the effects are due to deterrence effects during the program-entry phase. We find no evidence of wage reductions, suggesting that the increased job-finding rate was driven by increased search intensity rather than lower reservation wages.Essay IV (with Anna Persson): Previous literature shows that activation requirements for welfare participants reduce welfare participation. However, the dynamics have not been fully examined. In this essay we use a rich set of register data covering the entire population in a Swedish municipality to study how the introduction of mandatory activation programs aimed at unemployed welfare participants affect the probability of entering and exiting welfare. Our results indicate that the reduction in the caseload of welfare participants was mainly due to an increase in welfare exits. The effect is larger for unmarried individuals without children and for young individuals where we also find a reduction in welfare entries. It thus seems that individuals with fewer family responsibilities are more responsive to the reform.
  • Edmark, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of the Swedish earned income tax credit
  • 2012
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Over the last twenty years we have seen an increasing use of in-work tax subsidies to encourage labor supply among low-income groups. In Sweden, a non-targeted earned income tax credit was introduced in 2007, and was reinforced in 2008, 2009 and 2010. The stated motive of the reform was to boost employment; in particular to provide incentives for individuals to go from unemployment to, at least, part-time work. In this paper we try to analyze the extensive margin labor supply effects of the Swedish earned income tax credit reform up to 2008. For identification we exploit the fact that the size of the tax credit, as well as the resulting average tax rate, is a function of the municipality of residence and income if working. However, throughout the analysis we find placebo effects that are similar in size to the estimated reform effects. In addition, the results are sensitive with respect to how we define employment, which is especially true when we analyze different subgroups such as men and women, married and singles. Our conclusion is that the identifying variation is too small and potentially endogenous and that it is therefore not possible to use this variation to perform a quasi-experimental evaluation of the Swedish EITC-reform.
  • Nordin, Mattias, 1984- (författare)
  • Information, Voting Behavior and Electoral Accountability
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Essay 1: In this paper, I investigate the causal effect of information on citizens’ ability to hold their elected politicians accountable for past behavior. Using survey data from the 2006 U.S. Senate election, I relate the survey respondents’ opinions on a number of different policy issues that had been voted on in the Senate to their knowledge of how their senators voted. In combination with the senators’ actual roll-call voting records, this provides the ideal setting for testing whether more knowledgeable voters are more likely to evaluate their incumbent politicians based on their behavior in office. To estimate the causal effect of information, I use the mismatch between the local television markets and the states as an exogenous variation in citizens’ knowledge of their senators’ roll-call voting records. I show that citizens with access to relevant local television news are more informed about the roll-call votes and are also more likely to evaluate the senators based on how well the voting records of those senators match the citizens’ preferences.Essay 2 (with Eva Mörk) In this paper, we analyze how voters react to tax changes. As opposed to much of the earlier literature, we argue that voters’ responses are likely to depend on voters’ preferences regarding the size of the public sector, i.e., voters who like to see a large public sector are less likely to punish an incumbent for raising taxes. The mechanism behind such a behavior is analyzed in a two-party model with hidden information about politicians’ preferences. We show that, in equilibrium, moderate politicians will try to signal their preferences to the voters through public consumption. The model yields two testable hypotheses: (i) Voters will punish left-wing incumbents, but reward right-wing incumbents, for high taxes. (ii) Voters who prefer a large public sector will reward incumbents who raise taxes. We test these two hypotheses on Swedish local governments. Using survey data, together with data on local tax rates, we are able to compare voters’ preferences at the beginning of an election term with the actual policies implemented by the incumbent while in office and, finally, with the voters’ responses to these policies in the election at the end of the election term. We find support for both hypotheses: Left-wing incumbents are punished for tax increases during their time in office while no such pattern is found for right-wing incumbents, and voters who prefer a large government sector are less likely to punish incumbents for tax increases.Essay 3: In this paper, I investigate how political information affects voting behavior. Specifically, I test (i) if more informed voters are more likely to vote for their closest politicians and (ii) if this translates into a bias on the aggregate level. To do so, I use a set of Swedish individual survey data on the preferences for local public services of both politicians and voters, which provides an opportunity to investigate how information affects voters’ ability to match their preferences with those of their politicians. The results indicate that more informed voters are more likely to vote for politicians with similar preferences for local public services and, on the aggregate level, that the left-wing parties would have received 1 to 3 percentage points fewer votes if all voters had been equally well-informed.Essay 4: (with Che-Yuan Liang) In this paper, we investigate the effects of the rise of the Internet, as an additional mass medium, on news consumption patterns and political attitudes. We use Swedish survey data from 2002 to 2007, the period during which online news media emerged. We find that broadband access is associated with an increase in online media consumption which, to some extent, crowds out offline consumption. Furthermore, these altered news consumption patterns have no or small effects on political attitudes.
  • Dahlberg, Matz, et al. (författare)
  • Do Politicians’ Preferences Matter for Voters’ Voting Decisions?
  • 2011
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Using unique survey data that allows us to observe both voters’ and politicians’ preferences for local public spending as well as voting decisions, this paper tests if voters typically support parties in which the politicians’ preferences are closest to their own. Doing so would be rational for the voters to do if politicians’ preferences matter for policy outcomes, as is the case in e.g. the citizen-candidate model. It is found that this is indeed the case. This finding is in line with theoretical models such as the citizen-candidate model arguing that politicians cannot credibly commit to election platforms that differ from their true policy preferences.
  • Dahlberg, Matz, et al. (författare)
  • Is There an Election Cycle in Public Employment? : Separating Time Effects from Election Year Effects
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: CESifo Economic Studies. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1610-241X .- 1612-7501. ; 57:3, s. 480-498
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Do governments increase public employment in election years? This article answers this question by using data from Sweden and Finland, two countries that are similar in many respects but in which local elections are held at different points in time. These facts make it possible for us to separate an election effect from other time effects. Our results indicate that there is a statistically significant election year effect in local public employment, a production factor that is highly visible in the welfare services provided by the local governments in the Scandinavian countries. The effect also seems to be economically significant; the municipalities employ 0.6 more full-time employees per 1000 capita in election years than in other years (which correspond to an increase by approximately 1%).
  • Lundqvist, Heléne, 1982- (författare)
  • Empirical Essays in Political and Public Economics
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • This thesis consists of four self-contained essays. Essay 1: Despite the key role played by political payoffs in theory, very little is known empirically about the types of payoffs that motivate politicians. The purpose of this paper is to bring light onto this. I estimate causal effects of being elected in a local election on monetary returns. The claim for causality, I argue, can be made thanks to a research design where the income of some candidate who just barely won a seat is compared to that of some other candidate who was close to winning a seat for the same party, but ultimately did not. This research design is made possible thanks to a comprehensive, detailed data set covering all Swedish politicians who have run for office in the period 1991—2006. I establish that monetary returns are absent both in the short and long run. In stead, politicians seem to be motivated by non-monetary payoffs that can be realized with a successful political career. Essay 2 (with Matz Dahlberg and Karin Edmark): In recent decades, the immigration of workers and refugees toEurope has increased substantially, and the composition of the population in many countries has consequently become much more heterogeneous in terms of ethnic background. If people exhibit in-group bias in the sense of being more altruistic to one's own kind, such increased heterogeneity will lead to reduced support for redistribution among natives. This paper exploits a nationwide program placing refugees in municipalities throughoutSweden during the period 1985—94 to isolate exogenous variation in immigrant shares. We match data on refugee placement to panel survey data on inhabitants of the receiving municipalities to estimate the causal effects of increased immigrant shares on preferences for redistribution. The results show that a larger immigrant population leads to less support for redistribution in the form of preferred social benefit levels. This reduction in support is especially pronounced for respondents with high income and wealth. We also establish that OLS estimators that do not properly deal with endogeneity problems – as in earlier studies – are likely to yield positively biased (i.e., less negative) effects of ethnic heterogeneity on preferences for redistribution. Essay 3: While the literature on how intergovernmental grants affect the budget of receiving jurisdictions is numerous, the very few studies that explicitly deal with likely endogeneity problems focus on grants targeted towards specific sectors or specific type of recipients. The results from these studies are mixed and make it clear that the knowledge about grants effects is to this date still insufficient. This paper contributes to this literature by estimating causal effects on local expenditures and income tax rates of general, non-targeted grants. This is done in a difference-in-difference model utilizing policy-induced increases in grants to a group of remotely populated municipalities inFinland. The robust finding is that increased grants have a negligible effect on local income tax rates, but that there is a substantial positive immediate response in local expenditures. Furthermore, there is no evidence of dynamic crowding-out – i.e., that the immediate response in expenditures is reversed in later years. The flypaper behavior displayed by the treatment group can potentially be explained by “separate mental accounting” – i.e., voters treating the government budget constraint separately from their own. Essay 4 (with Matz Dahlberg and Eva Mörk): Public employment plays an important role in most countries, as it is closely linked to both the quality of publicly provided welfare services and total employment. Large parts of those employed by the public sector are typically employed by lower-level governments, and one potential instrument with which central decision-makers can affect public employment is thus grants to lower-level governments. This paper investigates the effects of general grants on local public employment. Applying the regression kink design to the Swedish grant system, we are able to estimate causal effects of intergovernmental grants on personnel in different local government sectors. Our robust conclusion is that there was a substantial increase in personnel in the central administration after a marginal increase in grants, but that such an effect was lacking both for total personnel and personnel in child care, schools, elderly care, social welfare and technical services. We suggest several potential reasons for these results, such as heterogeneous treatment effects and bureaucratic influence in the local decision-making process.
  • Mörk, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Förskola
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: <em>Konkurrensens konsekvenser. Vad händer med svensk välfärd?</em>. - Stockholm : SNS Förlag. - 9789186949044
  • Bokkapitel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
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