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  • Alfredsson, Joakim, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Randomized comparison of early supplemental oxygen versus ambient air in patients with confirmed myocardial infarction : Sex-related outcomes from DETO2X-AMI
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Mosby Inc.. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 237, s. 13-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of oxygen therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in relation to sex in patients with confirmed myocardial infarction (MI).Methods: The DETermination of the role of Oxygen in suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction trial randomized 6,629 patients to oxygen at 6 L/min for 6-12 hours or ambient air. In the present subgroup analysis including 5,010 patients (1,388 women and 3,622 men) with confirmed MI, we report the effect of supplemental oxygen on the composite of all-cause death, rehospitalization with MI, or heart failure at long-term follow-up, stratified according to sex.Results: Event rate for the composite endpoint was 18.1% in women allocated to oxygen, compared to 21.4% in women allocated to ambient air (hazard ratio [HR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.05). In men, the incidence was 13.6% in patients allocated to oxygen compared to 13.3% in patients allocated to ambient air (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.86-1.23). No significant interaction in relation to sex was found (P=.16). Irrespective of allocated treatment, the composite endpoint occurred more often in women compared to men (19.7 vs 13.4%, HR 1.51; 95% CI, 1.30-1.75). After adjustment for age alone, there was no difference between the sexes (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.91-1.24), which remained consistent after multivariate adjustment.Conclusion: Oxygen therapy in normoxemic MI patients did not significantly affect all-cause mortality or rehospitalization for MI or heart failure in women or men. The observed worse outcome in women was explained by differences in baseline characteristics, especially age
  • Ambrosy, A. P., et al. (författare)
  • Clinical profile and prognostic value of low systolic blood pressure in patients hospitalized for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: insights from the Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure: Outcome Study with Tolvaptan (EVEREST) trial
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier BV. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 165:2, s. 216-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Systolic blood pressure (SBP) is related to the pathophysiologic development and progression of heart failure (HF) and is inversely associated with adverse outcomes during hospitalization for HF (HHF). The prognostic value of SBP after initiating inhospital therapy and the mode of death and etiology of cardiovascular readmissions based on SBP have not been well characterized in HHF. METHODS: A post hoc analysis was performed of the placebo group (n = 2061) of the EVEREST trial, which enrolled patients within 48 hours of admission for worsening HF with an ejection fraction (EF) /=90 mm Hg, for a median follow-up of 9.9 months. Systolic blood pressure was measured at baseline, daily during hospitalization, and at discharge/day 7. Patients were divided into the following quartiles by SBP at baseline: /=131 mm Hg. Outcomes were all-cause mortality (ACM) and the composite of cardiovascular mortality or HHF (CVM + HHF). The associations between baseline, discharge, and inhospital change in SBP and ACM and CVM + HHF were assessed using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for known covariates. RESULTS: Median (25th, 75th) SBP at baseline was 120 (105, 130) mm Hg and ranged from 82 to 202 mm Hg. Patients with a lower SBP were younger and more likely to be male; had a higher prevalence of prior revascularization and ventricular arrhythmias; had a lower EF, worse renal function, higher natriuretic peptide concentrations, and wider QRS durations; and were more likely to require intravenous inotropes during hospitalization. Lower SBP was associated with increased mortality, driven by HF and sudden cardiac death, and cardiovascular hospitalization, primarily caused by HHF. After adjusting for potential confounders, SBP was inversely associated with risk of the coprimary end points both at baseline (ACM: hazard ratio [HR]/10-mm Hg decrease 1.15, 95% CI1.08-1.22; CVM + HHF: HR 1.09/10-mm Hg decrease, 95% CI 1.04-1.14) and at the time of discharge/day 7 (ACM: HR 1.15/10-mm Hg decrease, 95% CI 1.08-1.22; CVM + HHF: HR 1.07/10-mm Hg decrease, 95% CI 1.02-1.13), but the association with inhospital SBP change was not significant. CONCLUSION: Systolic blood pressure is an independent clinical predictor of morbidity and mortality after initial therapy during HHF with reduced EF.
  • Ariti, C. A., et al. (författare)
  • Days alive and out of hospital and the patient journey in patients with heart failure: Insights from the Candesartan in Heart failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM) program
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American heart journal. - : Elsevier BV. - 1097-6744 .- 0002-8703. ; 162:5, s. 900-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Conventional composite outcomes in heart failure (HF) trials, for example, time to cardiovascular death or first HF hospitalization, have recognized limitations. We propose an alternative outcome, days alive and out of hospital (DAOH), which incorporates mortality and all hospitalizations into a single measure. A refinement, the patient journey, also uses functional status (New York Heart Association [NYHA] class) measured during follow-up. The CHARM program is used to illustrate the methodology. METHODS: CHARM randomized 7,599 patients with symptomatic HF to placebo or candesartan, with median follow-up of 38 months. We related DAOH and percent DAOH (ie, percentage of time spent alive and out of hospital) to treatment using linear regression adjusting for follow-up time. RESULTS: Mean increase in DAOH for patients on candesartan versus placebo was 24.1 days (95% CI 9.8-38.3 days, P < .001). The corresponding mean increase in percent DAOH was 2.0% (95% CI 0.8%-3.1%, P < .001). These findings were dominated by reduced mortality (23 days) but enhanced by reduced time in hospital (1 day). Percent time spent in hospital because of HF was reduced by 0.10% (95% CI 0.04%-0.14%, P < .001). The patient journey analysis showed that patients in the candesartan group spent more follow-up time in NYHA classes I and II and less in NYHA class IV. CONCLUSIONS: Days alive and out of hospital, especially percent DAOH, provide a valuable tool for summarizing the overall absolute treatment effect on mortality and morbidity. In future HF trials, percent DAOH can provide a useful alternative perspective on the effects of treatment.
  • Armaganijan, Luciana V., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of age on efficacy and safety of vorapaxar in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome : Insights from the Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRACER) trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier BV. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 178, s. 176-184
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Antithrombotic therapy plays an important role in the treatment of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) but is associated with bleeding risk. Advanced age may modify the relationship between efficacy and safety. Methods Efficacy and safety of vorapaxar (a protease-activated receptor 1 antagonist) was analyzed across ages as a continuous and a categorical variable in the 12,944 patients with NSTE ACS enrolled in the TRACER trial. To evaluate the effect of age, Cox regression models were developed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with the adjustment of other baseline characteristics and randomized treatment for the primary efficacy composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, or urgent coronary revascularization, and the primary safety composite of moderate or severe Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) bleeding. Results The median age of the population was 64 years (25th, 75th percentiles = 58, 71). Also, 1,791 patients (13.8%) were <= 54 years of age, 4,968 (38.4%) were between 55 and 64 years, 3,979 (30.7%) were between 65 and 74 years, and 2,206 (17.1%) were 75 years or older. Older patients had higher rates of hypertension, renal insufficiency, and previous stroke and worse Killip class. The oldest age group (>= 75 years) had substantially higher 2-year rates of the composite ischemic end point and moderate or severe GUSTO bleeding compared with the youngest age group (<= 54 years). The relationships between treatment assignment (vorapaxar vs placebo) and efficacy outcomes did not vary by age. For the primary efficacy end point, the HRs (95% CIs) comparing vorapaxar and placebo in the 4 age groups were as follows: 1.12 (0.88-1.43), 0.88 (0.76-1.02), 0.89 (0.76-1.04), and 0.88 (0.74-1.06), respectively (P value for interaction = .435). Similar to what was observed for efficacy outcomes, we did not observe any interaction between vorapaxar and age on bleeding outcomes. For the composite of moderate or severe bleeding according to the GUSTO classification, the HRs (95% CIs) comparing vorapaxar and placebo in the 4 age groups were 1.73 (0.89-3.34), 1.39 (1.04-1.86), 1.10 (0.85-1.42), and 1.73 (1.29-2.33), respectively (P value for interaction = .574). Conclusion Older patients had a greater risk for ischemic and bleeding events; however, the efficacy and safety of vorapaxar in NSTE ACS were not significantly influenced by age.
  • Aspelin, P., et al. (författare)
  • Cost-effectiveness of iodixanol in patients at high risk of contrast-induced nephropathy
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier BV. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 149:2, s. 298-303
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Acute renal failure after contrast-induced nephropathy is a clinically important and costly complication after the use of iodine-based contrast media. We investigated the cost and cost-effectiveness of 2 contrast media in patients at high risk of contrast-induced nephropathy. Methods: The analyses were based on a randomized, prospective, multinational clinical study comparing the nephrotoxic effects of an isosmolar nonionic contrast medium, iodixanol, with those of a low-osmolar nonionic contrast medium, iohexol. Resource utilization data were obtained from the study and from a retrospective review of patients' hospital records. Swedish, German, and French unit prices were applied to resources used. Between-group differences in average costs were analyzed using a nonparametric bootstrap method. Results: Resource utilization data for 125 patients were analyzed. Seven contrast media-related serious adverse reactions, of which 6 were acute renal failures, were noted in 6 patients receiving iohexol. Two patients in the iodixanol group had 1 nonserious reaction each. The mean hospitalization cost per patient was €489, €573, and €393 lower after iodixanol than after iohexol using Swedish, German, and French unit prices, respectively. The mean per-patient costs of treating adverse drug reactions were €371, €399, and €445 lower after iodixanol than after iohexol, using the respective unit prices (P = 0.01). Iodixanol was cost-effective compared with iohexol, with both lower costs and better effects related to fewer adverse drug reactions. Conclusions: The isosmolar contrast medium iodixanol appears to be cost-effective when compared with a low-osmolar contrast medium, iohexol, in diabetic patients with renal impairment undergoing angiography. © 2005, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Aulin, Julia, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarkers and heart failure events in patients with atrial fibrillation in the ARISTOTLE trial evaluated by a multi-state model
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 251, s. 13-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundAtrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) often coexist. We investigated the prognostic impact of biomarkers on the development of HF and death in patients with AF and different left ventricular systolic function considering the influence of competing events.MethodsThe study included 11,818 patients with AF from the ARISTOTLE trial who at entry had information on history of HF, an estimate of left ventricular function and plasma samples for determination of biomarkers representing cardiorenal dysfunction (NT-proBNP, troponin T, cystatin C) and inflammation (GDF-15, IL-6, CRP). Patients were categorized into: (I) HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF, n = 2,048), (II) HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF, n = 2,520), and (III) No HF (n = 7,250). Biomarker associations with HF hospitalization and death were analyzed using a multi-state model accounting also for repeated events.ResultsBaseline levels of NT-proBNP, troponin T, cystatin C, GDF-15, IL-6, and CRP were highest in HFrEF and lowest in No HF. During median 1.9 years follow-up, 546 patients were hospitalized at least once for HF and 819 died. Higher levels of all investigated biomarkers were associated with both outcomes (all P < .0001), with highest event rates in HFrEF and lowest in No HF. The associations remained after adjustments and were more pronounced for first than for recurrent events.ConclusionsIn anticoagulated patients with AF, biomarkers indicating cardiorenal dysfunction and inflammation improve the identification of patients at risk of developing HF or worsening of already existing HF. These biomarkers might be useful for targeting novel HF therapies in patients with AF.
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