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Sökning: FÖRF:(Eva Mörk)

  • Resultat 61-70 av 87
  • Föregående 1...3456[7]89Nästa
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61.
  • Dahlberg, Matz, et al. (författare)
  • Intergovernmental Grants and Bureaucratic Power
  • 2008
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • In their role as agenda setters and implementers of political decisions, bureaucrats potentially have the power to influence decisions in their own favor. It is however difficult to empirically test whether bureaucrats actually are involved in such actions. In this paper we suggest and apply a new way of testing the hypothesis that bureaucrats can and do in fact affect policy to their own benefit. Making use of a discontinuity in the Swedish grant system, we estimate causal effects of intergovernmental grants on different types of personnel employed by the local governments. On the margin, we find a large, positive effect of grants on the number of bureaucrats in the central administration, but no effects on the number of personnel in other important sectors runby the local government (child care, schools and elderly care). These results support theview that bureaucrats are able to, and do indeed, affect the allocation of grants withinmunicipalities to support own goals.
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62.
  • Dahlberg, Matz, et al. (författare)
  • Is there an election cycle in public employment? Separating time effects from election year effects
  • 2008
  • Rapport (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Do governments increase public employment in election years? This paper investigates this question by using data from Sweden and Finland, two coun¬tries that are similar in many respects but in which local elections are held at different points in time. We can thereby separate an election effect from other time effects. Our results indicate that there is a statistically significant election year effect in local public employment, a production factor that is highly visi¬ble in the welfare services provided by the local governments in the Scandina¬vian countries. The effect also seems to be economically significant; the municipalities employ 0.6 more full-time employees per 1,000 capita in election years than in other years (which correspond to an increase by approximately 1 percent).
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63.
  • Dahlberg, Matz, et al. (författare)
  • On mandatory activation of welfare receivers
  • 2008
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • This paper investigates whether mandatory activation programs for welfare receivers have effects on welfare participation, employment and disposable income. In contrast to earlier studies we are able to capture both entry and exit effects. The empirical analysis makes use of a Swedish welfare reform in which the city districts in Stockholm gradually implemented mandatory activation programs for individuals on welfare. The reform is well suited for investigating effects of such programs for several reasons. First, the reform was not combined with any other policy instruments, like time limits or tax credits, making sure that we will capture effects of mandatory activation policies and nothing else. Second, the reform was initiated at different points of time in different city districts, which ease identification. Third, using data from city districts within a single local labor market we can control for confounding macro economic shocks. Overall, we find that mandatory activation of welfare receivers reduce overall welfare participation and increases employment. We also find that mandatory activation programs appear to work best for young people and for people born in non-Western countries. For disposable income, we do not find a statistically significant effect.
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64.
  • Dahlberg, Matz, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Power Properties of the Sargan Test in the Presence of Measurement Errors in Dynamic Panels
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Applied Economics Letters. - : Informa UK Limited. - 1350-4851 .- 1466-4291. ; 15:5, s. 349-353
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper investigates the power properties of the Sargan test in the presence of measurement errors in dynamic panel data models. The conclusion from Monte Carlo simulations, and an application on the data used by Arellano and Bond (1991), is that in the very likely case of measurement errors in either the dependent or any of the independent variables, we will, if we rely on the Sargan test, quite likely accept a mis-specified model and end up with biased results.
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65.
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66.
  • Dahlberg, Matz, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Using a discontinuous grant rule to identify the effect of grants on local taxes and spending
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Public Economics. - : Elsevier. - 0047-2727 .- 1879-2316. ; 92:12, s. 2320-2335
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • When investigating the effects of federal grants on the behavior of lower-level governments, it is hard to defend the handling of grants as an exogenous factor. Federal governments often set grants based on characteristics and performance of decentralized governments. In this paper we make use of a discontinuity in the Swedish grant system in order to estimate the causal effects of general intergovernmental grants on local spending and local tax rates. The formula for the distribution of funds is used as an exclusion restriction in an IV-estimation. We find evidence of crowding-in, where federal grants are shifted to more local spending, but not to reduced local tax rates.
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67.
  • Dahlberg, Matz, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Valår och den kommunala politiken
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt. - 0345-2646. ; 36:5, s. 6-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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68.
  • Lundin, Danlela, et al. (författare)
  • How far can reduced childcare prices push female labour supply?
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Labour Economics. - : Elsevier BV. - 0927-5371 .- 1879-1034. ; 15:4, s. 647-659
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Exploiting exogenous variation in childcare prices stemming from a childcare price reform, this paper estimates effects of reductions in childcare costs on female labour supply. The reform introduced a cap on childcare prices, and lead to considerable reductions in prices depending on family type and region of residence. Since the price is determined by a handful of observed characteristics, we are able to match households that are similar in all relevant aspects, but experienced quite different price changes. Our difference-in-differences regression matching estimates are very precise, and close to zero.
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69.
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70.
  • Nykvist, Jenny, 1979- (författare)
  • Self-employment Entry and Survival : Evidence from Sweden
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Essay 1: Hurst and Lusardi (2004) use higher-order polynomials in wealth in estimating the relationship with entrepreneurship. They find evidence conflicting with the existence of extensive liquidity constraints in the United States. In this paper, their approach is replicated on Swedish data. A positive relationship between wealth and entrepreneurship is found, which supports the liquidity constraints hypothesis. Alternative methods attempting to handle the endogeneity problem and distinguish between absolute decreasing risk aversion and liquidity constraints give further support to the hypothesis. The paper suggests that there exist liquidity constraints in Sweden, which are possibly more extensive than in the United States.Essay 2: Displacement is expected to decrease the reservation wage of self-employment by decreasing earnings in paid employment and increasing the probability of unemployment. This paper examines whether displacement increases the probability of self-employment using propensity score matching on Swedish register-based data. The data include all individuals displaced due to plant closures in 1987 and 1988, and a random sample of 200,000 employed individuals. The results suggest that displacement almost doubles the probability of entering self-employment the year after displacement. A sub-sample analysis indicates that individuals with a potentially worse position on the labor market react more strongly to displacement in terms of entering self-employment.Essay 3: A large literature has studied the effect of displacement on labor market outcomes in general, but no one has evaluated how the displaced succeed as self-employed. This paper studies how the survival of the business is affected by displacement in connection to entry, using a discrete-time proportional hazard model on a matched sample of displaced and non-displaced individuals. The main result of the paper is that, as a consequence of previous displacement, the probability of switching from self-employment to paid employment decreases and the probability of switching to unemployment is unaffected.
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  • Resultat 61-70 av 87
  • Föregående 1...3456[7]89Nästa
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