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Sökning: L773:0012 1797 OR L773:1939 327X

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31.
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32.
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33.
  • Delli, Ahmed, et al. (författare)
  • Zinc Transporter 8 Autoantibodies and Their Association With SLC30A8 and HLA-DQ Genes Differ Between Immigrant and Swedish Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes in the Better Diabetes Diagnosis Study.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X .- 0012-1797. ; 61:10, s. 2556-2564
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined whether zinc transporter-8 autoantibodies (ZnT8A; arginine ZnT8-RA, tryptophan ZnT8-WA, and glutamine ZnT8-QA variants) differed between immigrant and Swedish patients due to different polymorphisms of SLC30A8, HLA-DQ, or both. Newly diagnosed autoimmune (≥1 islet autoantibody) T1D type 1 diabetic patients (n = 2,964, <18 years, 55% male) were ascertained in the Better Diabetes Diagnosis study. Two subgroups were identified: Swedes (n = 2,160, 73%) and immigrants (non-Swedes; n = 212, 7%). Non-Swedes had less frequent ZnT8-WA (38%) than Swedes (50%), consistent with a lower frequency in the non-Swedes (37%) of SLC30A8 CT+TT (RW+WW) genotypes than in the Swedes (54%). ZnT8-RA (57 and 58%, respectively) did not differ despite a higher frequency of CC (RR) genotypes in non-Swedes (63%) than Swedes (46%). We tested whether this inconsistency was due to HLA-DQ as 2/X (2/2; 2/y; y is anything but 2 or 8), which was a major genotype in non-Swedes (40%) compared with Swedes (14%). In the non-Swedes only, 2/X (2/2; 2/y) was negatively associated with ZnT8-WA and ZnT8-QA but not ZnT8-RA. Molecular simulation showed nonbinding of the relevant ZnT8-R peptide to DQ2, explaining in part a possible lack of tolerance to ZnT8-R. At diagnosis in non-Swedes, the presence of ZnT8-RA rather than ZnT8-WA was likely due to effects of HLA-DQ2 and the SLC30A8 CC(RR) genotypes.
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34.
  • den Hoed, Marcel, 1980- (författare)
  • Genetic susceptibility to obesity and related traits in childhood and adolescence : influence of loci identified by genome-wide association studies.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 59:11, s. 2980-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) studies have thus far identified 16 loci incontrovertibly associated with obesity-related traits in adults. We examined associations of variants in these loci with anthropometric traits in children and adolescents.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seventeen variants representing 16 obesity susceptibility loci were genotyped in 1,252 children (mean ± SD age 9.7 ± 0.4 years) and 790 adolescents (15.5 ± 0.5 years) from the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). We tested for association of individual variants and a genetic predisposition score (GPS-17), calculated by summing the number of effect alleles, with anthropometric traits. For 13 variants, summary statistics for associations with BMI were meta-analyzed with previously reported data (N(total) = 13,071 children and adolescents).RESULTS: In EYHS, 15 variants showed associations or trends with anthropometric traits that were directionally consistent with earlier reports in adults. The meta-analysis showed directionally consistent associations with BMI for all 13 variants, of which 9 were significant (0.033-0.098 SD/allele; P < 0.05). The near-TMEM18 variant had the strongest effect (0.098 SD/allele P = 8.5 × 10(-11)). Effect sizes for BMI tended to be more pronounced in children and adolescents than reported earlier in adults for variants in or near SEC16B, TMEM18, and KCTD15, (0.028-0.035 SD/allele higher) and less pronounced for rs925946 in BDNF (0.028 SD/allele lower). Each additional effect allele in the GPS-17 was associated with an increase of 0.034 SD in BMI (P = 3.6 × 10(-5)), 0.039 SD, in sum of skinfolds (P = 1.7 × 10(-7)), and 0.022 SD in waist circumference (P = 1.7 × 10(-4)), which is comparable with reported results in adults (0.039 SD/allele for BMI and 0.033 SD/allele for waist circumference).CONCLUSIONS: Most obesity susceptibility loci identified by GWA studies in adults are already associated with anthropometric traits in children/adolescents. Whereas the association of some variants may differ with age, the cumulative effect size is similar.
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35.
  • den Hoed, Marcel, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic susceptibility to obesity and related traits in childhood and adolescence influence of loci identified by genome-wide association studies
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - Alexandria, USA : American Diabetes Association. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 59:11, s. 2980-2988
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) studies have thus far identified 16 loci incontrovertibly associated with obesity-related traits in adults. We examined associations of variants in these loci with anthropometric traits in children and adolescents.Research design and methods: Seventeen variants representing 16 obesity susceptibility loci were genotyped in 1,252 children (mean +/- SD age 9.7 +/- 0.4 years) and 790 adolescents (15.5 +/- 0.5 years) from the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). We tested for association of individual variants and a genetic predisposition score (GPS-17), calculated by summing the number of effect alleles, with anthropometric traits. For 13 variants, summary statistics for associations with BMI were meta-analyzed with previously reported data (N-total = 13,071 children and adolescents). Results: In EYHS, 15 variants showed associations or trends with anthropometric traits that were directionally consistent with earlier reports in adults. The meta-analysis showed directionally consistent associations with BMI for all 13 variants, of which 9 were significant (0.033-0.098 SD/allele; P < 0.05). The near-TMEM18 variant had the strongest effect (0.098 SD/allele P = 8.5 x 10(-11)). Effect sizes for BMI tended to be more pronounced in children and adolescents than reported earlier in adults for variants in or near SEC16B, TMEM18, and KCTD15, (0.028-0.035 SD/allele higher) and less pronounced for rs925946 in BDNF (0.028 SD/allele lower). Each additional effect allele in the GPS-17 was associated with an increase of 0.034 SD in BMI (P = 3.6 x 10(-5)), 0.039 SD, in sum of skinfolds (P = 1.7 x 10(-7)), and 0.022 SD in waist circumference (P = 1.7 X 10(-4)), which is comparable with reported results in adults (0.039 SD/allele for BMI and 0.033 SD/allele for waist circumference).Conclusions: Most obesity susceptibility loci identified by GWA studies in adults are already associated with anthropometric traits in children/adolescents. Whereas the association of some variants may differ with age, the cumulative effect size is similar. Diabetes 59:2980-2988, 2010
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36.
  • Dezaki, Katsuya, et al. (författare)
  • Ghrelin Attenuates cAMP-PKA Signaling to Evoke Insulinostatic Cascade in Islet beta-Cells
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 60:9, s. 2315-2324
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE-Ghrelin reportedly restricts insulin release in islet beta-cells via the G alpha(i2) subtype of G-proteins and thereby regulates glucose homeostasis. This study explored whether ghrelin regulates cAMP signaling and whether this regulation induces insulinostatic cascade in islet beta-cells. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Insulin release was measured in rat perfused pancreas and isolated islets and cAMP production in isolated islets. Cytosolic cAMP concentrations ([cAMP](i)) were monitored in mouse MIN6 cells using evanescent-wave fluorescence imaging. In rat single beta-cells, cytosolic protein kinase-A activity ([PKA](i)) and Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) were measured by DR-II and fura-2 microfluorometry, respectively, and whole cell currents by patch-clamp technique. RESULTS-Ghrelin suppressed glucose (8.3 mmol/L)-induced insulin release in rat perfused pancreas and isolated islets, and these effects of ghrelin were blunted in the presence of cAMP analogs or adenylate cyclase inhibitor. Glucose-induced cAMP production in isolated islets was attenuated by ghrelin and enhanced by ghrelin receptor antagonist and anti-ghrelin antiserum, which counteract endogenous islet-derived ghrelin. Ghrelin inhibited the glucose-induced [cAMP](i) elevation and [PKA](i) activation in MIN6 and rat beta-cells, respectively. Furthermore, ghrelin potentiated voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) channel currents without altering Ca(2+) channel currents and attenuated glucose-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increases in rat beta-cells in a PKA-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS-Ghrelin directly interacts with islet beta-cells to attenuate glucose-induced cAMP production and PKA activation, which lead In activation of Kv channels and suppression of glucose-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase and insulin release.
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37.
  • Dimas, Antigone S, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants on quantitative glycemic traits reveals mechanistic heterogeneity.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 1939-327X .- 0012-1797. ; 63:6, s. 2158-2171
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with established type 2 diabetes display both beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. To define fundamental processes leading to the diabetic state, we examined the relationship between type 2 diabetes risk variants at 37 established susceptibility loci and indices of proinsulin processing, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. We included data from up to 58,614 non-diabetic subjects with basal measures, and 17,327 with dynamic measures. We employed additive genetic models with adjustment for sex, age and BMI, followed by fixed-effects inverse variance meta-analyses. Cluster analyses grouped risk loci into five major categories based on their relationship to these continuous glycemic phenotypes. The first cluster (PPARG, KLF14, IRS1, GCKR) was characterized by primary effects on insulin sensitivity. The second (MTNR1B, GCK) featured risk alleles associated with reduced insulin secretion and fasting hyperglycemia. ARAP1 constituted a third cluster characterized by defects in insulin processing. A fourth cluster (including TCF7L2, SLC30A8, HHEX/IDE, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/2B) was defined by loci influencing insulin processing and secretion without detectable change in fasting glucose. The final group contained twenty risk loci with no clear-cut associations to continuous glycemic traits. By assembling extensive data on continuous glycemic traits, we have exposed the diverse mechanisms whereby type 2 diabetes risk variants impact disease predisposition.
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38.
  • Ehrlund, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Transcriptional Dynamics During Human Adipogenesis and Its Link to Adipose Morphology and Distribution
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 66:1, s. 218-230
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • White adipose tissue (WAT) can develop into several phenotypes with different pathophysiological impact on type 2 diabetes. To better understand the adipogenic process, the transcriptional events that occur during in vitro differentiation of human adipocytes were investigated and the findings linked to WAT phenotypes. Single molecule transcriptional profiling provided a detailed map of the expressional changes of genes, enhancers, and long noncoding RNAs, where different types of transcripts share common dynamics during differentiation. Common signatures include early downregulated, transient, and late induced transcripts, all of which are linked to distinct developmental processes during adipogenesis. Enhancers expressed during adipogenesis overlap significantly with genetic variants associated with WAT distribution. Transiently expressed and late induced genes are associated with hypertrophic WAT (few but large fat cells), a phenotype closely linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Transcription factors that are expressed early or transiently affect differentiation and adipocyte function and are controlled by several well-known upstream regulators such as glucocorticosteroids, insulin, cAMP, and thyroid hormones. Taken together, our results suggest a complex but highly coordinated regulation of adipogenesis.
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39.
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40.
  • Ek, I, et al. (författare)
  • A unique defect in the regulation of visceral fat cell lipolysis in the polycystic ovary syndrome as an early link to insulin resistance
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X .- 0012-1797. ; 51:2, s. 484-492
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The etiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unknown. However, PCOS has a strong resemblance to the insulin resistance (metabolic) syndrome, where an increased rate of visceral fat cell lipolysis is believed to play a pathophysiological role. We hypothesized that primary defects in visceral lipolysis might also exist in PCOS. Ten young, nonobese, and otherwise healthy PCOS women were compared with 13 matched control women. In vitro lipolysis regulation and stoichiometric properties of the final step in lipolysis activation, namely the protein kinase A (PKA)-hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) complex, were investigated in isolated visceral (i.e., omental) fat cells. Body fat distribution and circulating levels of insulin, glucose, and lipids were normal in PCOS women. However, in vivo insulin sensitivity was slightly decreased (P = 0.03). Catecholamine-induced adipocyte lipolysis was markedly (i.e., about twofold) increased in PCOS women due to changes at the postreceptor level, although there was no change in the antilipolytic properties of visceral fat cells. Western blot analyses of visceral adipose tissue showed twofold increased levels of the catalytic and the regulatory la components of PKA. In contrast, the regulatory RIIbeta component of PKA was almost 50% decreased in visceral adipose tissue in PCOS women. Recent studies on genetically modified mice have shown that a similar transition in the regulatory PKA units induces an increased lipolytic response to catecholamines. Further analysis showed that the level of HSL-short, an enzymatically inactive splice form of HSL, was decreased in PCOS (P < 0.01). The altered lipolysis in PCOS is different from that observed in visceral fat cells in the insulin resistance syndrome that occurs at the level of adrenergic receptors. We concluded that increased catecholamine-induced lipolysis in visceral fat cells may be due to unique alterations in the stoichiometric properties of the adipose PKA-HSL holoenzymes. This could be an early and possibly primary lipolysis defect in PCOS.
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