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Sökning: L773:0012 1797 OR L773:1939 327X

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  • Cardwell, Chris R, et al. (författare)
  • Interbirth Interval Is Associated With Childhood Type 1 Diabetes Risk
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 61:3, s. 702-707
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Short interbirth interval has been associated with maternal complications and childhood autism and leukemia, possibly due to deficiencies in maternal micronutrients at conception or increased exposure to sibling infections. A possible association between interbirth interval and subsequent risk of childhood type 1 diabetes has not been investigated. A secondary analysis of 14 published observational studies of perinatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes was conducted. Risk estimates of diabetes by category of interbirth interval were calculated for each study. Random effects models were used to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and investigate heterogeneity between studies. Overall, 2,787 children with type 1 diabetes were included. There was a reduction in the risk of childhood type 1 diabetes in children born to mothers after interbirth intervals andlt;3 years compared with longer interbirth intervals (OR 0.82 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). Adjustments for various potential confounders little altered this estimate. In conclusion, there was evidence of a 20% reduction in the risk of childhood diabetes in children born to mothers after interbirth intervals andlt;3 years.
  • Carlbom, Lina, et al. (författare)
  • [(11)C]5-Hydroxy-Tryptophan PET for Assessment of Islet Mass During Progression of Type 2 Diabetes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 66:5, s. 1286-1292
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • [(11)C]5-hydroxy-tryptophan ([(11)C]5-HTP) PET of the pancreas has been shown to be a surrogate imaging biomarker of pancreatic islet mass. The change in islet mass in different stages of type 2 diabetes (T2D) as measured by non-invasive imaging is currently unknown. Here, we describe a cross-sectional study where subjects at different stages of T2D development with expected stratification of pancreatic islet mass were examined in relation to non-diabetic individuals. The primary outcome was the [(11)C]5-HTP uptake and retention in pancreas, as a surrogate marker for the endogenous islet mass.We found that metabolic testing indicated a progressive loss of beta cell function, but that this was not mirrored by a decrease in [(11)C]5-HTP tracer accumulation in the pancreas. This provides evidence of retained islet mass despite decreased beta cell function. The results herein indicates that beta cell dedifferentiation, and not necessarily endocrine cell loss, constitute a major cause of beta cell failure in T2D.
  • Carlsson, Per-Ola, et al. (författare)
  • Preserved Beta-Cell Function in Type 1 Diabetes by Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 64:2, s. 587-592
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The retention of endogenous insulin secretion in type 1 diabetes is an attractive clinical goal, which opens possibilities for long-term restoration of glucose metabolism. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) constitute, based on animal studies, a promising interventional strategy for the disease. This prospective clinical study describes the translation of this cellular intervention strategy to patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes. Twenty adult patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes were enrolled and randomized to MSC treatment or to the control group. Residual beta-cell function was analyzed as C-peptide concentrations in blood in response to a mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) at one-year follow-up. In contrast to the patients in the control arm, who showed loss in both C-peptide peak values and C-peptide when calculated as area under the curve during the first year, these responses were preserved or even increased in the MSC-treated patients. Importantly, no side effects of MSC treatment were observed. We conclude that autologous MSC treatment in new onset type 1 diabetes constitute a safe and promising strategy to intervene in disease progression and preserve beta-cell function.
  • Carobbio, Stefania, et al. (författare)
  • Adaptive changes of the Insig1/SREBP1/SCD1 set point help adipose tissue to cope with increased storage demands of obesity
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : Cell Press. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 62:11, s. 3697-3708
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The epidemic of obesity imposes unprecedented challenges on human adipose tissue (WAT) storage capacity that may benefit from adaptive mechanisms to maintain adipocyte functionality. Here, we demonstrate that changes in the regulatory feedback set point control of Insig1/SREBP1 represent an adaptive response that preserves WAT lipid homeostasis in obese and insulin-resistant states. In our experiments, we show that Insig1 mRNA expression decreases in WAT from mice with obesity-associated insulin resistance and from morbidly obese humans and in in vitro models of adipocyte insulin resistance. Insig1 downregulation is part of an adaptive response that promotes the maintenance of SREBP1 maturation and facilitates lipogenesis and availability of appropriate levels of fatty acid unsaturation, partially compensating the antilipogenic effect associated with insulin resistance. We describe for the first time the existence of this adaptive mechanism in WAT, which involves Insig1/SREBP1 and preserves the degree of lipid unsaturation under conditions of obesity-induced insulin resistance. These adaptive mechanisms contribute to maintain lipid desaturation through preferential SCD1 regulation and facilitate fat storage in WAT, despite on-going metabolic stress.
  • Cedernaes, Jonathan, et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of Shortened, Disrupted, and Mistimed Sleep and Associated Metabolic Health Consequences in Healthy Humans
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 64:4, s. 1073-1080
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent increases in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in modern societies have been paralleled by reductions in the time their denizens spend asleep. Epidemiological studies have shown that disturbed sleepcomprising short, low-quality, and mistimed sleepincreases the risk of metabolic diseases, especially obesity and T2DM. Supporting a causal role of disturbed sleep, experimental animal and human studies have found that sleep loss can impair metabolic control and body weight regulation. Possible mechanisms for the observed changes comprise sleep loss-induced changes in appetite-signaling hormones (e.g., higher levels of the hunger-promoting hormone ghrelin) or hedonic brain responses, altered responses of peripheral tissues to metabolic signals, and changes in energy intake and expenditure. Even though the overall consensus is that sleep loss leads to metabolic perturbations promoting the development of obesity and T2DM, experimental evidence supporting the validity of this view has been inconsistent. This Perspective aims at discussing molecular to behavioral factors through which short, low-quality, and mistimed sleep may threaten metabolic public health. In this context, possible factors that may determine the extent to which poor sleep patterns increase the risk of metabolic pathologies within and across generations will be discussed (e.g., timing and genetics).
  • Christoffersson, Gustaf, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical and Experimental Pancreatic Islet Transplantation to Striated Muscle : Establishment of a Vascular System Similar to that in Native Islets
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 59:10, s. 2569-2578
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Curing type 1 diabetes by transplanting pancreatic islets into the liver is associated with poor long-term outcome and graft failure at least partly due to inadequate graft revascularization. The aim of the current study was to evaluate striated muscle as a potential angiogenic site for islet transplantation. Research Design and Methods: The current study presents a new experimental model which is found applicable to clinical islet transplantation. Islets were implanted into striated muscle where after intra-islet vascular density and blood flow were visualized with intravital and confocal microscopy in mice, and by magnetic resonance imaging in three auto-transplanted pancreatectomized patients. Mice were rendered neutropenic by repeated injections of Gr-1 antibody and diabetes was induced by alloxan treatment. Results: Contrary to liver-engrafted islets, islets transplanted to mouse muscle were revascularized with vessel densities and blood flow entirely comparable to islets within intact pancreas. Initiation of islet revascularization at the muscular site was dependent on neutrophils, and the function of islets transplanted to muscle was proven by curing diabetic mice. The experimental data were confirmed in auto-transplanted patients where higher plasma volumes were measured in islets engrafted in forearm muscle compared to adjacent muscle tissue through high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusions: This study presents a novel paradigm in islet transplantation whereby recruited neutrophils are crucial for the functionally restored intra-islet blood perfusion following transplantation to striated muscle under experimental and clinical situations.
  • Chu, Kwan Yi, et al. (författare)
  • Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade improves beta-cell function and glucose tolerance in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 55:2, s. 367-374
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We identified an angiotensin-generating system in pancreatic islets and found that exogenously administered angiotensin II, after binding to its receptors (angiotensin II type 1 receptor [AT1R]), inhibits insulin release in a manner associated with decreased islet blood flow and (pro)insulin biosynthesis. The present study tested the hypothesis that there is a change in AT1R expression in the pancreatic islets of the obesity-induced type 2 diabetes model, the db/db mouse, which enables endogenous levels of angiotensin II to impair islet function. Islets from 10-week-old db/db and control mice were isolated and investigated. In addition, the AT1R antagonist losartan was administered orally to 4-week-old db/db mice for an 8-week period. We found that AT1R mRNA was upregulated markedly in db/db islets and double immunolabeling confirmed that the AT1R was localized to beta-cells. Losartan selectively improved glucose-induced insulin release and (pro)insulin biosynthesis in db/db islets. Oral losartan treatment delayed the onset of diabetes, and reduced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in db/db mice, but did not affect the insulin sensitivity of peripheral tissues. The present findings indicate that AT1R antagonism improves beta-cell function and glucose tolerance in young type 2 diabetic mice. Whether islet AT1R activation plays a role in the pathogenesis of human type 2 diabetes remains to be determined.
  • da Silva Xavier, Gabriela, et al. (författare)
  • TCF7L2 regulates late events in insulin secretion from pancreatic islet beta-cells
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 58:4, s. 894-905
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Polymorphisms in the human TCF7L2 gene are associated with reduced insulin secretion and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanisms by which TCF7L2 affect insulin secretion are still unclear. We define the effects of TCF7L2 expression level on mature beta-cell function and suggest a potential mechanism for its actions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: TCF7L2 expression in rodent islets and beta-cell lines was altered using RNAi or adenoviral transduction. Beta-cell gene profiles were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and the effects on intracellular signaling and exocytosis by live cell imaging, electron microscopy, and patch clamp electrophysiology. RESULTS: Reducing TCF7L2 expression levels by RNAi decreased glucose- but not KCl-induced insulin secretion. The glucose-induced increments in both ATP/ADP ratio and cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were increased compared with controls. Overexpression of TCF7L2 exerted minor inhibitory effects on glucose-regulated changes in [Ca2+]i and insulin release. Gene expression profiling in TCF7L2-silenced cells revealed increased levels of mRNA encoding syntaxin 1A but decreased Munc18–1 and ZnT8 mRNA. Whereas the number of morphologically docked vesicles was unchanged by TCF7L2 suppression, secretory granule movement increased and capacitance changes decreased, indicative of defective vesicle fusion. CONCLUSION: TCF7L2 is involved in maintaining expression of beta-cell genes regulating secretory granule fusion. Defective insulin exocytosis may thus underlie increased diabetes incidence in carriers of the at-risk TCF7L2 alleles.
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